The state of affairs in the domestic aircraft industry reflects the level of industrial development and the state of national security - all spoke at the round table on the “Future of domestic aircraft industry: the Tu-3 or Superjet” that spoke at the October 12 2013 held in the State Duma.
Verdict to high-tech industries
At one time, Aeroflot was called the civilian air force fleet. Civil Passenger aviation It has always been a mobilization reserve of the armed forces, in particular military transport aviation. When I see solid Boeings and Airbases at our airfields, as well as Bombardier, ATR and other exotic planes, longing takes me. Until recently, we were a great aviation power, and now without Western partners, we are not capable of anything at all. Why do Canadians explain to us how we live and build passenger planes? Why are we unable to do anything without the foreign aviation industry?
Such a situation is completely unacceptable from the point of view of the future of our country. The aviation industry is the concentration of all the most modern technologies. Metallurgy, optics, communications, electronics - there is not a single industry that would not be tied in one way or another at the aviation industry. His death means the death of all high-tech industries, aviation science and education. If we have Western experts serving Western aircraft, why do we have our own aircraft engineering engineers?
Member of the State Duma Defense Committee
We do not criticize screwdriver assembly, but ...
Since 2007, the authorized structure of the fund has signed 35 quartet contracts for Tu-334 with the participation of Tupolev Design Bureau, KAPO named after S. P. Gorbunov, the financial structure of Rusavia-Sokol M and operators. Until January, 2007 under the general designer of JSC Tupolev Igor Shevchuk, work on the Tu-334 was progressing. Then, incomprehensible actions by the Ministry of Industry and Trade and the KLA began. They still prevent the signing of agreements.
23 in March of the current year at the meeting with the Director of the Aviation Industry Department Andrei Boginsky in the presence of Alexander Tublev, General Design Bureau of the Tupolev Alexander Bobryshev, it was decided to clarify the issues of the completion of the troika and five - Tu-334 No. 003, 005. So far, the problem has not been solved, there is no agreement with the KLA. Four government decrees have been passed on this aircraft, two presidential decrees, open and closed, not a single instruction has been carried out. Who is interested in this?
14 August was to hold a meeting on this issue with Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, two hours before which the agenda had changed and we were not heard.
We have never criticized and do not criticize those who produce products - even if it is a screwdriver assembly. We regret the catastrophes that have taken place, the emergencies in aviation. And yet it is time to turn to face the real manufacturers of Russian aviation.
President of Rusavia-Sokol M LLC, executive director of the “National plane Tu-334-100” foundation
Our planes are only seven percent.
Today we are witnessing not just a collapse, but organized chaos, which completes the complete disruption in space activities in the aviation, automotive, radio electronics industry.
There is an acute national security issue. In fact, we are not ready for independent production. And this despite the fact that China, India, Turkey, Japan are rapidly increasing their industrial and aviation potential. We lose it.
Over the past 15 years in the sky of Russia appeared and flies more than a half thousand foreign civilian aircraft - about 45 billions of dollars. With this money, it was possible to build about 2,5 thousands of their aircraft, to give people a job. But we are continuing to purchase Boeing, Airbus, Bombardier. According to Dmitry Rogozin, in the sky of Russia only seven percent of domestic aircraft.
Little is known about the work of Myasishchev KB. The MiG design bureau is practically nil, the Ilyushin Design Bureau deals only with transport aviation, the Yakovlev Design Bureau practically does not exist. The trouble is not only that we have a bad deal with industry, we have problems with the leadership of aviation — it is fragmented. Seven nannies are known to have a child without an eye.
The legend that the Western aviation industry and the related economy is stronger than ours has no basis. IL-96 in no way loses to any aircraft. Option IL-96-400 generally wins in all directions. Tu-204, -204CM, -214, -334 in no way inferior to Western counterparts.
Nevertheless, we now have a “Superjet” with all Western components, including washers and nuts, engines with An-146, which are completely assembled from Western materials, one and a half million more expensive than the similar engine that is being made in our country. And so on each direction. Everyone is waiting for the SuperJet to become sick and healthy and recover. Will not work. The Americans gave us what they themselves refused.
We need to organize the Ministry of Aviation Industry, to develop not just a “road map”, but a target program for the development of civil aviation, without restoring which military aviation will die. And, of course, it is necessary to revive scientific schools. We must begin to correct the situation before it is too late. As soon as they close the border, everything will stop here - the assembly of airplanes, cars, and TVs. National security requires the highest autonomy in the production of basic equipment, all this must be within the country.
Colonel-General, Member of the Public Council of the Chairman of the MIC, President - Chairman of the Board of Directors of Aviation Engine CJSC Vladimir Klimov - Motor Sich
We will not fly on their planes, nobody will buy them
In the speeches of the President of the Russian Federation, the idea is clearly traced that we must produce our planes in order to enter the international market. But if we do not fly on our own planes, no one will buy them abroad. Previously, we practically provided for our needs both domestically and internationally with our own aircraft. With the number of passengers that we transport today and which will increase every year, we will not manage the existing fleet.
Do we have machines in mass production that could work today? There is - this is IL-86, which began to transport passengers in the 1980 year and flew 30 years with virtually no single disaster. The launch of the long-haul IL-96-300 got on the restructuring. We have announced the conversion of the military-industrial complex and since then have ceased to properly finance civil aviation. We could freely replace the IL-86 with this aircraft.
Why our planes do not order? Not because they are bad, but because they are expensive. IL-96-300 mastered in mass production, on its basis made cargo IL-96-400T. We did not have enough opportunity to make it passenger, although in this version it could transport 400 people. We should not give up what is in mass production. In general, we very easily refuse aircraft. For example, from IL-103, which was produced in Lukhovitsy. This universal aircraft, which now could be made of plastic, was removed from mass production. And from the 54 made aircraft, most of it was sold abroad.
Today we still have passenger planes in mass production that can serve Russia. But you need to pay serious attention to the cost. If we give the appropriate discounts, maybe, on the value added tax or think about the organization of some company, which a great country producing a huge amount of oil will make a five percent discount on domestic lines, it will immediately make it possible to build airplanes not piece. Piece construction of the aircraft is always very expensive.
When Europe was tired of the dominance of the American "Boeing", they united and formed their own company. Designed and reported to the government that 70 percent of the units will have to be taken either from America or in other countries. At the same time, they made a commitment to change the purchased equipment from their aircraft to their own. I am surprised by one word that is now widely used by some leaders. All my life I believed that airplanes were designed, and they turned out to be integrated. That is, by outsourcing one wing is ordered, the other is the fuselage, the third is the power plant, flight-navigation complex, then everything is put together, put into mass production and gets the car. I have the courage to say that such an approach will not lead to anything good.
aircraft designer, twice Hero of Socialist Labor, academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Fall behind forever
From 2001 to 2008, I carried out all the tests of the Tu-334 aircraft together with the company's pilots in all possible climatic conditions, including performing take-offs with simulated engine failure. The machine fully confirmed its characteristics, significantly exceeding the performance characteristics of the Tu-134.
According to the calculations of our institute, only for civil aviation up to 2020, it was necessary to produce about 100 machines. Not to mention the fact that at one time the Air Force, in return for the Tu-134, wanted to have 19 such staff aircraft for the districts. It was extremely surprising that they put such a car to the fence and began to brand it. It was argued that the Tu-334 is outdated, although this aircraft significantly surpasses the “Superjet” in its take-off and landing characteristics. Tu-334 landing at a lower speed with more weight. And this, you understand, is safety.
I tested the IL-114-100 in Tashkent in 1999 year. In the most difficult conditions, it was confirmed that the plane turned out great.
Today, public opinion is being created, according to which we are so backward that we are not good for anything. In the summer, a television journalist approached me with a request to talk about our aviation. The young boy talked about aviation with extraordinary ease. Like a man who bought a bus ticket, he sat down at one stop, got off the second. There was the Soviet Union, there was the United States, there was Europe. Eastern Europe flew on our planes, Western - on "Boeing". And nevertheless, five countries of Europe have united to create Airbus. They realized that they would technologically be left behind forever if they did not have aviation, since the latter is all. A country that does not develop its aircraft can forever lag behind technologically and technically the world.
Test Pilot, Deputy General Director - Head of the Flight Test Center of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise GosNII GA
The truth is not reported
If in the Soviet Union we built dozens of types of airplanes, then today we are doing only three - the Superjet, MC-21 and T-50, which is undergoing flight tests. "Superjet" was supposed to enter operation in the 2008 year, while the UAC President Mikhail Pogosyan promised to do everything at the expense of extrabudgetary funds. As a result, "Superjet" appeared in 2011-m and spent from three to five billion dollars. For this money, you can build a plane not on 75 seats, but on 200. For all the characteristics, the SuperJet is inferior to both the Tu-334, and An-148, and An-158. But nobody tells the truth. Pogosyan asked for a resource in 70 thousands of flight hours, but the machine has only ten thousand.
Next MC-21. Instead of taking our PD-14 engines, which are made in Perm, we again take all imported ones. It used to be said that MC-21 should go into operation in 2015 year. Today Dmitry Rogozin calls 2018 already. By this time, the US and Europe will release the Boeing-737MAX and Airbus A320neo. And they will occupy the entire market. Why then build this plane?
Today, in civil aviation, 85 – 90 percent of passengers are transported by western vehicles. Top management of the country all the time talking about the need to develop our aircraft. According to the flight characteristics of the IL-96-300, Tu-204 and Tu-214 are not inferior to Western machines. In particular, the Tu-204 on 212 passengers in the Soviet Union cost 25 million dollars. The XJUMX SuperJet is worth 75 million dollars. Because 35 percent of components - Western.
It is not true that our planes are inferior to the western ones. "Bombardier", who want to take now - this is the machine of the Stone Age. If today we should do first of all, then start our serial machines - Tu-334, Tu-204, Il-96. And further on this basis to revive our aviation industry. If we want to enter the world market, first of all, we really need to fly in our own cars.
In the Soviet Union, we invested in science about two percent of GDP. Already at the level of one and a half percent, science begins to rise. And recently in our country the level of financing of science was about 0,3 – 0,6 percent. What the Minister of Education and Science Dmitry Livanov did not so long ago meant the end of the Russian Academy of Sciences. What will be based on innovative development of the country?
The truth about aviation today, almost no one says. The Superjet flies, and no one knows what its real characteristics are. And to be honest, the car just did not work. About this, too, everyone is silent. Of course, it will be brought up and rightly so: on new machines there are always certain drawbacks, but in general, the “Superjet”, which yielded three to five billion dollars, did not work.
I agree that in order to revive our aviation industry, we must first organize the relevant ministry. In the USSR, on average, such a ministry worked from 1000 to 1500 people. Today, our aviation industry is operated by 35 people. On the level of competence of these people, I just keep quiet. And, of course, the most important thing is to support our aviation science - TsAGI, CIAM, VIAM.
Director of TsAGI them. Zhukovsky (1998 – 2006), vice-chairman of the military-industrial complex (2006 – 2008), doctor of technical sciences, professor
Aviaprom is alive
Correctly said: no one speaks about the aviation industry. And here, too, we did not hear her. The first. As for foreign components. Recently, State Duma Committees on Industry and Defense held a joint meeting on the production of materials and components for the aerospace and aviation industry. Only in the last year, 50 technologies for the production of aircraft components and materials were created or restored, and 100 was lost. Factories that manufacture products of the defense industry are being redeemed and shopping centers are being built in their place. The final manufacturer that certain materials and components cease to be produced is warned three days before the closure of the plant, and equipment is cut off at night. And in order to replace components and materials, it is necessary to carry out appropriate tests that cost money.
KLA produces those aircraft that are ordered from it. And, unfortunately, the fund “People’s Aircraft Tu-334-100” did not order a single aircraft from us. It is clear that the fund is a financial institution and if it has three orders for 30 aircraft, it can act as an integrator for the Tu-334 project. Please let him take advances from his counterparties and first buy equipment from Tu-334 from Ukrainian factories and provide it to us. Then CAPO will be ready to fulfill such an order. Of course, we share a common concern about the state of the aviation industry. But, unfortunately, no constructive proposals have been made here yet.
Foreign aircraft have an advantage over domestic aircraft, primarily in price. There is a provision whereby foreign aircraft registered in offshore zones are imported into our country under a temporary scheme without duty and even without VAT. Thus, a foreign aircraft, ceteris paribus, has a 38 percent price advantage over a domestic one. Currently, the federal executive bodies are considering the issue of extending this benefit. And here the aviation public could help us.
Today, the following domestic civilian aircraft are in production at UAC factories: Tu-204, Tu-214, Il-96, "Superjet 100", An-148, Be-200. In 2008, the company delivered 53 machines to customers, 2009 in 95, 2010 in 74, 2011 in 102, and 2012 in 104. Last year, we made the 22 civilian aircraft.
At the moment, 14 types of aircraft are manufactured at the factories of the corporation, three more are being upgraded. Developed in the KB and is in the pre-project stage eight types of aircraft. I do not know which of the aircraft manufacturing companies in the world can simultaneously pull so many programs. During the existence of the corporation, labor productivity at the company's factories has doubled, the salary - by three. If in 2011, the share of civilian products was nine percent in the total revenue of the corporation, then in the nearest plans for 2015-m to reach the level of 22 percent, and by 2025-m to the level that about half of the corporation's revenue was civilian products. That is, the goals of the KLA are to fully develop the civil segment. Among other things, the corporation is engaged in large-scale restructuring of the current production cycle.
From the policy of creating full-cycle plants, they move to the formation of an industrial model, which is associated with the creation by the center of competence of specializations of individual industries and the separation of assembly plants specialized in individual plants.
In the plans of the corporation, in accordance with its strategy, starting with 2013, to increase production volumes on a large scale and to reach the volume of 2025 aircraft, including 337 civilians, by 200. Regarding the number of people working in our corporation, in accordance with the recruitment plans for 10 years, the need for specialists and workers will be satisfied in our factories and design offices. According to calculations, 100 thousand people will work with us. That is, thousands of people will be recruited every year on 10. Therefore I want to say that the rumors about the death of the aviation industry and crying about this are somewhat premature.
Director of the Department for Government Relations of the KLA
Focus on the result
The aviation industry does not really develop without state support. In December last year, the government adopted the state program “Development of the aviation industry for the period 2013 – 2015”. It identifies the main priorities, goals that face the industry before 2025.
If in 2002, about three billion rubles were sent to support the industry under the Federal Target Program “Development of Civil Aviation Equipment”, in 2012 this figure has already exceeded 86 billion - almost thirty times the increase in this support. Previously, this support was mainly aimed at stabilizing the financial and economic situation of enterprises, co-financing R & D, creating and establishing a product line, technical re-equipment and reconstruction of enterprises. Now, within the framework of the state program, other state support measures are also determined, aimed at stimulating demand and expanding the product line and creating a scientific and technical reserve in the industry. That is, we will first focus efforts and focus on results.
To determine the prospects of aviation science on 30 – 40 years in advance, taking into account the relationship with interdisciplinary fields of knowledge, the Research Center named after N. Ye. Zhukovsky has now been created.
The main discussions and approvals of the presidential decree have passed, we expect that this autumn the consideration of this bill will be submitted to the State Duma.
Currently, there are a number of tools that allow our corporations to use government support. I speak first of all about those projects that are being implemented in the field of civilian direction. This is a number of subsidies aimed at technical re-equipment, aircraft leasing, and the creation of innovative and investment projects. Quite a large amount is occupied by contributions to the authorized capital of our organizations, which are associated with the production of civil aircraft and support for the restructuring of these enterprises.
Subsidies are primarily aimed at providing our companies with longer and cheaper money. We are working to include in the mechanism of new methods, forms that will provide us with affordable and cheap money.
Over the past year, the United Aircraft Corporation has produced 20 civil aircraft: the 12 Superjet, two Tu-214, four An-148 and two IL-96. In this case, 22 units are supplied. I emphasize that the production of these aircraft is also largely dependent on the demand from our airlines. To increase the serial production of these aircraft and maintain the demand for them, it is necessary to create competitive conditions for the launch of these aircraft on the market.
One of the new measures that should help solve the problem of increasing serial production is a consolidated state order. It is planned to deliver more than 130 airplanes and civil and dual-purpose 330 helicopters. These are the aircraft that are currently in production.
We must build not only good technical aircraft, but also those that would allow our airlines to earn on them, to have comparable prices with foreign aircraft. In terms of Russia's accession to the WTO, we are limited in the tools that we can use with respect to civilian technology. But, probably, it is really worth thinking about creating preferences on route networks, on servicing our aircraft at airports, and seeing what tools we can use here.
At the end of this year, the temporary import for foreign aircraft will expire. That is, now in the territory of the Customs Union foreign-made aircraft imported before December 31 of the current year and used for another five years are imported here duty-free and without VAT. The question of the need and the timing for which it is possible to extend this benefit is considered.
Of course, an important element is after-sales service. This is traditionally a weak point of our aviation technology. And we pay very serious attention to this. The state is ready to actively co-finance the development of after-sales service networks, but this support will be provided if events become systematic. And we are working on it.
Deputy Director of the Aviation Industry Department of the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation