However, it makes sense to recall the situation at that time. Under Ivan the Terrible, Russia annexed the Volga region, the North Caucasus. Fought the way to the Baltic Sea, crushed the Livonian Order. However, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden, Denmark, the Crimean Khanate rose. Added treason own nobility. Nevertheless, our country successfully coped with all the difficulties. Lithuania defeated, Tatars reflected. The Swedes and Danes managed to win over to their side. And to eradicate the internal opposition, an emergency regime was introduced - the oprichnina.
It was then that the secret anti-Russian alliance began to turn. It was led by the Pope and the Jesuit Order. With 1568, they began to direct and coordinate the activities of the enemies of our country. Swedish king Eric XIV managed to conclude an alliance with Ivan the Terrible. But the Jesuits and Polish agents in 1568 organized a conspiracy of Swedish aristocrats. Eric was poisoned, he lay ill for a long time. The opposition leader was the royal brother Juhan, married to the sister of the Polish king. He rebelled before, was in prison. Now he was released, he raised a mutiny. Eric advisers convinced that you can not fight with his brother, we must look for ways of reconciliation. And when Yuhan's army approached Stockholm, the same advisers gave him a king. Erik was declared insane and imprisoned in a dungeon, where he soon died, and Johan, taking the throne, resumed the war with the Russians.
In Poland and Lithuania, Jesuits and emissaries of Rome also did a good job. These states had one monarch, but remained independent, had different governing bodies and laws. The Vatican has long wished for their merger to put the population of Lithuania, mostly Orthodox, under the control of the Catholic Poles, but Lithuanian magnates opposed this. Now the campaign was blown up, that without unification, Lithuania would perish, the Polish party was fueled with gold. In January, 1569 managed to merge two states into one, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, at a Sejm in Lublin. Formerly, Russia fought only against Lithuania, the Poles helped her very modestly. Now the only powerful country has become an opponent.
Finally, the Russians ottoman Ottoman empire. Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent has been pushing this for a long time. But he refrained from a quarrel with Moscow, preferred to fight with the Western powers. However, Suleiman died, his son Selim II ascended to the throne - who did not add to his name the epithets of the Magnificent, the Winner, etc. He earned the nickname Selim the Drunkard. It's clear that it was not the advocates of Islam and not the patriots of Turkey who got him drunk. Spoil European agents. His father’s policies he abruptly changed. Zamirilsya with the Germans, Italians, and with 1568 in Azov began to collect troops. The following year, the army of Kasim Pasha made a speech at Astrakhan. Who contributed to this is well known. The ambassador of Poland came to Kasim together with messengers from the Sultan, promised joint strikes.
Little of. The loop that engulfed Russia was supposed to be supported by internal sedition. True, by liberal and foreign researchers, this conspiracy is announced only by fraud. It is customary to write only about flashes of tsar's cruelty, as if causeless pathology. And the outline of events is described fragmentary and inconsistently. Say, at the end of the summer 1569 Novgorod nobleman Peter Volyn reported to the king - the tip of the boyars and fat cats of Novgorod headed by Archbishop Pimen entered into an agreement with the Polish king Sigismund II. The traitors were going to carry out a coup, to enthrone the cousin of the tsar, Vladimir Staritsky, on the throne, and for the assistance of the Poles they promised Novgorod and Pskov. Volynsky said that a copy of the contract is kept in a cache in the church of St. Sophia, and Ivan the Terrible sent a trustee with him to check and take a copy of the evidence.
And in September, the king suddenly summoned Staritsky. He accused of a far-fetched crime, “allegedly a royal cook was bribed”, to whom Vladimir “supposedly gave money and poison” (quotes from Karamzin). Different authors are competing in terrible details. They say how Staritsky trustingly drove to his brother with his whole family, as Grozny flew with a whole regiment of guardsmen. As a prince, his wife and children were forced to drink poison, and the princess was serviced by female servants from bows, for some reason stripping naked (I wonder why? So that it was more convenient to aim?
The mother of Prince Euphrosyne Staritskaya, 6, who lived in the monastery for years, was either drowned or suffocated with smoke. And with it - “12 old ladies”, and historians lament for these innocent maidservants, craftswomen, needlewomen ... Well, in December, Ivan the Terrible finally remembers a report about the betrayal of Novgorod (three months old), organizes a campaign. Raises the army. On the way, for some reason, he is smashing all the cities from Klin to Vyshny Volochk, exterminating the prisoners contained in them. In Novgorod, a slaughterhouse is organized, thousands of people are drowned in Volkhov, and guardsmen ride boats and finish off those who wish to swim (boats ride in January, probably on ice).
Stop-stop-stop ... There is really no logic in this flow. Rampant of some irrational rabies. But it can be shown that the logic was. Iron and justified. Frauds themselves were made by the researchers themselves, who tried to tarnish the figure of Ivan the Terrible! To begin with, Staritsky was not an innocent lamb. He has been convicted of conspiracies three times already, in 1553, 1563, 1567. However, in his message to Kurbsky, Grozny knowingly called Vladimir a “fool”. He himself was not a leader. He was only a convenient candidate for the throne, who was moved by the opposition boyars, and he was led by his mother, an ardent schemer. Even on the embroidered veils donated to the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, Euphrosyne emphasized her son's claims to the throne, calling him a “pious sovereign”.
Ivan Vasilievich was not always "formidable." He did not want to take revenge on relatives. After the rebellion, 1553 not only forgave Vladimir, but even rewrote the will. In the event of his death, he appointed him guardian of a minor son and second heir. But in 1563, it was discovered that the Staritskies had broken the oath, are plotting a coup again. The sovereign again refrained from austerity, only sent to the monastery the main troublemaker, Euphrosyne. The scandal was settled quietly, she cut herself off as if “of her own will,” she was given a generous content, the princess was accompanied by servants and 12 neighbor boyarons who received estates near the monastery. No, it did not help. In 1567, I even had to interrupt the military campaign - from intelligence officers and prisoners they learned that Sigismund II was awaiting a coup in Russia. The sovereign interrogated his brother, and he himself issued accomplices, led by the boyar Chelyadnin, having bought forgiveness with their heads.
Despite this, in 1569, when the Turks invaded, Grozny entrusted Staritsky with the post of commander-in-chief, and ordered to assemble an army in Nizhny Novgorod. Vladimir did not possess military talents, but the name of the royal brother was important. This was supposed to have an effect on the tribes of the Kazan region — in order to keep themselves from the uprising. However, there was another reason for the appointment. As it turned out later, the king’s closest advisers, the Basmanovs and the Vyazemsky, participated in the plot. Apparently, they contributed to Vladimir received at his disposal an army.
As mentioned above, the same summer, Volynsky received a report on the Novgorod elite treaty with the Poles (and the Staritskys had long been associated with Novgorod). It is not difficult to see that if the conspirators succeeded, Russia would have to be very bad. She was losing the western regions, the whole North (which belonged to Novgorod), Astrakhan and Kazan would have disappeared. But personal kramolniki turned out to win. Vladimir received the crown, the boyars - “democratic freedoms”, as in Poland, Pimen - the post of Metropolitan, to whom he rushed to 1563 (however, the king already had some suspicions about him and rejected his candidacy four times). Livonia, too, went to Poland, but the Novgorod oligarchs, passing under the authority of Sigismund, received free access to the Baltic trade.
At the head of the army Staritsky behaved very peculiar. All summer stood inactive. Astrakhan he did not help. It was not he who saved the city, but the governor Karpov, who organized the defense, and the Cossacks — they began a guerrilla war, cut off the supply of the Turks and forced them to retreat. Vladimir Staritsky at that time remained in Nizhny Novgorod, arranged celebrations and feasts, gaining popularity among the troops. A shelf kept with him, at hand. I waited. What?
The answer is obvious. September 9 died the queen, Maria Temryukovna. She did not get sick and died suddenly - as was noted at the Consecrated Cathedral, “in agony, in torment.” After the murder of Grozny’s first wife, Anastasia, a trial was required. But in this case, the signs of poisoning were so obvious that the cause of death was established immediately. We do not know for what reason the king himself was not injured. Maybe he decided to fast that day, or maybe things were delayed, he did not sit down at the table with his wife. But the poison was actually applied! Here you have a “supposedly”, “supposedly” bribed chef. So much for the “contrived” attempt.
The rigging introduced by the venerable liberal writers of the XNUMXth century is also obvious. By piling up the charges against Ivan the Terrible, they did a very simple thing. Took away the death of Maria Temryukovna from the Staritsky case! You can pay attention - it is customary to mention it in other sections and chapters historical works on other pages. Although it is enough to compare the dates: the murder took place on September 9, and at the end of September the king summons his brother. In juridical terms, the detractors of Grozny committed "hiding the corpse." As criminologists say, "no body - no action." But there was a corpse! The corpse of a young and beautiful woman, not only a loving and beloved wife, but also an active assistant to the king. A lively and intelligent Kabardian woman was an outstanding person. She was the co-author of the idea of the oprichnina, organized the protection of her husband, actively participated in diplomacy, corresponded with relatives in the Caucasus and Crimea.
Moreover, it turns out to be sufficient to restore the fallen out (that is, the discarded) link, the killing, as everything further becomes clear and understandable. The investigation reveals the cook, during interrogations he calls the customer. Let's pay attention to dates again. The blow to the royal family was dealt 9 September, at the most tense moment of the campaign. The Turks on this day only approached Astrakhan. They removed the siege of 26 September. That is, Staritsky was called to the tsar not from his possessions, but from the army. So he was driving without his wife and children. Accordingly, without the maids spouses. The fact that he came to the sovereign alone is confirmed in his notes by Horsey.
And the mother of Prince Euphrosyne was neither drowned nor strangled. Her remains are preserved, and chemical analysis showed the cause of death - the arsenic content in 150 is higher than the maximum allowable level. This gives the answer to many questions. The power-hungry princess did not quit in the monastery, weaving intrigues. Apparently, Vladimir Staritsky, in the same way as he did in 1567, was laid by his mother and other accomplices hoping to earn forgiveness. But they have already been forgiven many times, and softness led to more and more serious consequences. And the plot was directed not only against the tsar, but against Russia. Therefore, Vladimir and Euphrosyne offered to eat the same thing that they intended for the royal family and handed over to the cook.
Together with Euphrosyne punished "12 old ladies." Only these were by no means innocent maidservants, but the very 12 neighbor boyars who had gone with the princess to the monastery. Her trusted assistants, through them, communication was maintained with her son, boyars, plans were coordinated. They were full participants in the crime and were punished accordingly. But the children of Staritsky, despite slander, remained alive. The king soon returned to his son Basil the possessions of his father, his daughters Euthymius and Maria the Terrible for the Danish prince Magnus. The fate of Staritsky's wife Evdokia is unknown. Russian sources report the death of Vladimir alone, and he is buried alone. And the execution of Evdokia calls into question an eloquent fact: after three years her sibling Nikita Odoyevsky Ivan the Terrible appointed to command the army. Do you think it is possible to trust the army to the executed brother? Most likely, Evdokia Staritskaya was tonsured as a nun or went to the monastery herself after the death of her husband.
From Vladimir Andreevich, cooks, “old ladies”, other threads stretched, and in October-November the investigation continued. It confirmed the information about the treason in Novgorod. In addition, in medieval Europe, political opposition was almost always associated with religious. This gave the “ideological” bundle, allowed to violate the oath (after all, the oath was a sacred act). So it was in Russia. Back in 1553, it was discovered that many kramolniki were part of the “Judaizing” sect. To her belonged were the brothers Euphrosyne Staritskoy Borisov-Borozdins, a close Staritskim priest Sylvester was friends with the heresy preacher Artemy the Hermitage. Artemia was deeply revered by Kurbsky. At 1553 processes, such connections were managed to hush up, now they have been revealed. Ivan the Terrible later wrote Kurbsky: “I wanted to subjugate you to my will, and you desecrated and desecrated the holy shrine of the Lord! Resenting God, they rebelled against God. ”
In winter, the king conducted a “special operation” in Novgorod. Of course, he did not trasher passing cities. In the coming years, foreign embassies, including those unfriendly to Russia, traveled along the same road many times. But none of them traces “pogroms” noticed, and nothing of the kind reported. Finally, the basis of the operation was secrecy. It was necessary to appear suddenly, capture the criminals red-handed. Well, judge for yourself what could be the secret, if you gather an army, ravage Klin, Gorodnya, Tver, Copper, Torzhok, Vyshny Voloc? News spread quickly, all the conspirators would have time to run up. The only thing you can believe is the destruction of prisoners held in some cities. Because in Torzhok they put up armed resistance, wounded Malyuta Skuratov, the king himself was in danger. Do not you think, to put it mildly, strange - armed prisoners? If this message is correct, it may mean that the conspirators formed detachments of prisoners to participate in the coup.
The raid was a purely policeman, with a small force involved. Oprichniki was only something 6 thousand, and many of them remained in Moscow, Alexandrov Sloboda, performed other tasks. 2 On January 1570, a detachment of Malyuta from 1000 man rode into Novgorod, blocked the gate with outposts and made arrests on previously scheduled lists. 8 January came the king with his retinue in 500 people. By the way, to collect a significant army and was not required. Novgorod was an important frontline base, it housed a large garrison. No source mentions clashes of the guardsmen with the military or their arrests. Apparently, the garrison was involved in the operation.
There is one more fact confirming that the king’s campaign was quick and well timed. Leaving Alexander Sloboda, Ivan the Terrible simultaneously ordered to convene the Consecrated Cathedral in Moscow. Arriving in Novgorod, he did not accept the blessing of the Archbishop Pimen, but allowed him to send services. However, the same day they brought the decision of the Council to overthrow Pimen and deprive him of the priesthood, and only then did the king arrest him (the sovereign himself had no right to depose the hierarch and did not exceed his authority). The main culprits were sent to Moscow, ordinary traitors were punished on the spot. A total of 1490 to 1505 people were executed. On this figure all modern researchers, respecting Grozny respectfully, and his opponents agree.
Icons and shrines were removed from the temples desecrated by heretics. The monasteries, where they built their nests, confiscated the treasury. A number of other monasteries and priests who knew about heresy, but did not fight it, who preferred to keep quiet, were punished with large fines. In addition to treason, many common abuses have accumulated in Novgorod. The structures of the Zemstvo elective power were captured by rich merchants, oppressed the poor, violated the rules of trade, etc. The Tsarist court, having considered the complaints, ordered to “rob” the guilty, i.e. confiscate property, imposed fines.
Cruel? But such punishments followed strictly according to the law - for abuses of official position, corruption, smuggling, the clandestine sale of alcohol, etc. Ordinary citizens themselves did not consider them to be excessive at all. In 1581, the city of Batory was trying to raise them to an uprising, sent out letters, painted all the insults that the king had inflicted on Novgorod. However, no one responded to the appeals of the king. The population recognized that the persons punished by the sovereign paid fairly. And the residents of neighboring Pskov were also aware that executions in Novgorod were not without reason. Otherwise, would they wait for the king? They had the Lithuanian border nearby, nobody was keeping them. But they knew perfectly well that they were punishing the Novgorod elite, and they did not feel such guilt behind them.
After the raid on Novgorod, the investigation lasted another six months. About 300 people were sentenced to death. The execution took place on July 25 1570 in Pogankin bog (now Chistye Prudy). The king personally addressed the assembled masses of Muscovites and visitors, spoke about the guilt of the convicts and asked for confirmation from the people: “Answer, is my court right?” Thousands of people unanimously supported his decision. However, 184 sentenced, nearly two-thirds, Ivan the Terrible pardoned. He executed only the main criminals, the rest was replaced by death by imprisonment or exile.
On the whole, it can be compared - with the elimination of the largest conspiracy in the history of Moscow Russia, much less blood was shed than with the suppression of any of the many European rebellions of the same era. Ordinary rebellions, which in the history of England, France, Germany were awarded only brief references. About larger-scale campaigns of repression, such as the Bartholomew’s Night, which crossed out 30 thousand lives in one fell swoop. By the way, there was a genuine investigative case of the Novgorod betrayal. It survived the Troubles, all the fires of Moscow. The archive record indicates that it was stored until the 19th century. And then ... disappeared. It disappeared at about the same time that liberal historians who undertook to edit our past “hid the corpse” of Tsarina Maria Temryukovna. How do you order to evaluate it? How an unfortunate accident? Or as another fact of hiding the truth?