Military Review

Tank destroyer IT-1 "Dragon"

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IT-1 "Dragon" (Fighter tanks, aka “Object 150”) is a Soviet missile tank, which was put into service in 1968 and was mass-produced at Uralvagonzavod. IT-1 is the first and only fully adopted missile tank in the world, that is, guided missiles were its main weapons. This tank destroyer was built on the basis of components and assemblies of the experimental medium tank Object 140. In the future, this tank was not mass-produced, but the solutions obtained during its development were widely used to create the Object 165 tank, better known as T-62A. IT-1 was put into service in 1968 and withdrawn from service already in 1970, L. N. Kartsev was the chief designer of the machine.


Serial production of tank destroyers was carried out from 1968 to 1970 a year, 110 production vehicles were manufactured in total. The body of the tank is welded from rolled armor plates. The turret was cast, in the turret there was a retractable launcher of an ATGM equipped with an automatic loader. IT 1 was equipped with day and night sights, as well as stabilizer targeting anti-tank missiles. The tower was equipped with electric and manual turning mechanisms. Shooting with rockets having a radio command guidance system on the target was carried out in motion and from a spot to a distance from 300 to 3300 meters in the daytime and to the distance to 1000-1500 meters at night (minimum range 400-600 meters).

The layout of the fighter tank IT 1 "Dragon"

IT-1 "Dragon" was a military tracked vehicle with missile weapons, high maneuverability and reliable armor. The layout of the combat vehicle is classic. The crew consisted of 3-x people: driver, gunner operator and commander. In front of the IT-1's hull, there was a control compartment; on the right side of the driver's seat were 3 fuel tanks. The average fuel tank, like on the T-62 tank, was not mounted. Above the driver's seat in the hull roof there was a hatch equipped with a swivel armor cover. Behind his seat was located the emergency exit hatch and tool box.

Tank destroyer IT-1 "Dragon"

The fighting compartment of the Dragon missile tank was located in the middle of the hull and its turret. The equipment and layout was fundamentally different from the crew compartment on the T-62 tank. Inside it was an FFP - a loading and launching system, which consisted of a launcher and a loading mechanism (a mechanized rack with tank guided missiles - TURS). To the right in the bash was the place of the gunner-operator, to the left - on the frame of the loading mechanism - the seat of the vehicle commander.

Before the seat of the commander of the machine were located: the alignment unit of the sight, the power unit of the projectile, the distribution box. In front of the left of this seat was a PKT machine gun, as well as cylinders of the protective glass cleaning system of the input windows of the sights. To the left of the tank commander, the radio station P-123 was installed, and above it, the TPU apparatus, a tank intercom. Before the gunner-operator, a day-sight was installed, to the right of it - a night one, an encoder and units for the command generation device, an 3 dissector unit for the coordinate picker and a gunner-operator console.

In the roof of the tower on the left side there was a commander's turret with a hatch, it was equipped with a commander target designation system, 4-II prism surveillance devices, as well as a combined day and night observation device TKN-3, over which the OU-ZKG illuminator was mounted. On the right side was the hatch of the gunner-operator, in front of which was also installed one prism observation device. Between these two hatches there was a hatch for issuing PU. Also on the tower on its left side there was an illuminator L-2G of the night sight, as well as a F-125 headlight.


The engine compartment (MTO) was located in the rear of the hull and was separated from the fighting compartment of the vehicle by a special sealed partition. MTO had: the engine, as well as the systems servicing it, the cooling system fan, transmission units with control drives, built-in fire fighting equipment. Across the tank hull, a diesel engine B-55А was installed in the MTO, which has horsepower 580. It was a modification of the tank diesel engine B-55, but without a generator. The G-10 generator was installed not on the engine itself, but separately from it.

The armor protection of a tank destroyer is a differentiated anti-projectile. The hull of the tank was made of armor plates with a thickness from 20 to 100-mm (hull forehead), which were installed with rational tilt angles, and slightly different from the booking of the hull of the T-62. The hull sides are vertical armor plates (80-mm). Aft hull included 2 armor plate. In order to protect the shoulder strap from direct bullet hits, special armor strips were welded to the hull. A low-profile tower, which was a steel shaped casting, was mounted on a ball-support IT 1 “Dragon” hull, the frontal part of the tower had a thickness from 120 to 200 mm, and the walls had a variable thickness from 60 to 135 mm.

The capacity of the 3's main fuel tanks was 695 liters. Outside the tank, on the right fender, mounted 3 external fuel tanks with a total capacity of 285 liters. On the main fuel tanks, the range on the highway reached 470 km, with the installation of 2-x additional barrels with a capacity of 200 liters - 670 km.


Armament IT-1 included a complex of guided weapons - QUV 2K4 "Dragon" (the main armament of the machine), as well as auxiliary weapons - 7,62-mm PKT machine gun. The PU of the Dragon missile tank was transferred from the traveling position to the ready position in 1-1,5 minutes, from the ready position to the operational position in 6 seconds. The complex could continuously work for 4 hours.

Weapon complex and its use

The dragon guided weapons complex as part of IT-1 made it the only tank fighter in the world that was brought to mass production and the first combat vehicle in the world that was armed with anti-tank systems with a semi-automatic ATGM targeting system and was able to to fire immediately. The basis of the armament of the machine was the TOURS 3М7 (caliber 180-mm, weight - 50 kg, length - 1250 mm, maximum flight speed - 200 m / s). His cumulative warhead ensured the penetration of 250-mm armor plates installed at an angle of 30 degrees from the vertical. Automating the process of loading the PU ensured a firing rate of up to 5 rds / min and an aimed rate of fire - 2,5 rds / min when firing at the maximum range - 3000 meters.

Auxiliary armament machines consisted of 7,62-mm PKT machine gun (ammunition 2000 cartridges), which fit into 8 magazines-boxes. In addition, X-NUMX hand grenades F-12 in 1 bags, an AK-5 submachine gun in a case, as well as bags with 47 cartridges for it, a flare gun with 600 cartridges for it were located in the fighting compartment.


The ATGM located in the 1 IT Tower included:

- mechanized stacking of a rectangular type on 12 missiles (3 missiles in a row, 4 rows in height), which ensured the docking of the missile with the launcher and the displacement of the TOURS as they were consumed, another 3 missiles were in a non-mechanized ammunition;
- PU, in the initial position, located above the stack, after the loading process, took out the rocket to launch outside the tower, and after launching the rocket in automatic mode, it returned to its original position;
- HV station for automatic holding of the TURS on central marks (CM) of day and night sights, which included command generation and encryption units, coordinate retrieval, pulse radio transmitter on the magnetron in the 2-centimeter wavelength range, stabilized in the vertical plane of the antenna (phased a grating with a movable bottom plate located on the frontal armor of the tower) and a waveguide path.
- day sight with remote gunner to keep the CM on the target and with a stabilized field of view, as well as night sight;
- tower stabilizers in the horizontal and vertical plane, tracking the position of the day sight mirror;
- sensor of the transverse component of the wind to compensate for its impact on the guided missile in the ballistic part of its flight until the moment it is captured;
- single-phase-three-phase electric voltage converter;

When firing after receiving the command of the gunner-operator, the loading mechanism docked the rocket from the combat pack to the launcher, the required voltage was applied to the Tours. After this, a special hatch was opened, through which the PU raised the missile to a combat stabilized position, exceeding it by about 7 degrees, this was necessary to compensate for its fall in the ballistic flight segment. At the same time, the front and rear supports of the rocket were reset, freeing its folded rudders and stabilizers. Luke issuing missiles closed.

After that, at the command of the gunner-operator, the launch of the rocket’s starting engine took place, after reaching the thrust level, which was enough to cut off a special insure stud, the rocket was launched. At the final stage of the rocket engine operation, the rocket could reach the flight speed at the level of 200 m / s, which was further maintained using a powder propulsion engine. After the termination of the work of the starting engine by the VN station, the missile was “captured” and the Tours was transferred to the controlled flight mode. The gunner-operator controlled the target displacement center. The process of holding the anti-tank missile on the CM of the sight was provided by a special station 1С7.


Target detection and recognition was carried out visually. After the launch of the rocket, the gunner-operator accompanied the target manually, holding the mark of the sight on it. The process of automatic tracking of the rocket in the picture plane along the tracer installed on it was carried out using an optical-television coordinator with automatic generation of control commands. Such commands were transmitted in the form of coded radio pulses through the complex-stabilized horizontal and vertical planes of the complex’s phased antenna located in front of the tank turret to the ATGM receiving antenna in the centimeter range. In the future, the incoming radio commands were transformed and fed to the rocket actuators, which are using an at-pressure 150 atm. air influenced the ATGM drives, ensuring its retention on the aiming line.

IT 1 was in service with the Soviet Army all year 3. According to the plans of the military, all motorized rifle divisions that were deployed in tank-dangerous directions were to be equipped with separate battalions of tank destroyers. In total, 2 managed to form full-fledged battalions: one in the Carpathian region, the other in the Belarusian military districts. In the process of testing and operation of a fighter tank IT 1 "Dragon" has demonstrated quite high reliability - up to 96,7%, but its design flaws: large mass and size, outdated element base, rather large dead zone, the lack of a gun caused the machine to be removed from service . This machine has never participated in hostilities and has not been exported.

Technical and tactical characteristics of IT-1 "Dragon":
Combat weight of the machine - 34,5 t.
Main dimensions: length - 6,63 m., Width - 3,3 m., Height - 2,2 m., Clearance - 0,435 m.
The power plant is a diesel engine В-55А, power - hp 580.
The maximum speed is 50 km / h.
Power density –16,8 hp / t.
Cruising on the highway - 470 km.
Reservations: the front of the hull is 100 mm., The front of the turret is 206 mm., The hull board is 80 mm.
Armament - 1HKUV 2K4 "Dragon", ammunition - 15 ATGM 3М7, 1Х7,62-mm PKT machine gun, ammunition 2000 cartridges.
Crew - 3 people.

Information sources:
-http: //pro-tank.ru/brone-sssr/334-tank-it1-raketny
-http: //otvaga2004.ru/tanki/istoriya-sozdaniya/drakon-3
-http: //warfiles.ru/show-36997-drakon-istrebitel-tankov.html
-http: //otvaga2004.ru/tanki/istoriya-sozdaniya/drakon-istrebitel-tankov
-http: //ru.wikipedia.org
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29 comments
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  1. Tyumen
    Tyumen 14 October 2013 09: 39 New
    +4
    The machine is a beast. Thank you for the article. I don’t even know whether to be glad or upset that she didn’t fight.
    1. bereg
      bereg 14 October 2013 10: 59 New
      +6
      such a loading system for the terminator with guns will be more dexterous than now
      1. svp67
        svp67 14 October 2013 11: 03 New
        +7
        Quote: bereg
        such a loading system for the terminator with guns will be more dexterous than now

        Better as on "Chrysanthemum"

        and even to teach her to "work" on air targets and then the "Terminator" can become a very necessary "assistant" of tanks ...
        1. lucidlook
          lucidlook 14 October 2013 17: 53 New
          +4
          Thanks to the Japanese and Germans for the CNC machines. It’s scary to think what they would fight now if it weren’t for them!
          1. samoletil18
            samoletil18 14 October 2013 20: 19 New
            +2
            and porters, and Italians, and Americans
            1. Mature naturalist
              Mature naturalist 14 October 2013 21: 24 New
              +3
              West = is a commodity appendage of Russia. Everything is okay.
  2. Terrible ensign
    Terrible ensign 14 October 2013 09: 54 New
    +4
    An interesting fighting machine! Never heard of her. thanks for the stuff.
    Colleagues, if someone can provide something more detailed on this topic in the comments, it will be quite good. Maybe someone came across this technique in the service ...
    1. common man
      common man 14 October 2013 15: 59 New
      0
      "Fighting vehicles of the Uralvagonzavod. Tanks of the 60s". N. Tagil, ed. house "media-print" 2007. Sold in the Uralvagonzavod Museum. Probably you can't think of more details. The same series, about t-72, t-34, t-90 (only closed).
      They said in the museum that a batch of books was taken to St. Petersburg.
    2. Technologist
      Technologist 14 October 2013 19: 23 New
      0
      On the channel Star watched the dock. the film about him, either the Shock Force, or the Armor of Russia, I don’t remember exactly, and so it’s not badly told there.
  3. DuraLexSedLex.
    DuraLexSedLex. 14 October 2013 10: 00 New
    +5
    The Soviet Union was so cool that it could have such rather exotic things, not only develop, but take and adopt, with the words "for that reason!"
  4. avt
    avt 14 October 2013 10: 04 New
    +1
    Quote: DuraLexSedLex.
    I think in vain, in principle, they abandoned the further idea of ​​developing this kind of weapon, but this is not a "full-fledged tank" in the classical concept, but still)

    Come on ! How is it refused!? We came to a qualitatively new approach to arming tanks and infantry fighting vehicles with ATGMs, and a separate branch of ATGMs self-propelled guns stood out.
    1. Apollo
      Apollo 14 October 2013 10: 10 New
      +3
      Good morning everybody hi

      quote-IT-1 “Dragon” (Tank destroyer, aka “150 facility”) is a Soviet missile tank, which was put into service in 1968 and was mass-produced at Uralvagonzavod. IT-1 is the first and only fully adopted missile tank in the world, that is, guided missiles were its main weapons.

    2. DuraLexSedLex.
      DuraLexSedLex. 14 October 2013 10: 12 New
      0
      I apologize for the thoughtless comet. I myself remembered the same "carnation", and rockets are fired from tanks through the barrel, so to speak ...
  5. Ivan_Ivanov
    Ivan_Ivanov 14 October 2013 10: 12 New
    +6
    A wonderful instance of military equipment. Bravo to the co-designers and strategists, those who ordered and accepted this product for service and to those who created it.

    I think in vain, in principle, abandoned the further idea of ​​developing such weapons

    NO! This idea was not abandoned and developed this idea. They created another beautiful tank destroyer - Chrysanthemum-S.
    1. lucidlook
      lucidlook 14 October 2013 18: 13 New
      0
      Please tell me how effective, in your opinion, is the use of 9M123 / 9M123-2 against tanks with frontal armor of more than 1000 mm (equivalent)? Does the ammunition attack "head-on" or from above? What if the enemy uses electronic warfare means? Can the product receive control center from external sources, is it possible to aim at the terminal site?

      I believe you know the answers to these questions. Therefore, the Chrysanthemum-S poses a real threat only to domestic tanks, and even then, not to everyone. And the presence of a KAZ tank ("Arena", "Trophy", etc.) will lead to an even greater decrease in efficiency.

      Alas, the superweapon has not yet succeeded.
      1. samoletil18
        samoletil18 14 October 2013 20: 31 New
        +1
        If my memory serves me, then the control was carried out by the AT-cable on the first ATGMs. Means EW did not bother him. When such a problem occurs, they could be used on this machine. It’s easier to drag a tank than an infantryman. In those years, the cable was not stolen.
  6. Ivan_Ivanov
    Ivan_Ivanov 14 October 2013 10: 13 New
    +1
    A wonderful instance of military equipment. Bravo to the co-designers and strategists, those who ordered and accepted this product for service and to those who created it.

    I think in vain, in principle, abandoned the further idea of ​​developing such weapons

    NO! This idea was not abandoned and developed this idea. They created another beautiful tank destroyer - Chrysanthemum-S.
    1. gallville
      gallville 14 October 2013 11: 17 New
      +4
      So this is already a consequence, and there was still such a complex as Sturm-S.
      1. Ivan_Ivanov
        Ivan_Ivanov 14 October 2013 11: 43 New
        0
        But I have not heard about this one. Thank.
  7. Nayhas
    Nayhas 14 October 2013 11: 20 New
    0
    Most interesting, this would be the first step towards creating heavy infantry fighting vehicles / armored personnel carriers. For example, now install a Named ATGM Spike with a stock of ATGMs in the airborne squad and a tank destroyer is ready in addition with anti-ballistic armor ...
  8. Strashila
    Strashila 14 October 2013 11: 41 New
    0
    What can I say ... the car is ahead of its time. The most important chassis ... of a tank. If you try to add a 120-mm 2A51 gun, replace 7,62 with 12,7 ... there will be a good fire support vehicle. Dreams .. ., but what if.
  9. washi
    washi 14 October 2013 12: 31 New
    +2
    The machine itself is stupid. Adopted under Khrushchev’s influence, but ...
    From it went the use of smoothbore on our tanks with the possibility of using missiles, the creation of anti-tank vehicles
    1. zub46
      zub46 14 October 2013 18: 56 New
      0
      Exactly, there was such a commotion under Khrushchev and some time after his resignation: down with the barrel artillery, all tasks will be solved with the help of missile weapons.
  10. Aleks tv
    Aleks tv 14 October 2013 13: 05 New
    0
    Yes, it was an interesting car.

    The conversations in the parts about the "Dragon" were different, in particular about the operation and maintenance ...
    But it did not work out to meet with those who exploited it. That would be very interesting to listen to them.
    The amers had almost an analogue - the Shileil system.
    In the form of criticism of such vehicles made too narrow specification - anti-tank. And expensive (guided missile).
    Such a machine could not provide the infantry with proper fire support due to the lack of heterogeneous ammunition of a classic form.
    Her worthy successor is Chrysanthemum.

    Thanks to the author for the material.
    I would like to say that such machines were also in other prototypes (barrel launch).
    For example, 757, 775, 780 objects.

    Photo of the founder of the idea: 757 Object:
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 14 October 2013 22: 41 New
      +1
      Quote: Aleks tv
      Such a machine could not provide the infantry with proper fire support due to the lack of heterogeneous ammunition of a classic form.
      Her worthy successor is Chrysanthemum.

      Chrysanthemum has no ballistic reservation, and given that the ATGM speed is less than the speed of a sub-projectile (340 m / s versus 1500-1800 m / s), then there is a high probability of getting an answer before the launched ATGM reaches its target. To defeat a target, a chrysanthemum needs to be within direct line of sight with the target and remain so until the ATGM hits the enemy, and if you see the enemy, he can also notice you, especially after launching the ATGM. Therefore, the idea of ​​IT-1 was quite reasonable, over time, IT-1 could evolve into a heavy BMP and BMPT ...
      1. Aleks tv
        Aleks tv 15 October 2013 00: 59 New
        0
        Quote: Nayhas
        Chrysanthemum has no ballistic reservation,

        Meant ONLY missile launch system.
        And Chrysanthemum also has its own niche in the fighting.

        And so - my heart belongs to the tank.
        Everything else is described in the comment above.
  11. cobalt
    cobalt 14 October 2013 13: 38 New
    +1
    Do not forget that at the same time in the arsenal in the SA were mobile ATGM systems based on the BRDM-1 with Malyutka and Bumblebee missiles. My father in the GDR in the 1970s served in such an anti-tank division. + These vehicles - buoyancy, could be transported anywhere, and good maneuverability and cross-country ability. Then ATGMs were put on the BRDM-2 and MTLB base.
  12. Avenger711
    Avenger711 14 October 2013 15: 39 New
    0
    The conceptually absurd idea to use the tank solely as a carrier of anti-tank systems is not surprising that when the anti-tank vehicles arrived on lighter platforms, which are not a pity to exchange for enemy tanks, they immediately abandoned IT-1.
  13. common man
    common man 14 October 2013 16: 24 New
    +1
    Quote: Avenger711
    which is not a pity to exchange for enemy tanks,

    Do you feel like exchanging crews, too?
    A distinctive feature of IT-1 was precisely the full protection of the crew. And decent ammunition. This is for those dimensions of missiles and control systems. All of the above samples are lightly armored and can only act from ambush until they spot.
    1. Avenger711
      Avenger711 14 October 2013 16: 42 New
      -2
      My dear stupid kindness, there is a shortage of everything and everything in the troops during the war, therefore, expensive well-protected equipment is used only where it is really necessary and every ruble spent on impenetrable canned food, the task of which is to sit in ambush (and this monster is nothing more maybe) means that there isn’t enough tank where the tank really is needed. Therefore, the task of any army in the world is to exchange enemy tanks for their grenade launchers (to train a grenade launcher, incidentally, is ten times easier than to train a tanker) and ATGM, while maintaining their scarce tanks and crews. You know that it’s expensive to solve the problem of fighting enemy tanks at the expense of your own tanks and does not contribute to the speedy end of the war, which means reducing the number of its victims.
      1. common man
        common man 14 October 2013 19: 37 New
        +3
        Totally agree with you. And in general, let's train one hundred thousand rocket launchers instead of a thousand tanks. Well, we’ll save so much dough. And the women still give birth. Although it seems like it was already there, you are our economical financier.
        1. Avenger711
          Avenger711 15 October 2013 13: 21 New
          0
          Sorry, but you just wrote such nonsense that I don’t even see the point of commenting on it. Instead of 100 thousand infantry, let's make 1000, well, even 2000 tanks, they have more protection. Well, they will burn them in the first battle for nothing, deed. With strategists like you, there will definitely not be enough women to give birth to.
  14. deman73
    deman73 14 October 2013 16: 53 New
    0
    The idea itself is not bad by the way and in my opinion the Terminator 2 became the successor of the Dragon
    1. Avenger711
      Avenger711 14 October 2013 18: 39 New
      +3
      What place is it continued when his task is to slaughter tank-dangerous infantry, although in this he is inferior to the same normal anti-aircraft guns.
  15. Maximus-xnumx
    Maximus-xnumx 16 October 2013 16: 35 New
    +1
    Quote: Mature Naturalist
    West = is a commodity appendage of Russia. Everything is okay.

    Or is Russia a raw materials appendage of the West?
    Quote: Avenger711
    there is a shortage of everything and everything in the troops during the war, therefore, expensive well-protected equipment is used only where it is really necessary and every ruble spent on impenetrable canned goods whose task is to sit in ambush (and this monster cannot do anything else) means that there isn’t enough tank where the tank really is needed

    I agree completely.
    Quote: Avenger711
    . You know that it’s very expensive to solve the problem of fighting enemy tanks at the expense of your own tanks and does not contribute to the speedy end of the war

    For this, for example, attack helicopter complexes exist, RPG anti-tank mines, engineering barriers, etc. Yes, and some tanks do not decide the outcome of the battle.