Military Review

Experimental fighter Ju. EF 128

24
Junkers EF.128 fighter project was developed by German aviation Junkers in February 1945. The company from Dessau had, like Dornier, a fairly large experience in the design and conversion of bombers into three- and four-seat night fighters. Options C, R and G Ju are widely known. 88, which in large enough quantities were transferred to the front. Later, working on Ju projects. 188R and especially over Ju. 388 J, Junkers engineers wanted to create an aircraft that would replace the Ju. 88. However, work on these projects did not lead to a positive result. According to experts, all of them lacked maneuverability and superiority in flight qualities, which would allow him to compete on an equal footing in the Mosquito air battles.


Professor Heinrich Hertel, who led the development work at the firm "Junkers", tried to improve the flight qualities of the heir Ju. 88 by installing a turbojet engine on it. Approximately in the same direction, the designers of the Heinkel company worked, who in September 1943 installed an additional BMW 219 engine for one He003, achieving an increase in the speed of the car on 60-70 km / h, when flying off the ground. But all these experiments did not lead to final practical results.

When at the end of January 1945, the Luftwaffe described in detail their ideas about the night fighter of the future, including Junkers in the competition for its creation, Gertel made a new technical proposal based on a project of a fundamentally new for the company EF128 fighter, which had previously made a very good impression on representatives of the main commission of development work. This fighter was a smaller and very difficult in terms of aerodynamic solutions, which had little to do with the previous models of the Junkers night fighter.

Experimental fighter Ju. EF 128

Explaining the features of his 27 and 28 project in February 1945 of the year, during a speech before the main development work commission, Heinrich Hertel drew attention primarily to the favorable location of the vertical tail of the aircraft, which, like the Gotha and Aradot machines , also performed the functions of aerodynamic ridges, which increased the efficiency of the ailerons. He saw a significant advantage of his project also in the use of an “all-terrain swinging chassis”. And the proposed "tactical brakes" in the form of 2-x large turbulent flaps, located in the rear fuselage of the aircraft gained widespread in aircraft after the end of World War II. Some serial American jets, for example, the F-84 Thunderstrike, F-86 Saber or F-101 I Will, they were present, but in a slightly modified form.

Fighter Junkers EF.128 had air intakes that were located on the sides of the fuselage. This was done in order to eliminate the use of the traditional scheme with a tunnel air intake passing through the nose of the fuselage. This design solution has allowed to lay in the project of a new fighter a very convenient and spacious cockpit. Wooden wings had a straight sweep in 45 degrees. They were placed 2 small vertical keel with rudders on the rear edges. The wing tanks contained 540 liters of fuel; in addition, 1030 liters of fuel were also in the fuselage tank behind the pilot’s cabin.

A spacious aircraft pressurized cabin was supposed to get an ejection seat, and a good booking was also envisaged, which was supposed to protect the pilot from getting hit by 12,7-mm caliber bullets in the front and 20-mm projectiles from the rear. On the plane it was planned to put a Heinkel-Hirth HeS 011 jet engine and 2 30-mm MK 108 cannon, which were to be located on both sides of the fuselage nose, 100 ammunition for shells on the barrel. At the same time in the future it was planned to install two more of the same guns.


As a result of testing and purging models of a fighter in a wind tunnel, German engineers got pretty good results. In favor of the EF 128 fighter, the achieved maximum flight speed, as well as various options for technical equipment (placement of search and firing equipment on board, isolated weapons compartment). To conduct further tests and work on the project, a fuselage layout was made, on which HeS 011 engines were installed. This instance was planned to be tested in natural conditions, by installing it on top of the Ju 88 bomber. In the course of work, a variant of the all-weather night fighter also appeared, which was distinguished by an elongated fuselage and a cabin for the second crew member, but this project was not completed until the end of the war. At best, mass production of the Ju EF 128 could begin in the second half of 1945, but for obvious reasons this never happened.

Description of the design of the fighter

Junkers EF.128 is a jet fighter, made under the scheme vysoplana tailless and having a swept wing. The wing of the aircraft was a detachable design with 2 wooden spars. Wing consoles were used to install fuel tanks in them. The ailerons simultaneously performed the role of elevators. The vertical tail of the fighter was located on the upper and lower surfaces of the edges of the wing at the inner borders of the ailerons.

The fuselage of the aircraft was all-metal. In the front end of the fuselage was located nose landing gear and additional special equipment. Next was a sealed cockpit, a compartment for the main landing gear of the aircraft, as well as air ducts. At the rear of the fuselage was a power plant and another fuel tank. The main and nose landing gear were made in the form of levers and had pneumatic depreciation. Chassis pneumatic drive. The dimensions of the front pillar wheels are 465 × 165 mm, the main racks are 710 × 185 mm. To reduce the path length during landing fighter had to be equipped with a brake parachute.


The HeS 109-011 turbojet should have been installed in the rear fuselage. Access to the engine was carried out by dismantling the rear upper section of the fuselage skin. Air intake for the operation of the engine was carried out through air inlets located on both sides of the fuselage, under the wing. At the expense of the designed stepped protrusion, regulation of the flow of the boundary layer of air at the tip of the cockpit was provided. In the wing of the aircraft housed unprotected fuel tanks with a capacity of 540 liters. Another 1030 liters of fuel was in the 2-x-protected fuel tanks in the fighter fuselage. Aircraft equipment was standard for fighters of the time; a fire extinguishing system and an ejected pilot seat can be distinguished separately.

The armament of the aircraft consisted of 30-mm aircraft cannons MK 108 and could be expanded over time to 4-x guns. MK 108 guns were located in front of the fuselage under the cockpit.

Flight technical characteristics of Junkers EF.128 (design):
Dimensions: wingspan - 8,9 m., Length - 7,05 m., Height - 2,65 m., Wing area - 17,6 m.
Aircraft takeoff weight - 4077 kg., Empty weight - 2607 kg.
The mass of fuel - 1570 l.
The power plant - 1 RD Heinkel-Hirth HeS 011 1300 kgf.
The maximum speed is 990 km / h.
Maximum rate of climb –1374 m / min.
Practical ceiling - 13 750 m.
Crew - 1 people.
Armament: 2X30-mm gun MK 108 (ammunition for 100 shells per barrel).

Information sources:
-http: //ru-aviation.livejournal.com/2761188.html
-http: //www.airwar.ru/enc/xplane/ef128.html
-http: //www.brazd.ru/brazdef128.html
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  1. Prapor-527
    Prapor-527 16 October 2013 08: 58
    +9
    Once again, the flight of design thought of German engineers and aircraft designers of that time was surprising.
    1. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 16 October 2013 09: 06
      12
      They didn’t need to fight against us, but with us.
      1. Petrol
        Petrol 16 October 2013 11: 26
        +2
        Shekel_gruber fought with the money of pharmaceutical corporations and the loans of Morgan .... but by this as he was told he did so ....
      2. Beck
        Beck 16 October 2013 23: 52
        0
        Quote: Ingvar 72
        They didn’t need to fight against us, but with us.


        What is it like???

        Are you admitting an alliance with Fascism? You, that, are now ready, together with SS men and Gestapo men, to do various misanthropic affairs, such as mass executions of civilians, racial killings, construction of gas chambers and crematoria, which were condemned by an international tribunal.

        Yeah. Wow. And the saddest thing is that another 12 visitors have put you the pluses, this is what you need to have mentality.
        1. Atenon
          Atenon 17 October 2013 20: 41
          0
          You have listed almost everything that the United States does legally today
          1. Beck
            Beck 17 October 2013 21: 36
            0
            Quote: AtenON
            You have listed almost everything that the United States does legally today


            Well, you so categorically stated, but briefly. Is it possible to deploy, for reliability. Where did the US build concentration camps, crematoria, gas chambers? What are the places where Americans shot civilians to thousands, only because they were of a different nationality, as the Nazis did, for example, in Babi Yar.

            Most likely, not even sooner, but for sure, you will not name the places of deployment, the dates of the executions because there are none. And you just have to Amer pocket in the pocket.

            I admit that you do not like the United States, this is a business, but where is objectivity and reliability. In the same way, I can say that you torture cats and go to the toilet backwards. Now otmazyvatsya.

            I anticipate. I am writing from Kazakhstan. Amerovsky flag often pops up, as Beeline technically spoils something.
            1. Gato
              Gato 17 October 2013 23: 32
              0
              Quote: Beck
              Is it possible to deploy, for reliability. Where did the US build concentration camps, crematoria, gas chambers?

              I apologize for interfering in your dialogue, but I want to recall the history of the American Civil War - there were concentration camps and mass executions without taking into account nationality.
              Regarding the views of colleagues Ingvara 72 about an alliance with Germany - such a possibility could have taken place, but then history would have developed in a completely different way. And then you (and everyone else too) would have completely different emotions.
              1. Beck
                Beck 18 October 2013 00: 38
                0
                Quote: Gato
                but I want to recall the history of the American Civil War - there were concentration camps, and mass shootings without regard to nationality.


                Civil wars are not the ideology of racism and national exclusivity. In Russia in 1917 they also shot, but this is not Fascism. And they shot it without regard to nationality. Fascism shot precisely taking into account nationality.

                Today's Germans, apart from a handful of neo-Nazis, have very negative emotions about the fact that Fascism has taken root and flourished in their country.
    2. Gato
      Gato 16 October 2013 10: 22
      +1
      Quote: Prapor-527
      Once again, the flight of design thought of German engineers and aircraft designers of that time was surprising.

      Quote: 0255
      I am glad that the Germans did not manage to launch their jet planes into the series in the right amount.

      Yes, otherwise our ancestors could have seen such "animals":
      1 plow
      1. Gato
        Gato 16 October 2013 10: 27
        +3
        heavy bomber project Me P.08:
      2. Gato
        Gato 16 October 2013 10: 28
        +2
        But. XVIII B2:
      3. Gato
        Gato 16 October 2013 10: 30
        +1
        Heinkel Long Range Bomber Project:
    3. Gato
      Gato 16 October 2013 10: 24
      +2
      or such Fw.250
    4. wei
      wei 16 October 2013 17: 05
      0
      Yes, not only German (but education, a love of science played a key role here)
      whole life a clean sheet of analogues no brains are not crowded
      1. Bosk
        Bosk 16 October 2013 19: 51
        0
        Well, this is a project from projects.
  2. 0255
    0255 16 October 2013 09: 34
    +5
    I am glad that the Germans did not manage to launch their jet planes into the series in the right amount.
  3. aszzz888
    aszzz888 16 October 2013 10: 28
    0
    Somehow the wings resemble the MiG-15 ...
    Who distorted anyone?
    1. Gato
      Gato 16 October 2013 10: 32
      +2
      Quote: aszzz888
      Who distorted anyone?

      And what do you think?
      In general, there is an opinion (albeit very controversial) that the design of the MiG-15 used trophy developments by Kurt Tank on the Ta.183 fighter.
    2. Gato
      Gato 16 October 2013 10: 39
      +2
      fighter Ta. 183.
  4. Taoist
    Taoist 16 October 2013 11: 20
    14
    Gentlemen, you can not really strain ... By and large, all post-war jet engines (both in our country and in the west) bear one or another imprint of German design thought. The Germans actually laid down the image of the first generation of jet aircraft. But it is worth remembering that the Germans, due to lack of time, could not solve many of the problems associated with the aerodynamics of transonic speeds (and they simply did not know). In particular, the problems of the swept wing "fall down" In particular, the aircraft that is considered in this topic, for example, would have disgusting lateral stability (and most likely could not be considered as a combat vehicle). So the flight of imagination of German designers is certainly impressive - but they would not have been able to create a "flying wunderwaffe" under any circumstances. Simply because many of their "findings" in those days did not have even close theoretical justification. And only with the development of the theory of aerodynamics, it became possible to more or less accurately predict the behavior of an aircraft with a particular aerodynamic scheme over the entire range of speeds and altitudes ... That is why 99% of the developments of the 3rd Reich remained in the category of "curiosities of technology"
  5. Prapor-527
    Prapor-527 16 October 2013 11: 26
    +1
    Somewhere the Nazis had a hidden "time machine" ... what
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 16 October 2013 11: 53
      +6
      Yes, they did not have anything "hidden" ... they just did not hesitate to fantasize ... What kind of time machine, for example, was hidden by Yev when in 1934 he designed a fighter with a triangular swept wing designed to achieve a speed of 1000 km / h? (And after all, he did not just design, but even built an analogue plane) And Bichy Cheranovsky? Also from the future ... Or from that Romanian who in 1919 built and even flew an airplane with a WFD? It's just that the Germans were "promoted" well, and they had the technological capabilities to embody practically any nonsense in the "metal" ... The question of which of this nonsense was of real value ... if you look closely, there is not so much ...
  6. DuraLexSedLex.
    DuraLexSedLex. 16 October 2013 12: 40
    0
    That is, they already THEN came to the idea with an arrow-shaped wing ... that it is better at high speeds ...
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 16 October 2013 13: 23
      +4
      The fact that the swept wing has less aerodynamic drag and works better at high speeds was already known after the work of Zhukovsky at the beginning of the last century ... The question was not that, but the swept wing, in addition to its advantages, also has aerodynamic and strength disadvantages, which are so due to the scheme and require compensation.
      In the photo, by the way, the 21 BEACH, which was flying with 220l / s engine, developed over 400 km / h. But to build a light experimental or racing aircraft is far from the same thing as building a combat vehicle.
  7. xomaNN
    xomaNN 16 October 2013 17: 39
    +1
    Fortunately for us and our allies, "bought" by millions of lives, the German Air Force in 45 did not become overwhelmingly reactive. The backbone of the German car, both at the front and in the rear, was broken by our grandfathers!
  8. Fitter65
    Fitter65 16 October 2013 18: 01
    +1
    Quote: Taoist
    They didn't have anything "hidden" ... they just didn't hesitate to fantasize ...

    Well, not necessarily fantasized, especially considering that the first jet-powered aircraft took off in Germany literally in a matter of days before World War II, again the first serial jet aircraft was produced by Heinkel, although they could not bring it to its logical conclusion. a massive jet aircraft, again Germany, the first serial rocket plane, or an aircraft with a rocket engine, this is already where, or classifies the Me-163-again in Germany. The British Gloucester "Pioneer" was just an experimental aircraft, the Gloucester "Meteor" is serial began to be produced at the end of 1944, and in many respects it was inferior to the Me-262. The fact that the Germans had many different projects by the end of the war is simply surprising, the country is on the brink of disaster, and projects, however, like the projects, are in full swing. period, even in the calm and wealthy USA, could not create something worthy, The P-80A "Shooting Star", which appeared at the end of the war, is no match for the jet Messer. Oh, Me-262, various modifications were released, and the fact that German knowledge was useful to aviation engineers from different countries, no one hid.
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 16 October 2013 20: 05
      +2
      The first jet-powered aircraft took off in Romania a quarter century before Heinkel. The patent for the turbojet engine was obtained by an Englishman - also before ... Well, the fact that by the 40s there was a "technological opportunity" to build a turbojet engine with any acceptable resource, so this is also not the merit of the Germans ... in the end, they tried to launch a bunch of frankly raw and unquestionably ineffective machines in production, too, does not testify in their favor ... The same Comet was nothing better than our BI-1 (at least the chassis had a full-fledged one) But in the conditions of the eastern front, a fighter with " power reserve "for 5 minutes of flight was useless ... By the way, the Meteor at least did not light up with a sharp" gas supply "like the same Schwalbe ... So" there is no gold in the gray mountains, and there never was "(c)