Military Review

Turkish tender T-LORAMIDS: announcement of the winner and possible consequences

26 September Turkey announced the completion of the tender T-LORAMIDS (Turkish Long Range Air And Missile Defense System), which lasted several years. After a long comparison of applicants and the search for the best offer, the Turkish military and officials made their choice. At the meeting of the Defense Industry Secretariat of the Ministry of Defense of Turkey, chaired by Prime Minister R. T. Erdogan, the choice was approved. Having considered several proposals from foreign manufacturers, Turkey chose a Chinese-made HQ-9 (FD-2000) anti-aircraft missile system. Such a decision of the Turkish military and government leadership was a surprise for specialists. Chinese air defense system was not considered as a favorite of the tender. Moreover, the very course of the tender T-LORAMIDS allowed to doubt its successful completion.

HQ-9 (FD-2000)

The tender for the purchase of new anti-aircraft missile systems for the Turkish armed forces was one of the longest stories country. The start of the competition was announced in 2009. Shortly thereafter, the European Consortium Eurosam submitted their applications, proposing SAMP / T SAM, American Lockheed Martin and Raytheon alliance with Patriot PAC-2 GMT and PAC-3, Russian Rosoboronexport with С-300ВМ, and Chinese import-export CPMIEC with HQ-9. The composition of applicants for the contract almost immediately became the reason for subsequent events that adversely affected the tender. Thus, it was originally planned that the contract for the supply of anti-aircraft systems will be signed at the beginning of 2012. However, the winner of the competition was named almost two years after the originally planned date.

Turkish tender T-LORAMIDS: announcement of the winner and possible consequences
Patriot PAC-2

C-300BM "Antey-2500"

Just a few months after the start of the tender, the first reports appeared on the possible purchase by Turkey of the Russian C-300BM air defense missile systems. There was no official confirmation of such information, and the rumors were based on the fact that the Turkish and Russian sides began negotiations on the conditions of possible supplies. It should be noted that simultaneously with these negotiations, Turkish officials began discussions on relevant issues with other bidders. In particular, Ankara negotiated with Washington. As far as we know, one of the requirements of the Turkish military and industry was the partial localization of the production of anti-aircraft systems in Turkish enterprises. In this regard, the United States for a long time refused the possible supply of air defense system to Turkey.

In the middle of 2011, US officials made a statement, due to which the T-LORAMIDS competition almost stopped. According to some reports, by that time, Turkey was ready to acquire Russian anti-aircraft missile systems. However, the United States warned her against such a move. The United States substantiated its point of view, citing peculiarities of communication and control systems. Since Turkey is a member of NATO and uses equipment built in accordance with the standards of this organization, it may have serious problems with the integration of the purchased complexes into existing systems. In addition, Turkey was hinted that it could be "disconnected" from information received from the early warning radar of a missile attack in Kürerjik. The fact is that information from this station first arrives at the NATO command center in Germany and only then is transmitted to other countries.

By the end of 2011, a strange situation had developed. The most likely subject of the future contract were considered anti-aircraft systems of American or Russian production. At the same time, the United States remained silent about the sale of its Patriot air defense system, while at the same time warning Turkey about the possible consequences of choosing Russian-made products. In connection with these events, the SAMs SAMP / T of the European consortium Eurosam and the Chinese complex HQ-9 temporarily faded into the background. By the beginning of 2013, the situation with the T-LORAMIDS tender reached the point that there were reports about the possible appearance of its own Turkish project, which would provide the army with the necessary air defense systems and do without problems in relations with NATO allies.

In June 2013, foreign media published new information about the protracted tender. With reference to some sources close to the Turkish Defense Procurement Agency, it was argued that at present Turkey is showing great interest in the Chinese HQ-9 SAM and may initiate contract negotiations. Probably, this information turned out to be true and the Turkish military was really interested in Chinese-made anti-aircraft systems. At least, such messages received confirmation in the form of official information on the results of the tender.

The result of several years of negotiations, discussions and veiled threats was the decision of the Turkish leadership announced on September 26. Turkey intends to acquire the 12 divisions of the HQ-9 ADMS in the export version called FD-2000. The cost of the contract is estimated at about 3,4 billion US dollars. According to official data, the reason for this decision was the price of Chinese anti-aircraft systems. By this parameter, they bypassed all competitors. A few days after the winner was announced, the Turkish edition of Hurriyet Daily News published an interview with the head of the defense industry secretariat, M. Bayar. The official said that the SAMP / T air defense system of European production ranked second in the tender in terms of economic indicators, and the US Patriot family ranked third. The Russian C-300BM air defense system did not reach the final stages of the tender.

M. Bayar also spoke about some details of the contract being prepared for signing. Turkey and China intend to build the FD-2000 air defense system together. Half of all work will be carried out in Turkish enterprises. The Chinese side promised to begin supplying ready-made complexes and their individual components for assembly in Turkey in the near future. It is possible that Turkish officials attracted not only the characteristics and cost of Chinese anti-aircraft systems. From the very beginning of the competition, Turkey regularly reminded that it wants to put some of the work on the production of the air defense system on its industry and thereby help it to master new technologies. Russia and the United States, as far as is known, were not ready to transfer the necessary technologies to the Turkish industry.

Immediately after the announcement of the tender results, statements were made by representatives of the United States and NATO. Such a choice of the Turkish military caused them to be perplexed and discontent. First, the North Atlantic Alliance and the United States do not understand how Turkey intends to integrate Chinese-made air defense systems into NATO’s communications and control systems. Secondly, the United States is not happy with the fact that their NATO ally is going to buy military equipment from the CPMIEC corporation, which is being sanctioned by the United States. The reason for these measures was the collaboration of CPMIEC with Iran and the DPRK.

In response to NATO’s concerns, M. Bayar said that the new Chinese air defense missile systems will be fully integrated into Turkey’s existing air defense system. Thus, the new acquisition of the Turkish armed forces will be able to fully work with the relevant NATO systems. In addition, the head of the defense industry secretariat assured that there would be no information leaks and therefore NATO could not worry about the possible negative consequences of the adoption of the HQ-9 air defense system. How exactly the interaction of Chinese-made complexes with other systems built according to NATO standards will not be clarified.

Shortly after the interview with the representative of the Turkish Ministry of Defense, official Beijing expressed its position on the issue. According to the statements of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China, the signing of a contract for the supply of switchgear HQ-9 / FD-2000 is the next step in the international cooperation of China and Turkey in the military-technical field. At the same time, Chinese diplomats called on Western countries to objectively review the results of the T-LORAMIDS tender, without politicizing them.

Currently, representatives of Turkey and China are discussing the details of the planned contract. The main points of this agreement were agreed upon earlier, during the selection of the most advantageous offer. Now it remains for the parties to discuss a number of important nuances and determine the dates for the start of deliveries of both ready-made systems and components for assembling air defense systems in Turkey. It is estimated that it will take several years to complete the entire order.

The anti-aircraft missile system HQ-9 chosen by the Turkish military is not without reason considered a copy of the Soviet / Russian systems of the C-300P family. In the early nineties and the two thousandth, China acquired a number of C-300PMU1 and C-300PMU2 SAM systems, which were carefully studied. A number of information obtained from the analysis of both complexes, allowed Chinese engineers to improve existing projects. Thus, in fact, the HQ-9 air defense system is a further development of the developments that China had, taking into account the information obtained from the analysis of Soviet and Russian-made equipment.

For a number of characteristics, the HQ-9 air defense system is similar to the Soviet / Russian complexes studied by Chinese specialists during its development. The maximum range and height of destruction of the aerodynamic target are 200 and 30 km, respectively. Each launcher carries four guided missiles. Depending on the tactical need, the complex can use several types of missiles. It should be noted that the HQ-9 complex is the first Chinese system of this class capable of intercepting certain types of ballistic missiles.

When creating a new anti-aircraft complex, the Chinese defense industry took into account some features of the modern struggle for control over the airspace. The main method of suppressing enemy air defense is currently considered to be the detection of radar stations and their destruction by high-precision weapons. The HQ-9 anti-aircraft missile system is said to be capable of operating in a so-called. passive mode, which increases its survivability in conditions of active opposition of the enemy. To this end, the complex has several electronic intelligence posts designed to search for targets in the protected air space without using radar stations. The detected object is supposed to be attacked by an anti-aircraft missile with a passive radar homing head. Such ammunition is self-guided by radio signals emitted by an enemy aircraft. Thus, a working on-board radar of an aircraft or a data transmission system of a reconnaissance UAV contributes to the operation of ground-based weapons and an anti-aircraft missile complex. It should be noted that the equipment and ammunition for work in the passive mode is part of the standard equipment of both the HQ-9 complex and its export version FD-2000.

Due to this, acquiring Chinese air defense missile systems, Turkey gets some new opportunities to protect its airspace. Separately, it is worth noting that at present, only China offers for export anti-aircraft systems with the possibility of passive work at reasonable prices for customers. As for Russia, a number of such systems are currently not subject to sale at all. As a result, Turkey receives anti-aircraft missile systems with good characteristics, and China is promoting its products to the international market. In addition, the Turkish industry, which will have to undertake the implementation of the order of the armed forces, will receive from the Chinese a number of important technologies.

A number of issues related to the Turkish-Chinese contract can already be considered resolved. However, there are some not entirely clear points. For example, the integration of Chinese systems in the structure of communication and control used by the Turkish armed forces, built in accordance with NATO standards. Probably, the Turkish-Chinese cooperation should lead to the creation of a certain set of tools designed to convert the signals of some systems into a form that meets other standards. However, the very possibility of creating such equipment is very doubtful. Because of this, Turkey, as its NATO allies warned, can really get a lot of problems associated with international cooperation.

As a result, a tender that was delayed for several years for the supply of air defense missile systems for the Turkish armed forces may have an unexpected continuation related to the fulfillment of the contract and ensuring the efficiency of the systems built. Moreover, previous events around the T-LORAMIDS tender may hint at the consequences of a political nature. What exactly will happen after the signing of the contract - time will tell.

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  1. INTER
    INTER 11 October 2013 09: 00
    Yes, it’s bad for us that they don’t buy from us and donate money to the Chinese, but they don’t have + and they don’t shoot at the right time, but this can be on our hands, who knows how the world will turn, and Turkey was originally with us in the counter. yes
    1. xetai9977
      xetai9977 11 October 2013 09: 38
      According to the publications of the Turkish press, the pressure from the Americans is colossal. Some officials have already started talking about the fact that "Turkey has not yet made a final choice, and the Chinese system is only a favorite of the short list." But many advise the government not to succumb to external blackmail and to continue the line of self-sufficiency. After all, the Chinese were the only ones who agreed to transfer technologies and localize production in Turkey by at least 50%
  2. kafa
    kafa 11 October 2013 09: 02
    the Ottomans are slowly gathering the question why. Kurds with air defense missiles drive chtoli belay
    1. Guun
      Guun 11 October 2013 09: 24
      I read that the C 300 hits on ground targets, its clones also mean.
      1. Alexasmi
        Alexasmi 11 October 2013 12: 07
        Quote: Guun
        I read that the C 300 hits on ground targets, its clones also mean.

        The export version of the S-300PM on the ground does not work (it was with it that the Chinese licked their version), unlike their counterpart for our army. This feature is disabled, because nefig.
        In general, the fact that the Turks did not choose the S-300VM is quite expected, because this version is intended for military cover all the same. The Turks needed a system to cover important objects, i.e. our S-300PMU2, which was discontinued by "order".
    2. alone
      alone 11 October 2013 23: 50
      what the air defense of any country should close the sky of the country from any force majeure circumstances. Taking into service with the S-400 you’re not going to drive airborne Caucasian bearded missiles)) laughing
  3. Lech from our city
    Lech from our city 11 October 2013 09: 02
    I wonder what kind of kickback the Chinese gave the Turks.
    1. fuad777
      fuad777 20 October 2013 07: 54
      The Turks do not have such a concept as a rollback ... This is a purely Russian invention)))
      1. Silkway0026
        Silkway0026 20 October 2013 08: 09
        colleague, from which moon did you fall? apparently never dealt with the Turks in business ...
        among the Turks, the rollback (bakshish) is almost legalized; it exists in almost all spheres of their life, including in the life of officials.
  4. kafa
    kafa 11 October 2013 09: 03
    Quote: Lech from our city
    I wonder what kind of kickback the Chinese gave the Turks.

    3000 down jackets laughing
    1. 31231
      31231 11 October 2013 19: 54
      Quote: kafa
      kafa Today, 09:03
      3000 down jackets

      3000 starts. wink
  5. Akim
    Akim 11 October 2013 09: 05
    If the system is integrated under NATO standards, then it will not do without Chinese specialists, and they will gain access and goodbye to Japan’s indestructible air defense.
  6. Sars
    Sars 11 October 2013 10: 02
    Quote: INTER
    Yes, it’s bad for us that they don’t buy from us and the money flows to the Chinese,

    How much money do not give our "effective (most likely" defective ") managers" - they will take everything away!
    It is remarkable that the Turks did not receive the Russian system. And then it turns out a very strange situation, at first we are arming our neighbors (Azerbaijan), and then we are thinking how to fight with them!
    1. smersh70
      smersh70 11 October 2013 15: 47
      Quote: SarS
      First we arm the neighbors (Azerbaijan), and then we think how to fight with them!

      this is when you were going to fight with Azerbaijan ...... laughing Unas no such plans yet ..... wassat
    2. alone
      alone 11 October 2013 23: 52
      Quote: SarS
      First we arm the neighbors (Azerbaijan), and then we think how to fight with them!

      Do you have specific information about the war with us, or is it all from the blah blah blah cycle and say in order to say something
  7. AVV
    AVV 11 October 2013 11: 29
    The Turks carried out such a demarche, also because Europe is pulling with the adoption of the latter in its ranks, and of course the cost of the system and the opportunity to get new technologies! But Russia does not make sense to transfer its technologies to a NATO member !!!
    1. xetai9977
      xetai9977 11 October 2013 14: 25
      In my opinion, Russia has already sold the S-300 to a member of NATO (Greece).
  8. sergant89
    sergant89 11 October 2013 12: 16
    If these systems are better, then why is Beijing defending C-300 ?, one of the components of Turkey’s Chinese choice of air defense system is 1 billion cheaper than its counterparts, but improvements will not be included in the overall integration of NATO missile defense, and how many are babosikov. It’s not always cheap well, there’s a proverb to this: we are not rich enough to buy cheap things.
  9. Proud.
    Proud. 11 October 2013 12: 40
    The HQ-9 anti-aircraft missile system chosen by the Turkish military is not without reason considered to be a copy of the Soviet / Russian systems of the S-300P family. In the early 300s and 1s, China acquired a number of S-300PMU2 and S-XNUMXPMUXNUMX air defense systems, which were carefully studied.
    According to a number of characteristics, the HQ-9 is similar to Soviet / Russian systems, studied by Chinese specialists during its development.Fedot, but not the same one! I quote, with minor changes: "... Beijing, actively supplying its troops with its HQ-9, prefers to cover its large cities with Russian complexes. In 2010, Russia completed the delivery of 15 divisions of S-300 PMU 2 complexes to the PRC, who defended Beijing and Shanghai ... "
  10. ramin_serg
    ramin_serg 11 October 2013 13: 19
    I used to communicate with a sufficient number of Turkish officers with big stars on duty and I know that they never buy anything of poor quality to supply the army (from toilet paper to rockets)

    In addition, the army there does not play a special caste. They treat the service as duty and honor and did not do anything discrediting for honor was more expensive.

    (By the way, one son of a millionaire lieutenant colonel who lost several thousand dollars almost every day in a casino, but in the morning he was like a glass in the service and unconditionally fulfilled his military duty. To the surprise of all our colleagues.
  11. Yeraz
    Yeraz 11 October 2013 14: 58
    Everything rests on the quality of this weapon, but time will tell.
  12. knn54
    knn54 11 October 2013 18: 42
    -China import and export corporation CPMIEC with HQ-9 system.
    In February, the United States announced sanctions against CPMIEC for violating the nonproliferation act in countries such as Iran, North Korea, and Syria. Earlier (in 2003), she was punished for selling weapons to Iran. The Turks were greatly offended by Big Brother for organizing a mess in the country.
    -Military anti-aircraft missile system HQ-9 is not without reason considered to be a copy of the Soviet / Russian systems of the S-300P family.
    Combined hodgepodge: escort (guidance) and highlighting station HT-233 - stripped from the Patriot. Radar DWL002 (passive radio intelligence station) from Kolchuga (Ukraine). Type-120 radar for detecting low-flying targets is an analogue of 40V6M, but the detection range for low-flying targets is less.
    The result of the tender showed that the Russian Federation is strengthening its competitor in the market of countries with a large budget who want to buy modern weapons.
    PS As the Chinese themselves admit, there are Russian components in the complex.
  13. A_Alex
    A_Alex 11 October 2013 21: 01
    It became interesting to me how much you should not trust the American tahnik so that even under pressure it would not be categorically taken. Direct stone in the garden of the American military industry and their image too.
  14. sergey158-29
    sergey158-29 11 October 2013 21: 36
    The Chinese are GOOD! We copied the FORM, and sold it for PRICE ...

    Study, study and study again...

    LENIN is resting ...
    1. alone
      alone 11 October 2013 23: 55
      Quote: sergey158-29
      The Chinese are GOOD! We copied the FORM, and sold it for PRICE ...

      Study, study and study again...

      LENIN is resting ...

      no, he smokes nervously and swears
  15. poquello
    poquello 11 October 2013 22: 32
    The speed of the "Hongqi-9" in the export version is not enough, only 1200m / s, contrary to the tomogavki we bought something.
  16. scientist
    scientist 12 October 2013 07: 12
    not quite clear points. For example, the integration of Chinese systems into the communications and command and control structure used by the Turkish armed forces, built in accordance with NATO standards

    In fact, Turkey's air defense works independently. If integration is to be carried out, then only the systems of identification "friend or foe" according to the NATO standard, and even then only in several modes for joint operations.
    The integration of NATO and Turkey’s information systems has never existed; each works independently. In particular, in Ankara, in the building of the Turkish Ministry of Defense on the 3rd floor, there are server rooms that combine all the information systems of the armed forces, including air defense control systems, naval control systems and military control systems. The ideology on which these information systems are built is based on the physical separation of the information systems of NATO, Turkey and the open Internet. They are located in different rooms isolated from each other and there can be no physical data exchange between these 3 systems. An informational picture from each system is displayed on the screens of the control panel on the 2nd floor. Any data entry at the strategic level of command is not provided, and communication with the commanders and commanders of units is carried out online by video conferencing.