Military Review

Copyright Infringement and the Crisis of Military Cooperation between Russia and China ("Iras", Iran)

Copyright Infringement and the Crisis of Military Cooperation between Russia and China ("Iras", Iran)The military partnership between Russia and China, which flourished after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the ideology’s dominance over the arms export policy, has been undergoing stagnation over the past few years. The reasons for this crisis are the actions of the Chinese authorities on unauthorized copying of products of the Russian military industry, unlicensed or duplicate production of Chinese counterparts, as well as large-scale modification of equipment purchased from Russia and changes in original spare parts, ammunition and equipment.

The reason for this is the active measures of Beijing aimed at the development of domestic industry and defense self-sufficiency. Now that less than ten years have passed, such measures have become an obstacle to the development of the defense partnership of the two countries, and Russia is not too willing to sell China the modernized weapons.

New round of cooperation between Moscow and Beijing in gold 90-e

Military cooperation between the two countries began in the early years of the Cold War. Then Stalin generously issued a decree granting some of the Russian weapons and military technology. The result of this friendly gesture was not only the appearance in China of a large number of light and heavy weapons of Russian production. China got the opportunity to lay the foundations of its own military industry and achieve significant success in it. So, thanks to Soviet engineering, due to the production of Mig-17, Mig-19, Mig-21, Il-14, Tu-4 and Tu-16 aircraft, Romeo class submarines, tanks T-54, various artillery mounts and armored personnel carriers, Chinese military industry was created, which remained faithful to its foreign founders. However, the crisis that erupted inside the communist camp in the 60s of the last century led to a confrontation between the USSR and China. Both states have become sworn enemies, ready to start a military confrontation just about. This disagreement had negative consequences for communist China. The People’s Liberation Army of China lost modern Soviet weapons and, having no other technological resources, did not make any notable successes in the 70-80s, although it made a lot of efforts.

The number of weapons and military technologies procured from countries such as France, Italy, and the United States in those decades was extremely small, and its supplies were stopped following the armed suppression of student demonstrations on Tiananmen Square in 1989 and the introduction of sanctions against the PRC. At that time, the army of communist China, despite the large number of personnel and weapons, had many technical problems that negatively affected the balance of power between the PRC and its opponents. So, in 1979, the war with Vietnam ended in vain due to its air superiority. Extremely reserved, China began to behave with India, equipped with modern fighters of Russian, French and British production. The confrontation with Taiwan turned out to be unpromising. The reason for this was the high risk of the outbreak of hostilities with the United States or with its allies - Japan and South Korea. If China still relied on its first and second generation F-6 and F-7 fighters (Chinese counterparts of the Soviet MiG-19 and MiG-21), then its neighbors have already received the most advanced weapons in the world.

The collapse of the Soviet Union was a high point for China. The period of hostility in relations with Moscow ended, and she was ready to sell Beijing a large batch of weapons. Now Russia did not look at arms exports through the prism of ideology, regarding it as an exclusively commercial enterprise. Not having access to modern military technology for decades, China, with its backward industry and poorly equipped army, feverishly began to buy weapons from Russia.

In 1992, China placed an order for 78 Su-27s. This treaty launched China's military industry, thereby increasing the fighting capacity of the People's Liberation Army. In fact, it was thanks to the receipt of the Flanker family of fighters (generation Su-27 and subsequent samples) that China's military power made a real breakthrough. Acquisition of 12 Kilo-class submarines, the S-300 anti-aircraft missile system (namely, China became its first foreign buyer), an airspace tracking radar, 26 Ka-27 and Ka-28 helicopters, 25 Il-76 transport aircraft and Il-78 tanker aircraft, 11 Tu-154 passenger aircraft, 338 Mi-8/17 helicopters and a large number aviation shells made China the largest importer of Russian weapons. Then, after the signing of an agreement for the supply of 100 Su-30 aircraft, the PRC became the largest buyer of these aircraft, receiving them even when there was clearly not enough of this type of equipment in the armament of Russian aircrafts.

However, joint projects for the production of weapons within the Middle Kingdom itself became a much more significant aspect of military cooperation between Russia and China. Thus, the licensed production of Su-27 under the name Shenyang J-11 number of 200 pieces using Russian engines and spare parts was established. A project to create KJ-2000 aircraft with an aircraft radio detection and guidance system (AWACS) based on IL-76 has been launched. The delivery of engines for Chinese aircraft, such as Hongdu's JL-8 jet-based combat training aircraft, has begun. More than 190 of such aircraft have already entered service with the Chinese air force and, probably, China will order at least 400 of these machines. The PRC also received engines for more 270 fighter-bomber Chengdu J-10. Motors were also ordered for more than a hundred of the same FC-1 aircraft. Their last batch ordered by Pakistan consisted of 250 machines.

Chengdu FC-1 airplanes (Pakistani designation JF-17 Thunder) are multi-purpose fighter-bombers with Russian engines, produced in China on the order of Pakistan. On the whole, the PRC military industry achieved incredible success precisely thanks to its reliance on Russian technology.

Chinese betrayal

Despite such warm relations, since 2004, Russia has begun to notice that China is violating joint treaties and not respecting the ownership of Russian military products. The real rage of Moscow has caused the unlicensed production of aircraft Shenyang J-11 (Chinese counterparts Su-27). Chinese engineers copied the available samples of these Russian aircraft, providing them with Chinese engines, radars and weapons. Having put their own desired parameters into the new model, the Chinese actually violated the existing agreements with Russia. The subsequent actions of China in the unauthorized and again unlicensed production of the Su-27 ship model called the Su-33 infuriated Russia even more. Having received this model from Ukraine, the Chinese started to create the Su-33 clone under their own name Shenyang J-15 without permission. In addition, by developing its submarine production, China tried to manufacture Russian-made products and improve them. He did the same with weapons for air defense. By investing heavily in the production of aircraft engines, China sought to achieve greater independence from Russia. The complex of these measures and Beijing’s conviction of the need for a step-by-step rejection of the import of Russian weapons led to Moscow losing confidence in its partner.

Since then, and for at least six years now, Russia has refrained from selling military products to China equipped with the latest technology. It, of course, continues to supply aircraft engines to its Asian neighbor, but at the same time refuses to provide its high-tech developments for its use, selling them to China’s rivals in the region. This problem hinders the aspirations of the Chinese to buy Russian weapons.

New needs of China and the crisis of military cooperation with Russia

China now intends to purchase 10 or IL-30 aircraft and eight IL-76 units from Russia, or, according to other sources, and is also awaiting the appearance of improved IL-78 models to purchase more 476 such machines. In addition, China is showing interest in the masterpiece of the Russian aviation engineering Mi-60, importing 17 helicopters of this model last year. Meanwhile, a few months ago, Beijing’s attempt to place an order for the purchase of weapons failed. In particular, China expressed a desire to purchase Su-50 fighter-bombers (slightly less than 35 units), Lada-class submarines (new Russian submarine models replacing the Kilo class), Onyx anti-ship missiles (the export name was Yakhont) and some other types of defense weapons, but Russia rejected this proposal. The Russian side continues to insist that the Chinese violate copyrights, and demands the resumption of payment of damages for unauthorized reproduction of the Su-30 and Su-27 models under the Chinese name J-33 and J-11.

This means that Russia does not trust China and does not consider it a reliable strategic partner in military cooperation. Probably for this reason, while offering to buy their most modern weapons to China’s competitors, India and Vietnam, Moscow refuses to sell it to Beijing. Currently, together with Indian colleagues, Russian specialists are working to improve the fifth-generation fighter Sukhoi T-50. By upgrading their own fifth-generation fighter J-20, Chinese engineers are unlikely to get the opportunity to familiarize themselves with the technical content of the Russian model. The same can be said about Lada-class diesel submarines, Shark nuclear submarines exported to India, Yakhont anti-ship missiles, modern C-300 anti-aircraft missile systems, the newest Su-35 fighter-bombers MIG-35 and many other types of Russian weapons. China is showing an increased interest in the Tu-22 bombers and the Tu-160 tactical bombers, however, given the position of the Russians and their negative experience of working with their Chinese counterparts, the Celestial Empire will hardly receive these planes.

China’s aspiration to achieve independence from Russia in terms of military technologies was not fully realized, because its plan to build Chinese engines for J-10 and J-15 failed. In most other cases, Chinese-made engines also do not have high performance Russian counterparts. In other words, China, as before, urgently needs cooperation with Russia.


Russia, of course, will continue to supply China with certain types of defense weapons, because the profits from these deals are very high. China, in turn, really needs Russia. This is especially true of the production of aircraft engines. Despite the fact that in order to reduce its dependence on its northern neighbor, China invests significant capital in its own production and relies on other producing countries, such as Ukraine, it still needs technical cooperation with Russia.

At the same time, distrust of China due to its unauthorized copying and copyright infringement on Russian developments is explained by Russia's fear that it could become its competitor in the global arms market. To this should be added the close cooperation of Russia with India and Vietnam, which seek to reduce China’s influence, as well as its distrust of its Asian neighbor, which increases with the growth of its power. All this makes the military cooperation between Moscow and Beijing unpromising.
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  1. Zhenya
    Zhenya 23 October 2013 15: 12
    It is logical and justified. Although China is a formal ally, it has begun to allow itself too much, and if it also sells weapons to it, this could even lead to another crisis between Moscow and Beijing.
  2. nik6006
    nik6006 23 October 2013 15: 17
    Chinese copy machine stalled wink
    1. alone
      alone 23 October 2013 19: 55
      I do not think)) will find what to copy. yesterday there was an article about how European helicopters were copied)) will not sit idle
    2. Airman
      Airman 23 October 2013 22: 29
      Quote: nik6006
      Chinese copy machine stalled wink

      I think that the greed of our Rosoboronexport will prevail over common sense and the supply of the latest technology to copywriters will resume. Green candy wrappers are above all, and the country's interests are in the background, if not further.
  3. stroporez
    stroporez 23 October 2013 15: 22
    as I understand it, covering torrents ---- is part of the struggle ??))) laughing
  4. borisjdin1957
    borisjdin1957 23 October 2013 15: 22
    from the Don.
    We don’t need a cunning ... We don’t need any military cooperation, I think it’s too much. Slingshot drawings can be passed on to them! They’ll steal it anyway!
  5. Ivanovich47
    Ivanovich47 23 October 2013 15: 25
    China is our strategic partner, but with a lost conscience. Shamelessly copies everything that comes from Russia. Why spend millions on development, production mastering, testing of new technology? It is easier to buy in Russia and "tear off" everything. And cheap and angry. For the Chinese, there is no concept of "Intellectual Property" The long-suffering of Russian designers should come to an end. We need to stop supplying China with the latest weapons systems. In case of repeated copying, apply to international arbitration courts.
    1. Shadowcat
      Shadowcat 23 October 2013 15: 37
      Quote: Ivanovich47
      In case of repeated copying, apply to international arbitration courts.

      They spit from the Eiffel Tower on all these courts.
      1. Serg 122
        Serg 122 24 October 2013 02: 21
        That is not the problem. The fact is that all enterprises in China are nationalized and therefore when applying to the court, you are not suing the copy manufacturer, but the PRC Government! This is such a hitch ... And if you sue the Government of the PRC, then this rapidly developing market will be lost for you. And who needs it? That poor fellow and endure ... recourse
    2. IGS
      IGS 23 October 2013 16: 10
      As for arbitration courts, it’s funny ...
      BMW could not prove to the Italian court that the Chinese car Shuanghuan CEO is a copy of the famous BMW X5 SUV. The Milan court did not recognize the plagiarism of the Chinese company and allowed the sale of the CEO model in the Italian market. According to unofficial data, it became known that a very good specialist had come to work in the company, who had previously audited outlets.
      The distributor in Italy and the main representative of Shuanghuan Automobile, Martin Motors, were satisfied with the court decision. "Our position has remained the same - Shuanghuan CEO and BMW X5 are completely different cars," said a spokesman for the Chinese automaker.

      If inside the EU they sided with China ... then with regard to Russia, and even more so its weapons ..
    3. clidon
      clidon 23 October 2013 18: 01
      For the Chinese, there is the concept of "intellectual property". But only his own, his own. The more it is, the more sharply Beijing will react to counterfeit.
    4. pahom54
      pahom54 23 October 2013 18: 28
      ... "apply to international arbitration courts ..."
      All these courts are violet to China. On the one hand, I am always surprised at the news: K% China concluded an agreement on the supply of 4 copies of this, 10 copies of it ... After all, our people obviously know why, for what purpose it is purchased by China.
      And I will not say that we are selling weapons to a knowingly dangerous "friend and ally", but I will draw your attention to the fact that by copying Russian products, China interrupts our arms trade, and this is lost billions for our military-industrial complex and budget.
      But I would like to note, I like their impudent policy to copy everything that is useful to them, I like their attempts to master other people's modern technologies, bypassing the difficult and costly stages of design, development and testing, their indifference to the reaction of the real owners of technology. I would have liked it more if ours began to pursue the same policy, where it is possible to accelerate the development of our technologies by ripping off strangers - well, a flag in hand.
      And in the arms trade with China, you need to carefully consider each order - what negative aspects will it turn for Russia in 5-10-15 years.
      1. Shadowcat
        Shadowcat 23 October 2013 19: 27
        Your proposal is death for the development of its own technology. To take, study, understand - yes, it is necessary. It’s stupid to copy it because it’s hard to understand the highlight of the technology.
        Take for example the AMO plant, as a consequence of ZiS, and after ZiL. They took the Yankees technology from Ford, studied and improved, so on the contrary, they came to study.
        1. pahom54
          pahom54 23 October 2013 21: 43
          Lord, it’s exactly what I meant, but clumsily put it. Yes, yes, stole-buy, disassemble, study-analyze, add your own and do something better than a stolen (bought) copy ...
    5. alone
      alone 23 October 2013 19: 57
      Quote: Ivanovich47
      Shamelessly copies everything that comes from Russia. Why spend millions on development, production mastering, testing of new technology? It is easier to buy in Russia and "tear off" everything. And cheap and angry

      this is not so bad. having scanned it, they begin to offer others much cheaper + with a production license. And this is already a seizure of another's market. And the loss of billions
  6. Silkway0026
    Silkway0026 23 October 2013 15: 27
    We must hold China on a leash. And the whole point is that, at a certain period, we gave them a reason to think about ourselves condescendingly, they say - they will smack over and shut up. And so it probably would have been, had it been at the helm and then the bastard like Gorbi or Yeltsin.
  7. major071
    major071 23 October 2013 15: 29
    Trust but check. China is seeking benefits for itself in everything. Selling the latest technology to China, we thereby push ourselves out of the arms market, which fills China with its cheaper unlicensed copies. If some weapons can still be supplied, then production technology is no longer there.
  8. erofich
    erofich 23 October 2013 15: 29
    How to copy and will be.
  9. Fin
    Fin 23 October 2013 15: 32
    Weighted non-biased view from the side. The Chinese are nowhere without us. They also knew gunpowder before the Europeans, but it wasn’t enough to use it for military purposes.
    1. ATATA
      ATATA 23 October 2013 17: 27
      Quote: Fin
      They also knew gunpowder before the Europeans, but it wasn’t enough to use it for military purposes.

      Look for gunpowder on the Internet. His Chinese stole the same. laughing hi
  10. Migari
    Migari 23 October 2013 15: 33
  11. Shadowcat
    Shadowcat 23 October 2013 15: 36
    Ignorance, ignorance. I live in Asia and often have to communicate with the Chinese. Those who are from China - the imagination is completely absent, the current is a collective consciousness, but those who draped from China are already more or less thinking.
  12. The comment was deleted.
  13. Scoun
    Scoun 23 October 2013 15: 43
    A very balanced article from the Iranians. +
  14. erased
    erased 23 October 2013 16: 00
    China is a temporary and not very reliable partner, but in fact the enemy of Russia. A war with China is entirely possible. China has stolen so many military technologies from us that there is nowhere else to go.
    What kind of military cooperation can we talk about? However, the government, as always, leads its game. She has problems on the drum, if only there were grandmas.
    1. Pablo_K
      Pablo_K 23 October 2013 18: 42
      Quote: erased
      China has stolen so many military technologies from us that there is nowhere else to go.

      I didn’t steal, we sold ourselves
  15. crambol
    crambol 23 October 2013 16: 21
    Since 2004, Russia has begun to notice that China violates joint agreements and does not respect property rights to Russian military products..

    To achieve a global goal in the long term (we will call a spade a spade - the seizure of the territory of Russia) all the dirty methods of obtaining information are absolutely justified. The goal - the world domination of the yellow race - justifies the means.
    1. ATATA
      ATATA 23 October 2013 17: 28
      Quote: crambol
      The goal - the world domination of the yellow race - justifies the means.

      Have you read about this in the Jewish media?
  16. velikoros-xnumx
    velikoros-xnumx 23 October 2013 16: 46
    All this makes the military cooperation of Moscow and Beijing hopeless.

    The phrase does not sound correctly. Promisingly, but fraught ...
  17. Yuri Y.
    Yuri Y. 23 October 2013 16: 55
    I understand the behavior of the Chinese, we ourselves sometimes also think about the same. The question was in the actions of our government, finally it came to a conclusion.
  18. makarov
    makarov 23 October 2013 17: 25
    The published material is nothing but one of the elements of China's geopolitics.
    Of course, they will always show affection and cordiality in an official setting, say a lot of good and necessary words to please your ears, make oaths, etc. BUT ALWAYS WILL PLAY YOUR GAME !!!
  19. clidon
    clidon 23 October 2013 18: 07
    There is no revolution in relations between Russia and China, and so far has not been outlined - there is quite a tendency to reduce the needs of the Celestial Empire in imported weapons and at the same time reduce the need for them with us. We are of course preoccupied with our own intellectuals, however, we will not stop stopping arms supplies to Beijing. Soon there will go the Su-35 and easily S-400.

    The problem is also that we do not have any kind of strategic policy regarding the development of relations. As a recent example was given by orientalists - there is no demand for Chinese translators, very few journalists in Beijing, almost no experts on Chinese reality, which leads to a lack of understanding of how and with whom it is possible and necessary to conclude contracts.
  20. Ross
    Ross 23 October 2013 18: 11
    Quote: Ivanovich47
    China is our strategic partner, but with a lost conscience.

    It's just that the Chinese have a special mentality and their own worldview. They have no concept of conscience. For centuries they considered themselves the Middle Empire of the world, the main one in the world and self-sufficient. The Chinese are the foundation of the world, and white demons and other foreigners are what has hindered their development for centuries. Therefore, using their philosophy, they sincerely do not consider copying a deception. For centuries, they traded with Europe only for gold, since the Middle Empire was self-sufficient and did not need European goods. Therefore, they are now trying to take "for free" technology from the rest of the world, as if compensating for the humiliation of the past 100 years. And that is why they look so eagerly at the territory of their neighbors.
  21. Snipe 74
    Snipe 74 23 October 2013 18: 13
    Maybe someone knows about which submarines "Shark" exported to India, this article is talking about. I know only 6 steamers from the 18th division of the Akula class nuclear submarine. Today only 3 of them remain and only 1 is in working order. Export them to India, well, they could not. Then what is the article about?
    1. clidon
      clidon 23 October 2013 18: 24
      Nuclear submarine "Nerpa" (Akula) of project 971.
      1. Snipe 74
        Snipe 74 23 October 2013 18: 56
        Yes, that's right. Thanks for the help. I served 92-94 on the 4th building of the TK-13 Shark, so I was very surprised that the Sharks were selling to India.
  22. Basileus
    Basileus 23 October 2013 18: 18
    to Tu-22 bombers and tactical Tu-160 bombers

    Facespalm. Tu-22? We ceased to be interested in this junk in the 90s and were removed from service. Most likely, this refers to a completely different Tu-22M aircraft. Well, the Tu-160 is not tactical, but strategic, yes. Like the Tu-22M, in fact.
    1. clidon
      clidon 23 October 2013 18: 27
      The article is Iranian. Therefore, there may be problems with both Iranian identification and translation. However, it’s easy to understand what it’s about.
      1. Basileus
        Basileus 23 October 2013 18: 37
        It's still strange. Either the translator is not the best, or the "expert" is not quite competent.
        1. alone
          alone 23 October 2013 19: 59
          rather both
  23. ZU-23
    ZU-23 23 October 2013 18: 31
    Well, of course, you need to be wary of Chinese copying, but you also need to forget, of course, that we have places of development that Americans cannot reach.
  24. darksoul
    darksoul 27 October 2013 16: 07
    It’s nice to read this article, it’s good that our people are taking measures .... honestly, I thought they would continue to sell everything without a trace.