Military Review

Russian Patriarch Filaret Nikitich

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Exactly 380 years ago, in October 1633, one of the most powerful in stories Rus patriarchs - Filaret, nee Fyodor Nikitich Romanov, who had a great influence on the development of various aspects of the life of Russian society. This person has always occupied a special place in the Russian Orthodox Church and in the general mass of archpastors. In addition to the spiritual dignity forced upon him, Filaret belonged to one of the highest and noble families - the Romanovs. Before him and after his death, no patriarch possessed such influence and authority in resolving state issues. This was facilitated by the relationship with the royal person: Filaret helped in the management of Russia to his son, Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich.


Russian Patriarch Filaret Nikitich
3-th Great Sovereign His Holiness Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Philaret


Objective consideration of this most interesting historical person is quite a difficult task, because during the life around Filaret a lot of speculation arose, distorting the real circumstances and personal qualities of this person. Opponents searched for reasons to expose and slander the patriarch, trampling his name in the dirt, while supporters, on the contrary, extolled Fyodor Nikitich to the very top, ranking them among the saints. In order to understand what is written about the patriarch is true, and what is fiction, it is worthwhile to consider in more detail the real historical events in which Fyodor Nikitich was directly involved.

The father of the future patriarch was the brother of Queen Anastasia, who later became the first wife of Tsar Ivan the Terrible. It was from Nikita Romanovich, who in turn was a descendant of Roman Zakharyin-Yuriev, the genus was referred to as the Romanovs. Fedor was the eldest of six sons and was born from the second marriage of Nikita Romanovich with Princess Eudoxia, which belonged to the famous princely family of Brokebacks-Shuisky. The exact date of birth of Fyodor Nikitich is unknown, it indicates only that he was born no earlier than 1554 of the year.

The people of the people of Fyodor talked only about the patron, who managed not only to go against the will of Tsar John, but also to remain at the same time safe and sound. And the glory of his sister Anastasia in many ways helped the Romanov family to rise in the eyes of the nobility. After the unexpected death of the king in 1584 and the accession of Fyodor Ivanovich to the throne, Nikita Romanovich became a member of the Duma of his nephew. Along with him in the "supreme duma" was a certain Boris Godunov, who was the brother of the wife of the newly elected sovereign and was extremely interested in supporting the influential Nikita Romanovich. At the end of his life, Fyodor’s father did conclude an alliance with Godunov, sharing with him his sphere of influence, which allowed the latter to occupy a leading position in the main administrative body of the state. Nikita Romanovich himself subsequently took the veil, and in 1586 he died peacefully in the monastery.

Fearing for the lives of his children, Nikita Romanovich always tried to keep them away from the royal court, which was quite reasonable at that time. Because of this, the first mention of his son Fyodor appears in the state “ranks” only in 1585, where he is listed among others as a participant in the reception at the Lithuanian ambassador. After becoming a boyar after the death of his father, Fyodor Nikitich was appointed Nizhny Novgorod governor of the sovereign in 1586. During this period, the Romanov dynasty in the Duma held the eleventh position, following after such noble families as Mstislavsky, Shuya, Godunov and Trubetskoy.



It should be noted that Tsar Fedor tried his best to help his cousin, highlighting him among the venerable old men and other close, occupying higher office positions. However, as a sovereign, he was weak, and at that time the real ruler was Boris Godunov, whose clan was constantly trying to lay as many lands and titles as possible in order to establish itself more firmly at the royal court. At the same time, Godunov also supported the young boyar Fyodor, following his promise to Nikita Romanovich and bearing in mind his relationship to the royal family and the people's love for the relatives of the supportive Queen Anastasia. With such assistance, the young and self-sufficient Fyodor Romanov enjoyed life to the fullest, uncontrollably spending money on cheerful feasts, noisy hunts and expensive outfits, thanks to which he was known as the first dandy of the capital.

For historical sake of justice, it is worth noting that the drunkenness and depravity inherent in the Moscow court and the guardsmen of the former tsar were alien to the boyar Fyodor. Leading a rather carefree lifestyle, he still tried to conform to recognized examples of virtue. A successful marriage to the poor girl, who belonged to an ancient family, Ksenia Shestova, with whom Fyodor lived her whole life in perfect harmony, undoubtedly had a positive effect on his popularity among the nobility and ordinary people. In marriage, Romanov had five sons and a daughter.

The years of Fyodor Ivanovich's reign (1584-1598) were probably the happiest and most carefree for the future patriarch, because at that time he was not yet burdened with the duties of a statesman, was far from excessive ambition and palace intrigues. Thanks to his keen mind and ability to impress, he managed to win the people's love, which many have sought over the years, and also to raise the glorious Romanov family among the nobility. Fyodor Nikitich has always been a long-awaited guest, both in the Duma and at the royal family dinners in a narrow circle of close friends and friends. In the then boyar "lists", Romanov confidently moved up. In 1588, he was in tenth place, and a year later he was in sixth position. And even ten years later, at the end of Fyodor Ivanovich's rule, Fyodor Nikitich was considered the main courtyard governor and one of the three first leaders in the Middle Sovereign.


To achieve fame and high position through military exploits Fedor in no hurry. In a glorious battle with the Swedes in 1590, he did not even have to smell gunpowder. Without waiting for help, the army of the enemy defeated the voivode Dmitry Khvorostinin. However, this did not prevent Fyodor, along with other noble boyars, from receiving his share of honors in the wake of the general euphoria of victory. The carefree and popular boyar continued to enjoy his high position, taking it for granted, but his elevation and closeness to the lord increasingly began to trouble Boris Godunov, because sooner or later the royal throne had to be freed ...

After the appointment of Fyodor Nikitich in 1596 in the regiment of the right hand as the second governor, Pyotr Sheremetev, appointed by the third, expressed his indignation. His protest in the form of failure to appear in the military service aroused indignation of the sovereign, which resulted in a disgraceful arrest with shackles. A little later, three more princes tried to replace the “too quick” Romanov, but their impulses also stumbled upon the royal disfavor.

Autograph


After the death of Tsar Fedor Ivanovich 7 on January 1598 of the year, it was Romanov and Godunov who were the main contenders for the throne. On the side of Boris, Tsarina Irina Fedorovna (we recall his sister), who soon took the veil, as well as the closest ally, Patriarch Iov, remained. Also, in order to outweigh the scales in his favor, Godunov spent numerous meals, distributed salaries and rendered other favors to the nobility and service people, and also launched a false rumor about the upcoming offensive of the Crimean Khan, so that in gathering a large army, it would be indicative to perform in early May 1598 in as a valiant defender of the Russian land. His authority was undermined only by suspicion of involvement in the murders of people close to Fyodor Ivanovich, as well as his daughter Theodosia, which, however, was not confirmed in the course of the investigation conducted by Patriarch Job.

Fyodor Nikitich did not use the "dirty" methods of his rival, and he never even declared his claims to the throne that had been liberated. He accepted the oath promises of Godunov that after the wedding, he would treat Romanov as a brother and first mate. However, having achieved the goal, Godunov not only forgot about these promises, but also decided in every way to humiliate the Romanov family in the distribution of posts and governor by rank. All the first places were given to the Horde "princes", and under their leadership the governors Mstislavsky, the brothers Shuisky, Golitsyn and Trubetskoy were placed to manage the regiments. Fedor Nikitich was placed last on the list of boyars. But even in such a derogatory situation, Romanov showed his dignity and not only did not come out with complaints, but did not even file a claim that he was offended by the decisions of Godunov. Year after year, Fyodor Nikitich sat in the Boyar Duma, continuing to meekly occupy precisely the places that the Tsar had pointed out to him. Fedor’s similar reaction to all of Boris’s research had the opposite, quite natural consequences. In the eyes of the nobility, Romanov rightfully became the main contender for the royal throne, any misfortune happened to Godunov.

When Boris Godunov in Russian society came the crisis. Hunger was rampant in the state, entire cities were mowed down by epidemics, moral and moral principles were completely destroyed. Against the background of cruel reprisals and lawlessness perpetrated by the king and his minions, self-interest and bribery, gluttony, drunkenness and debauchery flourished. Being extremely suspicious, Boris welcomed the informing and slander, cracking down on the guilty without any investigation, violating all the norms of justice and legality. And no one, even Romanov, dared to stand in his way. Favorite ways to eliminate unwanted when Godunov became link and secret murder. But to get close with any accusations against Fyodor and his family for a long time failed to govern.


The deterioration of the health of the sovereign led to the fact that he turned into a mad usurper, who everywhere saw conspiracies, betrayal, witchcraft and intrigue. It got to the point that the king began to avoid the traditional mass ceremonies. At the same time, one boyar soldier admitted for remuneration that the Romanovs were preparing an ill-potion for the entire royal family. On the basis of the denunciation he wrote and the poisonous roots (most likely, planted) found during the search of Brother Fyodor, Alexander Nikitich, all the Romanovs were arrested, and the ready-made verdict was announced to the Boyar Duma. However, in June 1601, a certain indicative court took place, in which the entire Romanov family was declared guilty of treason to the sovereign and sentenced to exile with content under strict protection.

The cunning and bloodthirsty Godunov gave the Duma the opportunity to determine the final decision in advance, however, taking care of the pronouncement of the sentence he needed. The members of the Duma, fearing primarily for themselves and their loved ones, hurried to support the sovereign, zealously accusing the "traitors" and not letting them open their mouths for explanations and excuses. Most of all, as was planned, Fyodor Nikitich and his spouse suffered, who were not only exiled, but also subject to a vestment. Exhausted by a long investigation, the members of the Romanov family went their separate ways to the place of their exile. Fedor was taken to the Antoniev-Siya monastery and received the rank of Philaret. Under the insistent instructions of the tsar, Romanov was supposed to be all alone, and instead of the estates taken away from him and all the property that the sovereign distributed to his favorites, Fedor was given only the most necessary things from the monastic treasury. The guard assigned to him was instructed not to let him out of the walls of the monastery, to transmit any messages from him and to constantly report on his behavior.

Svetlana Ivleva. Patriarch Filaret (Romanov) and Sretensky igumen Efrem in Polish captivity 1613-1619


Of all the deprivations, Fyodor Nikitich was most depressed by the separation from his beloved wife and children, as well as the complete lack of information about their fate. Meanwhile, Xenia was sent under the name of Martha to the Tolvui graveyard in Zonezhie, where she lived for a long time in harsh confinement. Romanov's children, being in inadequate conditions, died due to poor physical health. First, one day, apparently from an infection, Boris and Nikita passed away in the 1592 year, Lev Fyodorovich died in the 1597, and the fourth son of Fyodor Ivan in the 1599. The remaining daughter, Tatiana, soon married Prince Ivan Mikhailovich Katyrev-Rostovsky and died in July, 1611, and the five-year-old son, Mikhail, was exiled with Aunt Marfa and her husband to White Lake. One after the other, the Filaret brothers also died, unable to bear the hardships and imprisonment. The people of their death blamed Godunov, who with the help of his bailiffs allegedly killed a family he disliked. Only Ivan Nikitich, who endured numerous mockeries, was forcedly pardoned by the king, who was frightened by numerous accusations, and in 1602 was sent to Nizhny Novgorod.


Unlike other children of Filaret, the only remaining son Michael alive was a very strong and sharp-witted boy, although he was in a female environment, which affected the excessive romance of the future monarch and his inclination to give in to the weaker sex. In 1602, one of his father’s estates was returned to Mikhail, the village of Klin, which was located in Yuryevo-Polsky district, and he and the remnants of his family moved there to live, where, according to the “mercy” sovereign, he did not know than pinching and rejecting.

Despite the aspiration of Godunov to complete isolation of Filaret, the disgraced boyar managed to establish a secret channel through which he was given information about everything that was happening in the state. Risking their lives, the monks, priests and peasants helped the noble prisoner, for which they were subsequently richly rewarded. It was through them that Fyodor managed to transfer a letter exposing all the sinful acts of the king and his entourage, which went from hand to hand, setting the people against Godun who had let himself go, whose days on the throne were numbered.

The most difficult situation in Russia at the beginning of the seventeenth century, when the unleashed civil war was complicated by foreign intervention, coincided with the end of the reign of Godunov. Since the spring of 1605, and until the summer of 1606, that is, from the last months of Boris's reign and during the year when the first False Dmitry reigned, there is not a single mention of Philaret in historical documents. Some historians set forth an unsupported version of the construction of a hieromonk in this period and his appointment to the metropolitans of Rostov and Yaroslavl. But if we proceed from the realities, then, for example, at the wedding of False Dmitry and Marina Mnishek 8 of May 1606 of the year, along with the Poles, there were many representatives of the glorious Russian clans: both Mstislavsky (in the place of the seated father) and Shuya, and even Pozharsky which will subsequently fight these same invaders. There were not only representatives of the house of the Romanovs, including Filaret, in any monastic rank.

On the night of March 17, Dmitry Ivanovich was brutally murdered, and on June 1 of 1606 was hurriedly crowned Vasily Shuisky on the throne. At his suggestion, Filaret went to Uglich as part of a commission to recognize the relics of the slain sovereign, in order to avoid the appearance of numerous impostors who declared themselves saved and resurrected prince. As a reward for his help, Vasily Ivanovich promised Philaret a high monastic rank, but after the coup he refused the given word. In November, 1606, when the troops of the insurgent gollyb under the leadership of Ivan Bolotnikov moved to the capital, Filaret was already in his chair in Rostov, and the whole 1607 year served prayers, spreading appeals to reconciliation and the end of the confrontation between the Falsredmitry II supporters and the reigning forces Shuisky. In October, 1608, when Rostov became the center of the confrontation, some accused the flock of Philaret of insufficient zeal in defending the city. However, the documents show that when numerous residents of the city appealed to the priest to leave Rostov and flee to Yaroslavl, Filaret donned monastic robes and to the last consoled the parishioners who had taken refuge with him in the church, performing prayers. And when the rebels tried to take the cathedral by storm, their first offensive was repelled. Philaret sought to reason the rebels with the help of the scriptures, but the enemy did not want to listen to him. The gates of the temple were knocked out, and the pereyaslavts burst in and began to brutally kill people hiding in the cathedral. The Metropolitan was taken under guard and sent to the Falsite II in Tushino, having previously ripped off his saintly robes and clothed in thin robes, and the golden cancer of the miracle-worker Leonty was cut into shares. The city and church treasury was plundered, and the churches of the city were completely destroyed.

Historians are confused by the further course of events when Philaret, who was being chased along barefoot on the road, who was put on pagan clothes and a Tatar hat to humiliate, became a patriarch upon arrival at the camp! Obviously, it was a political move, conceived by an impostor: to attract, even if by force to his side popular Filaret among the people, giving him a high holy dignity and once again dressed in vestments, while assigning a guard to him. Being wise enough, Fedor Nikitich, remaining at his own convictions, accepted the appointment.

Of course, the metropolitan could, in principle, reject the honors granted to him and disappear, but he chose to take a wait-and-see attitude, creating the appearance of obeying False Dmitry, for which he incurred condemnation of those who resisted the impostor, as well as a number of historians. Nevertheless, the majority of researchers are still inclined to believe that such a move was dictated rather by the ingenious calculation of the patriarch, who wanted to maintain his position in the state, if either side of the opposition won. What were his true intentions and thoughts, only the metropolitan himself knew.


Filaret’s transfer, even if violent, to the False Dmitry camp was perceived by Shuisky as a betrayal. Meanwhile, the deteriorating situation inside our country has led the Polish king Sigismund III to the idea that under a decent pretext to stop the bloodshed and unrest in Russia, he will easily be able to snatch pieces of the Russian land. He began his “peacekeeping mission” at the end of 1609. The camp near Tushino became a venue for negotiations between the Poles and the Moscow authorities. And since the False Dmitry II, who had fled with a part of those close to him, who had been caught and taken into custody by the Poles, was out of business, the main role in the negotiations with the interventionists on the Russian side was given to Philaret. The result of the negotiations was a historical document, which expresses the recognition of the Polish ruler as the ruler of the Russian land, but it is indicated that the representatives present at the negotiations are not competent to make a final decision without the All-Russian Council. Taking advantage of the pause, opponents of Sigismund submission, headed by Filaret, managed to unite and adopted a document called the "Oath". This letter from 29 December 1609-th declared an escaped False Dmitry II impostor, contained the decision of all the united parties to oppose Shuisky and his supporters, as well as the intention to fight to the last against any enemy from the outside. It was a temporary compromise dictated by necessity and danger hanging over Russia.

In subsequent negotiations with the Poles, the Russian side spoke on behalf of the patriarch and tried by all means to convince the other side of the need to preserve the “Greek faith” in Russia, and therefore insisted on the wedding of the kingdom of Vladislav, the son of Sigismund, the Russian customs. As a result, Russia received a foreign king, who could not change any accepted Orthodox customs and norms. In response to such a proposal, the Polish king decided to appeal to his Senate.

On July 17, the nobility, under the leadership of Fyodor Volkonsky and Zakhar Lyapunov, was overthrown by the Shuisky occupying the throne. The confrontation between supporters of one or another candidate for the reign ended with the fact that soon all the townships and cities took the oath to the Polish prince on terms compiled by Filaret and his associates earlier in the Tushino camp. The cross to Tsar Vladislav was kissed by everyone except the former Lzhedmitriev villages, several undecided volosts and Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov, who managed to dissuade from minorities. And 1610 August 28-th Rostov Metropolitan swore a new king. At the same time, the most dangerous person for the Polish plans, who was considered to be Filaret, was under the vigilant control of the supporters of the newly sovereign, who were looking for ways to neutralize it.

The plans of the Poles did not initially coincide with the agreements approved in the above-described document and, especially, with the interests of the Russian people. After a series of minor violations, the Poles besieged Smolensk, showing true intentions. A long seven-month standoff and the search for any compromises did not lead to a positive result, initiating a war with the Poles. The 12 of April 1611 were sent to Poland as ambassadors Filaret and Golitsyn for negotiations. In January, 1612, after staying near Lviv in Kamenka, and then in Warsaw, the prisoners found themselves in the castle-fortress Malbork. For Filaret the years of imprisonment began again. However, this position of Romanov contributed to the creation around his person of the aura of the fighter-martyr for the Russian land.

In March, 1613, when the question of the wedding of Mikhail Son of Filaret to the Russian throne was decided, the seventeen-year-old candidate for the throne did not want to give consent until the boyars promised him to exchange his father for noble Lithuanian prisoners. Negotiations were long. Only at the end of 1614, the envoy of Russia, Zhelyabuzhsky, managed to still meet with Filaret and hand over letters to the prisoner from his relatives, the tsar and other secular and religious officials. Romanov was extremely dissatisfied news about electing his son to be a king without a father's blessing, however, after explaining that Michael stubbornly refused to get married without him, he calmed down.

Many more years of negotiations and small military clashes took place, until finally, on 1 in March, 1619 was not assigned an exchange for Vyazma, which was delayed for another three months due to the desire of the Poles at the last moment to get an additional piece of Russian lands for the captive Filaret . But when Fyodor Nikitich learned about the demands of the Poles, he declared that he would rather return to captivity than give up even a inch of his native land for freedom. Meanwhile, in the 1618 year, the Deulinsky truce was concluded, and 1 June 1619-th Filaret was exchanged for one of the Polish prisoners.

At the time when the patriarch was imprisoned, his future role as co-ruler of the state was obvious. From 1615 year he was called not only as "Metropolitan of All Russia", the altars in the country were consecrated with the name "Metropolitan Philaret". When Filaret’s nine-year imprisonment finally ended, and he set foot on Russian soil again, he was greeted as a victor. At a distance of five miles from Moscow, the sovereign with the boyars waited for the patriarch. Mikhail bowed to his father in the legs, despite his high rank. And behind the Stone City, the metropolitan was met by all the church ministers of Moscow. On that day, the temple of the Prophet Elisha was laid, and an amnesty was declared for many of the prisoners.


Upon arriving home, Filaret adequately accepted all the honors required, but refused to become a patriarch flatly, citing his old age, experienced grief and a desire to live in solitude. Urging him to take this honorary dignity, the nobles and clergymen declared that they would not find a more worthy person, however, Filaret agreed only after he was reminded of the wrath of God for resisting the will of the Council. From 22 to 24 on June 1619, a ceremony was held at the metropolitans, who were entrusted to hold the Patriarch of Jerusalem Theophanes in the capital.

Since the return of Philaret and the initiation, the activities of the patriarch himself and the rule of his son Tsar Michael become almost indivisible, and the narrative of public affairs of the senior Romanov fully coincides with the monograph on political events in Russia from 1619 to 1632. All decisions in the state were taken not only on behalf of the tsar, but also on behalf of his father the patriarch. Moreover, Filaret could cancel the decrees of the king. The surviving correspondence eloquently indicates that, despite the royal personage of his son, the patriarch considered himself the full head of the ruling family. In addition, despite the accepted ideas about the role of women in society at that time, on a number of issues the respected “great old lady”, wife of Filaret Marfa Andreevna, had the right to vote. It was Martha who put pressure on her son when he decided in 1616 to marry the girl Marya Khlopova. The family of the bride was refused, and this marriage did not take place.

With all the reasonableness of most of his political moves, Filaret was extremely intolerant of someone else’s influence on his son. He tried to send all those who tried to change the decisions of the king, including representatives of noble families, away from the court. “Patriarchal absolutism” led to the fact that in 1619, the appointed Council was canceled, because the patriarch, in his own words, himself knew how to arrange a Muscovite state. In 1627, Filaret rejected without explanations the petition of merchants and servicemen from the sovereign cities who asked to stop the dominance of foreigners in the domestic market. Romanov used his unlimited power in his huge diocese, which (according to data from 1625 of the year) covered forty-plus cities and counties. He received the full right to carry out both spiritual and civil trials of people, regardless of their position and class. Tsar Mikhail, after considering the complaints received by the Novgorod and Vologda bishops, gave them the sole decision to independently “judge and be in charge of spiritual matters.” Also, despite the objections of Filaret, the sovereign issued to the churches and monasteries of these dioceses no criminal records. But the patriarch here also found a way to governing. In 1622, he announced the need to review and re-approve all previously issued papers.

The love for her son did not prevent Filaret from participating in the creation of the “Tale”, where the patriarch is depicted as a representative of God on earth, and the king is obliged to honor him “according to the superior priesthood”. A separate head of the activity of Fyodor Nikitich was the situation with the burning of “Lithuanian” books after the “heresy” was revealed in 1627 in the “Gospel” of Tranquillion Starovetsky, the famous enlightener. An order was issued to collect and burn all the books of this author. Then came the work of replacing foreign church books with domestic ones. Over translations and text editing Filaret personally participated. The collection of ancient parchment manuscripts announced by the patriarch marked the beginning of the Typographical Library, and his support for book publishing provided an opportunity to release many new folios, which had a positive impact on the cultural development of Russian society as a whole.

Being an ardent opponent of immorality that was clearing under the previous rulers, Filaret, so that others could not be discouraged, imprisoned in the monastery forever several particularly depraved nobles. The desire to take revenge and punish the Poles for their encroachment on Russian lands first led to the fact that Filaret in 1621-1622-m years convened Zemstvo representatives to discuss the need to start a war with the Commonwealth. And although the participants in the meeting fully supported the idea of ​​war and the revision of the degrading Deulinsky truce, having thought it over, the patriarch decided not to drag the state into a new confrontation so far, but he never left the venture. He began to assemble and arm the first regiments of the “foreign system” in Russia, invent new ways of secret writing for foreign envoys, and even corresponded with the Swedish king. In these matters, Filaret had to rely on the assistance of the Novgorod governors, because he did not receive support from the Muscovites. His calculation was simple: for the second year Gustav Adolf continued the war with the coalition, which included Poland. And in order to prevent the hated Catholics, the patriarch was ready to cooperate even with the Protestants. Moreover, he strongly sought to join the coalition of Muslim Turkey. And when in the spring of 1632, Sigismund II hated by Filaret died, and in Poland, bickering began for power, the Russian troops suddenly crossed the border and, having beaten off several cities, approached Smolensk. The commander of the patriarch in the Tushin troubles and the Polish captivity, Mikhail Shein, was entrusted to command the troops.

Unfortunately, everything turned out quite differently as Filaret had planned. The Poles who came to their senses, united around the hasty elected Tsar Vladislav, rushed into battle. Russian voivod, cut off near Smolensk, was in a difficult position. The Moscow boyars were not going to help him, the foreign regiments created by the patriarch because of the unpaid salary were also in no hurry to go into battle. The boyars who entered the Russian army left the war trying to save their estates and property from Krymchaks attacking Russia, and the Swedish king Gustav-Adolf was killed in battle. The sad news, which went one after another in September of 1633, finally finished off the eighty-year-old Philaret, and on October 1, after the mass, he died, as historians believe, "from Kruciani".

After the death of the patriarch Shein, who did not receive help from the boyars, folded the Russian flags and retreated in disgrace, the governors surrendered a number of cities with little or no resistance, and the frightened nobles tried to justify themselves before Vladislav and renounce Tsar Michael. And it is not known how the Russian history would have turned if the heroic White fortress had not got in the way of the Poles, the army of which was commanded by the later undefeated Fyodor Volkonsky, nicknamed “Merinok”. His people stood to death, holding the position for more than eight weeks against the entire army of the Commonwealth. The support and defeat of the Polish cavalry provided by the Kaluga voevod pushed the Poles to the idea that it was time to get out of the way. King Vladislav was forced to go to Poland, and the Russian rati returned to the capital, hanging out captured enemy banners over Philaret’s tomb, in order to rest his soul.

The first tsar from the great dynasty of the house of the Romanovs, Mikhail Fedorovich, stayed on the throne for thirty years, a milestone that few rulers overcame in Russia. Of the three hundred years history of the autocrats of the Romanov family, it accounted for a tenth part. The epoch of Mikhail Fedorovich and Filaret Nikitich, which began after the king was enthroned in 1613, was in its own way a turning point for a country ruined by dashing years of Time of Troubles. Russia emerged from the crisis that hit all classes and state institutions to the very foundations, as well as the souls and minds of contemporaries. Despite the poor knowledge of theological affairs, the royal father raised the Orthodox Church from the ruins. Monasteries and temples were rebuilt, and church possessions restored and expanded. Regardless of his origin and almost unlimited power, Fyodor Nikitich always tried not to become a temporary lover of power, while preserving the dignity of the state husband in solving any problems. While dying, Filaret bequeathed to his son to appoint the archbishop of the Great Onions and Pskov Joasaph to be the patriarch. Ostroayazychny Pakhomiy Astrakhansky explained this choice in his "Chronograph" as follows: "Because he was the yard son (nobleman by birth), he is virtuous in living and morals, but he is not daring to the tsar."

Information sources:
http://www.sedmitza.ru/lib/text/439763/
http://lib.rus.ec/b/394882/read
http://predanie.ru/lib/html/72707.html
http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/rus8/Gerberstein/pred.phtml?id=671
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  1. Nika
    Nika 22 October 2013 09: 41 New
    +3
    Problem:
    The exact date of birth of Fedor Nikitich is unknown, it is indicated only that he was born no earlier 1954of the year.

    Reappeared late, no?
    Thanks for the article. History is our everything)
  2. avt
    avt 22 October 2013 10: 24 New
    +3
    A kind of ode to the Romanov dynasty. Well, straight doves of peace, the author tried no worse than the historians -------- ,, Fyodor Nikitich did not use the "dirty" methods of his rival and never even once declared his claims to the vacated throne. "Well, of course, the opponent, well, just not from the" bloody gebny "------- ,, The cunning and bloodthirsty Godunov gave the Duma the opportunity to determine the final decision, but in advance, however, taking care of passing the sentence he needed. first of all, fearing for themselves and their loved ones, rushed to support the sovereign, zealously accusing the "traitors" and not letting them open their mouths for explanations and excuses. " The author cheated a bit, the dove "it is not quite peaceful even in this narration it turns out that the intriguer is inveterate and in exile did not calm down for the power to fight, which he did not seem to want ------ ,, the disgraced boyar still managed to establish a secret channel through which he was supplied with information about everything that happened in the state. " Well, then, in general, the jolly went ----- ,, The Metropolitan was taken under guard and sent to False Dmitry II in Tushino, having previously stripped off the hierarch's vestments and dressed in thin clothes, and the golden shrine of the miracle worker Leonty was cut into shares. The city and church treasury were plundered, and the city's churches were completely destroyed.

    Historians are confused by the further course of events, when Filaret, being driven along the road with bare feet, on whom they put on pagan clothes and a Tatar hat for humiliation, became a patriarch upon arrival at the camp! "---- that is, in spite of everything, our intriguer achieved his goal, even though he became a patriarch from False Dmitry and the second." Of course, the metropolitan could fundamentally refuse the honors bestowed on him and disappear, but he preferred to take a wait-and-see attitude, creating the appearance of submission to False Dmitry, for which he incurred the condemnation of those who resisted the impostor, as well as a number of historians.Nevertheless, the bulk of researchers are nevertheless inclined to believe that such a move was dictated rather by the cunning calculation of the patriarch, who wanted to maintain his position in the state with the victory of either side of the confrontation. What were his true intentions and thoughts, knew only the metropolitan himself. " ======= Well, yes, I was eager for the supreme power so much to merge so immediately. laughing Well, various patriots who resisted with weapons in their hands are certainly not right! They were not a lady, give them a patriarch like Hermogenes! “The transition of Filaret, even a violent one, to the camp of False Dmitry was perceived by Shuisky as a betrayal." ====== Well, what, what, and the old rascal Shuisky knew a lot about betrayal and how that fisherman saw a fisherman from afar.
    Well, then the question of technique and intriguing dexterity of the Romanov ale up! And the son on the throne and the anointed of God ===== ,, While persuading him to accept this honorary dignity, the nobles and clergymen declared that they could not find a more worthy person, but Filaret agreed only after he was reminded of God's wrath for the resistance to the will of the Council. From June 22 to June 24, 1619, a ceremony was held for the appointment to the metropolitan, which was entrusted to the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Theophanes, who had stopped by in the capital. it was - with Pozharsky they drove the Poles, three times, they called for the kingdom of that time, and O MIRACLE, also the Patriarch of Jerusalem, quite by accident passed by laughing .Tourist on the Golden Ring in a devastated country where fighting is taking place. Wo a la and the new dynasty of God was chosen.
    1. Trapperxnumx
      Trapperxnumx 22 October 2013 10: 31 New
      +1
      OK, then what? What are your suggestions, views and thoughts? Who would be more worthy to take the Russian throne? Yes, so that his children and grandchildren would be forever healthy, intelligent, prudent, and would never make state mistakes!
      Maybe push yourself?
      1. avt
        avt 22 October 2013 10: 53 New
        0
        Quote: Trapper7
        OK, then what? TO

        Wow, do not understand?
        Quote: Trapper7
        What are your suggestions, views and thoughts? Who would be more worthy to take the Russian throne?

        I’m somehow not doing virtual history and I perceive it as it is, but I really don’t like it when I get it in such syrup instead of a serious analysis of historical facts. Here fans of the Romanov dynasty are striking for a mile and a half that now without any soap it creeps into any gap. Russia is not a Raman estate.
        Quote: Trapper7
        Maybe push yourself?

        Well, hike a monarchist? “People of the servile rank are real dogs sometimes, the harder the punishment, the dearer the Lord." I do not intend to enroll in serf slaves like that. If the need comes, according to the behests of General Black from "Beg" I will enroll in the Bolsheviks, I will shoot the new tsar and back I'll be discharged immediately.
        1. Trapperxnumx
          Trapperxnumx 22 October 2013 11: 01 New
          +4
          I also do not deal with virtual history and perceive it as it is. There were mistakes, there were achievements. I just saw your nickname and avatar, I immediately thought - well, right now I’ll analyze both the article and the dynasty on the shelves)))) it happened laughing
          And ... yes ... I am a monarchist, because I consider the monarchy to be the only possible form of government in which there is a certain continuity of the state course, although in Russia this sometimes gave a powerful glitch, the examples of Pavel 1 and Alexander 1 are very indicative. In the next article, it’s pretty well painted.
      2. Tver
        Tver 22 October 2013 21: 15 New
        0
        Prince Pozharsky was more worthy, but the gangs of thieves' Cossacks elected the Romanovs. These were their own - double-dealing; and Russian and Poles ...
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Tver
      Tver 22 October 2013 21: 22 New
      0
      The traditional praise of Romanov ... And where is their relative Saltykov? It was he who helped the Poles with all his might, tortured and ruined the real Saint - Patriarch Germogen! After 10 years he returned from Poland and ... calmly lived out his life.
  3. avt
    avt 22 October 2013 11: 13 New
    0
    Quote: Trapper7
    in which there is a certain continuity of the state course, although in Russia this sometimes gave a powerful glitch, the examples of Paul 1 and Alexander 1 are very revealing.

    Yeah? This "failure" is only one in the "glorious" transfer of power? And Petrusha I? Was it Vanya there, was your brother older, or younger? Well, and his legacy "how was it divided under the" legitimate "drumming of the guards regiments? And by what law did Katya II ascend the throne? According to the law of the favorite, with a fork in the side, "anointed one" for "kidney colic"? Yes, and Nicholas I, somehow, did not take up the post very smoothly and the soldiers knocked out the Decembrists, can you tell me what slogans? Not a sour state course continuity though. Tie you up with these fairy tales about the continuity that "prosperity" will provide, if you look at history without pink snot, you will understand that the monarchy has NEVER and ANYWHERE been a guarantee of a safe and serene life, and even more so a guarantee of stability and refusal to fight for supreme power.
    1. Trapperxnumx
      Trapperxnumx 22 October 2013 11: 43 New
      +2
      )))))))))))))) I leave you with me.
    2. Tver
      Tver 22 October 2013 21: 24 New
      0
      I support ... And when the people take off their pink glasses ??????
  4. Aleksandr
    Aleksandr 22 October 2013 11: 25 New
    0
    "Those geese saved Rome ...." (p.) Maybe so somehow.
  5. Boris55
    Boris55 22 October 2013 12: 58 New
    -4
    A story edited by nonsense should be treated with great caution.

    Why in the article the church is called Orthodox. In our country, it began to be called Orthodox under Stalin from the 1945 of the year. The Church Abroad is still called Orthodox (Orthodox).



    In general, I do not have tender feelings for the Romanovs.
    It was during their reign that serfdom was introduced.
    It was with them that the Orthodox faith was expelled and Christianity was imposed ...



    Minusers - please express your position.
    1. Trapperxnumx
      Trapperxnumx 22 October 2013 15: 12 New
      +3
      Quote: Boris55
      Minusers - please express your position.

      You know, so many copies have already been broken on this site in part
      Quote: Boris55
      It was with them that the Orthodox faith was expelled and Christianity was imposed ...

      it’s easier to just put a minus)))) You’re sorry repeat
    2. Aleksandr2
      Aleksandr2 24 October 2013 10: 11 New
      +1
      Our church is true, not departing from the apostolic, like Catholics.
    3. radio operator
      radio operator 25 October 2013 23: 07 New
      0
      Quote: Boris55
      Why in the article the church is called Orthodox. In our country, it began to be called Orthodox under Stalin from the 1945 of the year. The Church Abroad is still called Orthodox (Orthodox).

      Dear, just one example. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, a trend of Slavophiles emerged, whose slogan was "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Narodnost". Where is "Orthodoxy" here?
      Or remember the words of Fyodor Dostoevsky: "We are Russian as much as we are Orthodox." It seems to me that Fyodor Mikhailovich is a little older than Iosif Vissarionovich.
      You have given a sign in English. They call all Orthodox churches Orthodox, for their commitment to the canonical dogmas that Christ preached. Catholics broke away in the 11 century, then Protestants, etc.
      Let me remind you that serfdom was born in the era of Ivan IV by the introduction of the so-called reserve years. It intensified under Peter, reached its climax under Catherine II, and Alexander II abolished it. For which he received a bomb from grateful liberals. With the same success we can say that the Romanovs abolished serfdom.

      Quote: Boris55
      It was with them that the Orthodox faith was expelled and Christianity was imposed ...

      Dear, well, this is not serious. Before the split of Nikon and after the split, this was and is Christianity. I understand that liberals are trying to brainwash us, but we need to take information from several sources and verify their authenticity.
      Be careful.
  6. avt
    avt 22 October 2013 13: 42 New
    +1
    Quote: Boris55
    Minusers - please express your position.

    request You are a strange person. Well, what is the position or impartial analysis of the facts of people who blindly believe in the king's messiah, that he will wipe away tears for all those who suffer and paradise on earth and monarchy in general will reign, they even do not have a decree, although all are Orthodox Christians, laziness even the book of Kings read, not that all. Here is a picture of the time of the grandson of the hero of the article, so the monarchists are firmly convinced that the Old Believers themselves were burned like this, out of thoughtlessness or uncivilized savagery. he simply decided to warm up in the bathhouse and did not burn down by order of the tsar. So the second stage of the Marlezon ballet - the rooting and legitimization of the Romanov clan was no less bloody, both in terms of establishing a religious diktat and in terms of a direct struggle for power. one civil war with Razin. Not very contemporaries without exception believed in the "God-chosen" Romanov, which is generally quite typical for other monarchies. Well, this form of government is not a guarantee against shocks and a calm transfer of power.
  7. GUSAR
    GUSAR 22 October 2013 19: 50 New
    +2
    The history of Russia, whatever it may be, is the most unique thing, it is priceless in its essence, and our task to preserve it, to develop and support it in every way, there is nothing more to add ...
  8. Tver
    Tver 22 October 2013 21: 30 New
    +2
    The history of Russia is a common treasure and it is not worth juggling it. And the eulogies of the Romanovs have long died down. Moreover, they ended on Peter the Great. The Gottorps began with Peter 3 and they had enough of their mistakes .....
  9. Tver
    Tver 22 October 2013 21: 30 New
    +1
    The history of Russia is a common treasure and it is not worth juggling it. And the eulogies of the Romanovs have long died down. Moreover, they ended on Peter the Great. The Gottorps began with Peter 3 and they had enough of their mistakes .....
  10. vladsolo56
    vladsolo56 23 October 2013 05: 14 New
    +1
    The article is big, but what about? I did not find anything for this person to do, as the author writes, having a great influence on power, what did he do for the common people? how did he distinguish himself, how did he facilitate the life of the peasants? Although this is certainly not important, a person of this rank is worthless to think about commoners, he needed to solve state problems.
  11. Aleksandr2
    Aleksandr2 24 October 2013 10: 08 New
    +1
    Quote: avt
    Quote: Boris55
    Minusers - please express your position.

    request You are a strange person. Well, what is the position or impartial analysis of the facts of people who blindly believe in the king's messiah, that he will wipe away tears for all those who suffer and paradise on earth and monarchy in general will reign, they even do not have a decree, although all are Orthodox Christians, laziness even the book of Kings read, not that all. Here is a picture of the time of the grandson of the hero of the article, so the monarchists are firmly convinced that the Old Believers themselves were burned like this, out of thoughtlessness or uncivilized savagery. he simply decided to warm up in the bathhouse and did not burn down by order of the tsar. So the second stage of the Marlezon ballet - the rooting and legitimization of the Romanov clan was no less bloody, both in terms of establishing a religious diktat and in terms of a direct struggle for power. one civil war with Razin. Not very contemporaries without exception believed in the "God-chosen" Romanov, which is generally quite typical for other monarchies. Well, this form of government is not a guarantee against shocks and a calm transfer of power.

    Are you a fan of democracy?
  12. radio operator
    radio operator 25 October 2013 12: 21 New
    0
    Good article!
    Thank you!
    Domestic history is always interesting.