Military Review

Computer history Elbrus

Few people know, but the origins of the creation of the most famous Intel Pentium processor in the world were both Soviet specialists and engineers. At one time, the USSR achieved quite serious achievements in the creation of computer equipment. An example of this is the Elbrus series of Soviet supercomputers, which were created at the Institute of Fine Mechanics and Computer Engineering (ITM & T) in 1970-1990-s of the last century, the same name is given to a series of microprocessors and systems built on them and manufactured today CJSC MCST (Moscow center of SPARC-technologies).

In this case, история "Elbrus" is quite extensive. Work on the first computer with the same name was carried out from 1973 to 1978 year in ITM & T. Lebedev, who supervised these works was B. S. Burtsev, the development was carried out with the participation of Boris Babayan, who was one of the deputies of the chief designer. At that time, the main customer of this product was, of course, the military.

The first computer "Elbrus" had a modular architecture and could include from 1 to 10 processors based on medium integration circuits. The speed of this machine reached 15 million operations per second. The amount of RAM that was common to all 10 processors was up to 2 in 20 degrees of machine words or, if we use the notation currently used, 64 MB. However, the most interesting in "Elbrus-1" was precisely his architecture. The supercomputer created in the USSR became the first commercial computer in the world that used superscalar architecture. Its mass use abroad began only in the 90-ies of the last century with the appearance on the market of affordable Intel Pentium processors.

Later it turned out that similar developments existed even before Elbrus, IBM was engaged in them, but the work on these projects was not completed and did not lead to the creation of the final commercial product. According to V. S. Burtsev, who was the main designer of Elbrus, Soviet engineers tried to apply the most advanced experience of both domestic and foreign developers. The architecture of computers "Elbrus" was influenced not only by computers of the Burroughs company, but also by the development of such a well-known company as Hewlett-Packard, as well as the experience of the BESM-6 developers.
Computer history Elbrus

At the same time, a considerable part of the development was original, and superscalar architecture also applies to them. In addition, for organizing the transfer of data flows between peripheral devices and RAM in the computer, special input-output processors could be used. Such processors in the system could be up to 4-x units, they worked in parallel with the central processor and had their own memory.

The next stage of work was the creation of a computer "Elbrus-2". These computers went into mass production in 1985 year. In terms of their internal architecture, they were not very different from the Elbrus-1, but they used a new element base, which increased the maximum performance to 125 million operations per second. The amount of computer memory has increased to 16 million 72-bit words or 144 MB. The maximum throughput of the Elbrus-2 I / O channels was 120 MB / s.

These computers were actively used in the USSR in areas that required a large number of calculations, primarily in the defense industry. Elbrus-2 computers were operated in nuclear research centers in Chelyabinsk-70 and in Arzamas-16 in the MCC, and finally, this complex, starting from 1991, was used in the A-135 missile defense system, as well as in other military installations in the country.
In addition to the two computers listed above, the Elbrus 1-KB general-purpose computer was also produced, the creation of this computer was completed in the 1988 year. Before 1992, 60 of such computers was manufactured. They were based on Elbrus-2 technology and were used to replace outdated BESM-6 machines. At the same time, there was complete backward software compatibility between Elbrus 1-KB and BESM-6, which was supplemented with new modes of operation with an increased digit capacity of numbers and addresses.

Creation of computers "Elbrus" was appreciated by the leadership of the Soviet Union. For the development of "Elbrus-1" many engineers were awarded orders and medals. Boris Babayan was awarded the Order of the October Revolution, his colleague V.V. Bardizh - the Order of Lenin. For the development of "Elbrus-2" Babayan with a number of his colleagues was awarded the Lenin Prize, and the General Designer V. S. Burtsev and a number of other specialists received the State Prize.

After completing work on the Elbrus-2 computer in ITM & T, they took up the development of a computer based on a fundamentally new processor architecture. The project, which was named quite simply - "Elbrus-3", also significantly outpaced similar developments in the West. Elbrus-3 was the first to implement the approach that Boris Babayan calls “post-superscalar”. It is this architecture that Intel Itanium processors and Transmeta chips have in the future. It is worth noting that in the USSR, work on this technology began in the 1986 year, and Intel, Transmeta and HP began to work in this direction only in the middle of the 1990-s.

Unfortunately, "Elbrus-3" has never been launched into mass production. Its only working copy was built in 1994 year, but at that time nobody wanted it. The logical continuation of work on this computer was the appearance of the Elbrus-2000 processor, also known as E2K. The Russian company had big plans for the mass production of this processor, which was supposed to go into a series at the same time or even earlier than Itanium. But due to the lack of the necessary volume of investments, all these plans were not implemented and remained on paper.

Russian trace in Intel processors

Vladimir Pentkovsky - is an outstanding Russian-American scientist, doctor of technical sciences, who graduated from the faculty of the FRTK MIPT. He was directly involved in the development of processors Pentium III, Core 2 Duo, HAL9000, Matrix, is the developer of a high-level programming language El-76, which was used in computers "Elbrus". From 1970, he worked at the Institute of Fine Mechanics and Computing, where he managed to take part in the creation of the Elbrus-1 and Elbrus-2 supercomputers. In 1986, Pentkovsky took the lead in creating the 32-bit El-90 processor for Elbrus-3.

By 1987, the work on creating the architecture of the new microprocessor was completed; in 1990, its first prototypes were released. In 1991, he began work on the development of El-91C, taking as a basis the previous version of the processor, but funding for this project was halted due to the collapse of the country. Naturally, a specialist of this level could not disappear. In 1989, Vladimir Pentkovsky already traveled to the United States at Intel’s research center as part of an experience sharing program. Since 1993, he began working at Intel, becoming one of its leading engineers, the development of the famous Pentium processor took place with his direct participation. The presentation of the Pentium processor took place on 22 in March on 1993, after about a few months, the first computers based on them began to appear.

Vladimir Pentkovsky is one of the authors of the vector (SIMD) expansion of SSE commands, which was first used in Pentium-III processors. He is the author of more than 50 of various patents, many of which are still used in modern processors. In the Intel processors, Vladimir Pentkovsky put into practice the knowledge that he had gained in Russia, he was already thinking out a lot right during model development. In 1995, the American company introduced a more advanced product Pentium Pro, which by its characteristics resembled the El-90 processor. The main architect of this processor is Vladimir Pentkovsky.

Currently Pentkovsky continues to work at Intel. So the processor, on which your personal computer or laptop may work, may well have Russian roots and could even have been produced in our country, if it were not for the infamous 1991 events of the year and their consequences.

"Elbrus" is still alive

Although the USSR collapsed, the Elbrus brand is still alive. Processors and ready-made solutions based on them today are marketed by the company MCST. Today, computers of the MCST company are mainly intended for: the military departments of Russia, the CIS countries and BRIC; civil industry; Civil radars (land, sea and air transport). For businesses and civilians who need highly reliable and secure computers. Computers of the company have a different design execution, a different class of protection depending on the requirements. All of them have the support or the ability to work with GPS and GLONASS, depending on the needs of the buyer of the device.

Currently, the company is promoting its mainstream microprocessor and devices based on 2 on the market. The first of these is the Elbrus-2C +, which is the first hybrid high-performance processor of the MCST company. The processor contains two cores of the Elbrus architecture and four cores of the digital signal processors (DSP) of the Elvis company. The main sphere of its use are digital intelligent signal processing systems, which include image analyzers, radars and other similar devices.

The second product is the microprocessor MCST R1000 (design name MCST-4R) - a quad-core model built on a chip with SPARC v.64 9-bit architecture. The processor operates at a frequency of 1 GHz with technological standards of release 90 nm. Each of its cores is able to decode and send for execution up to 2 commands per clock. The processor supports additional instructions for performing packaged and combined operations, as well as vector extensions VIS1 and VIS2. Possible areas of use of the MCST-4R processor, as well as a PC based on it: MVC4 / С, MVC4-RS include:

Wearable small-sized household computers for use as: a computer for conducting work in the field, for example, for conducting operational calculations, preparing documents for various purposes, storing reference information, etc .;
Computers of automated workplaces of operators for use in the role of means of displaying information, documenting work performed, etc .;
The terminals of test equipment on technical positions, as well as in the role of a device for preparing and storing documents associated with the use of complex systems;
Terminals of communication and electronic systems, wearable and mobile equipment complexes;
Embedded control computers for controlling the operation of special objects and solving complex problems of information processing in real time;
Mobile fault-tolerant servers to create automated systems for special purposes, in particular, automated systems of civil and military authorities.

Information sources:
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  1. Igor39
    Igor39 10 October 2013 08: 04
    I was very interested in old Soviet computers at the beginning of the XNUMXs, they pushed so much gold and palladium into the radio components there laughing Pentium is resting!
  2. Su-9
    Su-9 10 October 2013 08: 04
    Great topic. And, in principle, unfamiliar to most of those who even relate to computer technology. It is admirable that during the Soviet era of the 70-80s, when the general line was chosen to copy the 360 ​​system from IBM, the number of new original developments was great, and they actually kept up with the times. The excellent mathematical base of our developers allowed us to create very competitive architectures.
    The fact that almost always something was spied on in the West and was copied was absolutely normal - I know by hearsay that now everyone is doing it - they take ready-made ideas and see what competitors are doing.
    But there were huge problems with implementation. In my opinion there were 3 main types:
    1st — super low crystal production culture. Somewhere only one tenth of a percent was air-conditioned. There are many reasons for this - for those who want to find them - answer first, at least why would the Lada require bulkheads after the purchase. Because of this, it was difficult to make a normal microchip, but in mass quantities it was practically impossible. With the same copying of Motorol 10K for Elbrus 1st, they were tormented by oh yeah.
    2nd - the absence of normal operating systems and their incredible diversity (EC, BESM, El,. Because of this, the position of "system programmer" was almost the main one at every computer center. They were allowed to drink, smoke and listen to Grebenshchikov on a tape recorder Vesna during But in principle, it was just a technician who launched tasks for execution. The vocational school knowledge should have been enough.
    3rd — sharpening the entire system to solve specialized problems. Almost until the mid-90s, processors with different specializations were built (radar processing, Fourier transforms, etc.). As a result, a complete spray of funds.

    Of course, military orders allowed Elbrus to survive3. And this is understandable and correct. There should be a technique absolutely not accessible to enemy networks (due to complete secrecy and incompatibility of architectures).
    But, the old microcircuits are hopelessly outdated (it's a shame to talk about 4Gflops) - and are made on used AMD equipment. And what they are doing now is even worse. Since, although they seem to have increased speed, everything is printed in Taiwan. And what's the point then?
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 10 October 2013 08: 48
      Quote: Su-9
      It is admirable that during the Soviet era of the 70-80s, when the general line was chosen to copy the system 360 from IBM

      And I met the opinion that it was a huge mistake. No?
      1. Gato
        Gato 10 October 2013 11: 06
        Quote: Nayhas
        And I met the opinion that it was a huge mistake. No?

        As the subsequent development history of IBM has shown, no.
        1. ben gun
          ben gun 10 October 2013 11: 54
          But as the subsequent history of Soviet radio electronics has shown - a huge mistake!
          A huge debriefing of flights of the domestic (Soviet) computer industry in several parts.

          I recommend because it is informative.
      2. uwzek
        uwzek 12 October 2013 01: 00
        Comrade you (and us) writes about this ...
    2. orizonti
      orizonti 11 October 2013 01: 42
      28 Gflops at Elbrus-2s peak performance, they have never been done on AMD equipment, all processors from MTsST are still being made in Taiwan, at TSMC, and only now they are developing a processor for production at Mikron, they promise to do it only in a year. But AMD equipment for Angstrom does not work at all, and for the fifth year somewhere in Europe Europe has been gathering dust in a warehouse, since buildings have not been built for it.
    3. orizonti
      orizonti 11 October 2013 01: 51
      "but everything is printed in Taiwan. What's the point then?"

      Chips do not print. The meaning is the same as that of other fabless companies like NVidia, in the development of microcircuits.
    4. Samy
      Samy 11 October 2013 07: 25
      Quote: Su-9
      Lada demanded bulkhead after purchase.

      I do not know about crystals, but Lada did not require bulkheads. VAZ 2102 83 g, the first failure at the 63rd thousand, before that - like a clock, I did not know any service stations.
  3. tronin.maxim
    tronin.maxim 10 October 2013 08: 08
    It’s a pity that Elbrus processors cannot be bought for ordinary citizens.
    1. Su-9
      Su-9 10 October 2013 08: 19
      Sorry? This is a joke, I hope?
      And what would you do on Elbrus? Neither Linux nor Microsoft is on it.
      1. the47th
        the47th 10 October 2013 09: 11
        Linux can even be put on a coffee maker, especially since military workstations work specifically on Linux (MSVS).
      2. tronin.maxim
        tronin.maxim 10 October 2013 09: 28
        Quote: Su-9
        Sorry? This is a joke, I hope?
        And what would you do on Elbrus? Neither Linux nor Microsoft is on it.

        I mean today’s processors. Well, I think it’s not difficult and difficult for developers to grind them under Windows. I do not think that the new Elbrus processors are so bad than foreign ones. Of course, this is not the Intel Core i7, but for a simple person it’s enough.
        1. Genry
          Genry 10 October 2013 16: 40
          Quote: tronin.maxim
          Well, I think it’s not difficult and difficult for developers to grind them under Windows.

          Windows runs on an outdated, patched-patched X86 command system. Why change a good Elbrus command system to a bad one.
          And Windows itself is nothing more than an ornate, ancient and virus-infected kernel.

        2. nov_tech.vrn
          nov_tech.vrn 10 October 2013 16: 55
          Windows is an evil, inevitable associated with a magic phrase, a friendly interface, all sacrifices have been made to this god, it is being introduced wherever possible and impossible, in government agencies and schools, universities, through assistance programs and kickbacks, the task is one - the user must use the "windows" and nothing else, even against unlicensed software, the war is therefore ongoing, but not for destruction.
          I did not meet Linux on coffee makers, apparently it requires a fairly high qualification when configuring on it.
        3. uwzek
          uwzek 12 October 2013 01: 28
          You, in my opinion, were extremely carelessly looking at the illustrations for the article. At first I wanted to minus the article, but after reading to the end, I realized that there was nothing, especially. The author writes that many of the ideas that were then used to develop the architectures of the current microprocessors may have appeared in our country (or rather in the Soviet Union) ...
          And then - look at the illustrations for the article. The depicted boxes with a volume of a couple of cubic meters are functional analogues of a modern smartphone. According to your commentary, I understood that you are not an expert in this area (which does not humiliate you in any way), there was no Elbrus processor (in the form of a microchip), our microelectronics (to my deepest regret) was and remains in the deepest well ...
      3. orizonti
        orizonti 11 October 2013 01: 54
        It has both Linux and Windows.
    2. the47th
      the47th 10 October 2013 09: 10
      They are not needed by ordinary citizens. Too expensive at low productivity, but in the army and intelligence agencies, by the way, due to the lack of undocumented teams that can be used by bad Yankees (you must not forget that the popular Intel and AMD are developed in the USA).
    3. HAM
      HAM 10 October 2013 12: 04
      1. uwzek
        uwzek 12 October 2013 01: 46
        The Soviet parts in your Computer are full analogs of the corresponding Western-made microcircuits (a consequence of copying the IBM-360/370 line, which was indicated above). As an old TV master, I express my full respect for your Lazuri-7XX, which has survived almost to the twenty-first century ...
  4. Strashila
    Strashila 10 October 2013 08: 56
    Amazing article, especially against the backdrop of groans about the backwardness of technology in the USSR.
    1. Gari
      Gari 10 October 2013 09: 20
      Quote: Strashila
      Amazing article, especially against the backdrop of groans about the backwardness of technology in the USSR

      “Nairi” is a family of Soviet general-purpose digital electronic computers developed at the Yerevan Scientific Research Institute of Mathematical Machines (YERNIIMM).
      In 1971, the developers of the Nairi computer were awarded the USSR State Prize
      Nairi-1 The architectural solution used in this machine was patented in England, Japan, France and Italy. The computer processor was 36-bit. Cassette-type ROMs were used to store microprograms and firmware; the volume of the cassette was 2048 words, 36 bits each. Speed: for operations such as addition on fixed-point numbers - 2-3 thousand op / sec, multiplication type - 100 op / sec, operations on floating-point numbers - 100 op / sec.
      Since 1964, the machine was produced at two plants in Armenia, as well as at the Kazan Computer Plant (from 1964 to 1970, about 500 machines were produced in total). In the spring of 1965, the computer was presented at the fair in Leipzig (Germany).
      Nairi-2 Created in 1966, it is essentially a modification of the Nairi-1 machine. The amount of RAM is increased, more efficient input / output devices are used.
      She had a memory on ferrite rings. 10 thousand rings with a diameter of 2 mm in each block measuring 20x20 cm. There was also a long-term memory on a ferrite drum.
      Nairi-3 [edit | edit source]

      A series of machines created in the early 1970s: Nairi 3-1, Nairi 3-2, and Nairi 3-3. Chief Designer - G. E. Hovsepyan.
      Nairi 3- was created on the basis of chips with ECL logic.
      The development team of the series was awarded the USSR State Prize.
      Nairi-4-series computers for special applications. Nairi 4 AWP / Nairi 4 and Nairi 41 were developed in 1974-1981, the chief designer was German Artashesovich Oganyan. The system was software compatible with PDP-11 and a series of SM computers.
      In 1980-1981, the development of Nairi 4B and Nairi 4B / C was also carried out, the chief designers were V. Karapetyan and A. Sargsyan.
      1. uwzek
        uwzek 12 October 2013 02: 03
        You (I am XNUMX% sure of this) have never used the "Nairi" computer - in those years, few people had the opportunity to handle such equipment. You hardly know what the peculiarity of ECL logic microcircuits is (your post is a reprint of some kind of advertising brochure, you probably have never seen blocks of memory on ferrite rings: one ring - one bit of information. so much that in a ferrite version it would not fit into your house) ...
    2. Nayhas
      Nayhas 10 October 2013 11: 56
      Quote: Strashila
      Amazing article, especially against the backdrop of groans about the backwardness of technology in the USSR.

      Do you judge the state of industry of the USSR by this article? Well, we did computers, in comparison with many countries this was a great achievement, compared with the USA there was a lag, therefore we were always in the position of catching up. And about the quality ... In the mid-80s, the father was put to work with the computer EC-1066, at that time a super modern computer. So the first time my father installed it, he practically didn’t spend the night at home, something constantly broke. I worked for about five years, then they put Kray, who had characteristics an order of magnitude higher, and took up five times less places ....
      1. Mature naturalist
        Mature naturalist 11 October 2013 13: 22
        Quote: Nayhas
        then put Cray

        Dad at MMM for Mavrodi? I remember he bought Cray to keep a record of suckers.
        1. Bersaglieri
          Bersaglieri 24 October 2013 23: 04
          At the Computing Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, apparently the first Cray was delivered there in the early 90s
  5. Gari
    Gari 10 October 2013 09: 23
    Boris Babayan is a Soviet and Russian scientist, teacher, computer developer, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1984; since 1991, the Russian Academy of Sciences). He is the author of works on the architectural principles of building computer systems, computer software. Laureate of the State (1974) and Lenin (1987) Prizes. The first European scientist awarded the title of Intel Fellow
    1. polly
      polly 10 October 2013 10: 04
      I worked at "Nairi-2", I remember these computers with gratitude! True, then I did not know who the designer was, thanks to Gari for the information. When we received them at the plant, it was a breakthrough for our plaza workshop! We were able to calculate and set the theoretical contour of the fuselage mathematically. Before that, our aunts-designers crawled upside down on huge plazas and drew the TK frames with a drawing pen and ink ourselves using a flexible rail and cast-iron clamps. , to do faster and more successfully "Crocodile", and then just he was walking across the river ...
      1. Gari
        Gari 10 October 2013 10: 19
        Quote: polly
        I worked at "Nairi-2", I remember these computers with gratitude

        Quote: polly
        True, then I did not know who the designer was, thanks to Gari for the information.

        There was a powerful Power!
        All worked together - and this was the power of the Power - to strengthen its Power.
      2. uwzek
        uwzek 12 October 2013 02: 21
        I also worked on these machines, I don’t really know how, in reality, they managed to help your aunt designers: there was definitely no plotter in the kit, and the processor capacity was clearly not enough to increase the accuracy of calculating the wing profile ...
    2. Starover_Z
      Starover_Z 10 October 2013 17: 03
      I read earlier that Babayan, with the entire Elbrus development team, moved to Intel in the 90s, and Elbrus is now being developed by Lilliputians.
      But Intel processors, like mushrooms in mycelium expand by nuclei ...
      Yes, how much the state lost with the collapse of the Power ...
  6. Ingvar 72
    Ingvar 72 10 October 2013 09: 29
    It is high time to implement our own developments in this area. And then we are sitting on a needle on foreign processors. And Windows need to do an alternative.
  7. air wolf
    air wolf 10 October 2013 09: 32
    Gentlemen, all bourgeois it systems are opened with a bang with any degree of protection, for security I had to develop everything, I remember dismantled our old computers there on the processors the marking is overwritten, and from the bottom the Z80 is made in Mexico (this is an 8-bit processor), shame why they didn’t do it on Elbrus2,3, maybe then there would be commercial success, and iBM would smoke in Russia.
    I will never buy a laptop on Windows, better on Android. How tired of this Windows, the horror is straight. How much money do we give to the West for this shit!
    1. Gato
      Gato 10 October 2013 11: 13
      Quote: air wolf
      How much money do we give to the West for this shit!

      We? Do you have a licensed Windows? Do many forum users have a license installed?
      Personally, I haven’t spent a penny in my life buying software. And I think - I'm not alone.
      1. Mature naturalist
        Mature naturalist 11 October 2013 13: 27
        Quote: Gato
        And I think - I'm not alone.

        But I am sinful, I repent: once I bought an antivirus (I had to urgently clean my computers at work), and another time a music conversion program in 5.1 format (well, it wasn’t on the network, now it is)
        But more no-no: everything else is honest pirate software.
    2. Doctorleg
      Doctorleg 10 October 2013 15: 32
      Quote: air wolf
      Gentlemen, all bourgeois it systems are opened with a bang with any degree of protection, for security I had to develop everything, I remember dismantled our old computers there on the processors the marking is overwritten, and from the bottom the Z80 is made in Mexico (this is an 8-bit processor), shame why they didn’t do it on Elbrus2,3, maybe then there would be commercial success, and iBM would smoke in Russia.
      I will never buy a laptop on Windows, better on Android. How tired of this Windows, the horror is straight. How much money do we give to the West for this shit!

      I think the problem is that all of our computers were not focused on commerce - they didn’t think about selling them to people, but they would buy all state-owned enterprises. When there is no competition, there is no incentive to improve quality and improve consumer properties. Those. it was possible to create something, but then it was not interesting to develop. An example of our cars - GAZ 21 seemed to be on the level, but then ...
  8. tun1313
    tun1313 10 October 2013 09: 56
    In the second photo, there’s a machine with a DVK monitor, I started on them, oh right, the matrix, everything is green alphanumeric. But even there were already toys. Plague. :))
  9. sven27
    sven27 10 October 2013 10: 19
    An interesting article, I didn’t know that we are also collecting completely advanced processors! Just why are our mass media silent about this? About the new iPhone or Samsung in the central channels in all news broadcast!
    1. Old skeptic
      Old skeptic 10 October 2013 10: 58
      And Samsun is currently almost a Russian company.
  10. Old skeptic
    Old skeptic 10 October 2013 10: 57
    Where to buy?
    I'll put it on myself.

    Come on, give me Elbrus.
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 10 October 2013 11: 43
      Quote: Old Skeptic
      Where to buy?
      I'll put it on myself

      First rent a powerhouse hangar ...
      1. Old skeptic
        Old skeptic 10 October 2013 13: 01
        I saw a PC based on Elbrus.
        But they released a trial batch of only 1000 pieces. and did not say where to buy.
        1. HollyGremlin
          HollyGremlin 10 October 2013 14: 44
          Why go far, contact:
          Only while the video fails (you don’t especially watch movies and there is no 3D accelerator), but the increased security and full manual in Russian.
  11. ivankursk46
    ivankursk46 10 October 2013 12: 00
    Excerpt from the article

    In the 60s, Soviet engineers created several lines of computers in Moscow, Kiev, Minsk, Yerevan and Penza. All these machines were incompatible with each other, and for each of them had to write all the programs again. Therefore, in 1967, the Soviet government decided to copy the best samples of Western computers, then to borrow software for them in the West. Although technology exports from the USA to the USSR were limited, the KGB received Western designs with Soviet spies at IBM, 5 and also set up shell companies to buy Western computers through third world countries and friendly communist parties.6 As a result, two families of Soviet computers were formed - “large »EC computers copied from IBM / 360, and" small "SM computers copied from Hewlett-Packard and Digital Equipment mini-computers.

    Soviet programmers appeared to have fully functional and compatible with each other software machines. True, they lagged behind their American predecessors by 6–8 years.

    Lebedev was able to defend the right to his own development and shortly before his death in 1974, he initiated the Elbrus supercomputer project with superscalar architecture - just to solve missile defense problems.

    Unfortunately, many elements of Elbrus were already in advanced western computers from CDC and Burroughs, and the computer itself was not widely used, although it was used, for example, in the space Mission Control Center. In addition, Elbrus was not the fastest computer of its time - it was superior to the American vector supercomputer Cray-1, released in 1976. The Soviet government decided to copy Cray-1 under the brand name "Electronics" SS BIS.

    This project (the author participated in it) was a failure of epic proportions - the computer only started working 13 years after its overseas brother. Until 1991, 4 copies of the car were produced, which turned out to be absolutely unnecessary to anyone.

    Due to copying of Western computers, Soviet microelectronics were drained
  12. Asan Ata
    Asan Ata 10 October 2013 12: 10
    Elbrussia-Borussia. So they talked among the developers. The problem was not hard. With software, the advances were microscopic. Once upon a time I worked on Felix, this is a technique, on it all our bombs were counted! Today, all major software companies have settled in Russia. We must take advantage of the moment and make our own, excellent in architecture, more progressive. Digital computers are very far from nature. I remember analog computers: they solved the diffurs, creating a physically adequate circuit. I think they are closer to the nature of things, today, on a new elemental base, you can create this! drinks
    1. v.lyamkin
      v.lyamkin 10 October 2013 13: 10
      I still remember: it was possible to warm the ownerless Felix, but my conscience woke up at the wrong time.
    2. Mature naturalist
      Mature naturalist 11 October 2013 13: 32
      Quote: Asan Ata
      Once upon a time I worked on Felix, this is a technique, on it all our bombs were counted!

      It was a cool typewriter: it cared nothing about viruses, and even coffee spilled on the keyboard ...
      1. uzer 13
        uzer 13 11 October 2013 17: 17
        You are right, a reliable thing, you also had to count on it. That's just the calculators that appeared and killed this computer technology monster.
  13. iConst
    iConst 10 October 2013 15: 50
    Quote: air wolf
    How much money do we give to the West for this shit!
    Well, Vin platform is far from .. exactly. I will say this as a developer.

    But the fact that the policy of our elite feeds the Americans is for sure. The Chinese have long adopted a program to develop their OS. And they did it - based on Linux. What cut off many billions to the same Melkosoft.
  14. drop
    drop 10 October 2013 19: 12
    The article is well written. I want to devote readers to some of the subtleties of the work of that period. I headed the Academy of Defense Industries. The head of the department "Supercomputer" at the Academy was the Deputy Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Babayan Arnold Leonidovich Plotkin, an outstanding specialist, scientist. All military specialists who, after graduating from the Academies, were sent to the "Centers" to work on the Elbrus computer, were trained at the Academy, received diplomas after passing the exams and were allowed to work. We appreciated the technique. B. Babayan himself was always present at the exams.
  15. uzer 13
    uzer 13 10 October 2013 20: 07
    The first computer I was lucky to see was about 4 meters long, 2 meters high and a little less than a meter wide. It was made on lamps and assembled from some kind of square modules, apparently logical assemblies. It was programmed with cardboard punched cards. The power consumption was, of course Computing, too, about the level of a cheap school calculator - and this made a great impression on people who were used to doing calculations using a slide rule. There were no calculators at all. But there were wrist watches on LEDs, called Electronics, with beautiful red numbers . The batteries did not last long, but it was problematic to buy them. When the first household computers appeared on sale, tables with programs in machine codes (not in BASIC for sure) were regularly published in technical journals, and even with a control number. The program had to be manually "hammered" "into the computer. Usually these were simple games like tennis. Cassette tape was used as an external memory For those who had home phones in their apartment, they could easily organize a local network for the exchange of programs. To do this, it was necessary to make a modem with 2 transistors, after which the transfer of information from the tape recorder to the telephone network became possible. What else would lie? the widespread penetration of the computer into the life of Russian citizens began to occur in the early 2000s along with the Pentium-3 processor and Windows 98 OS. By that time floppy and CD drives, user programs, monitors and other necessary things appeared, prices became more affordable, it made sense to teach children this nonsense, in general, there were initial conditions for the computerization of the entire country.
  16. Misantrop
    Misantrop 10 October 2013 20: 35
    Quote: uzer 13
    There were no calculators at all then. But there was a wristwatch with LEDs, called Electronics, with beautiful red numbers. There were not enough batteries for a short time, and it was problematic to buy them.
    And "then" is when? I had my wrist watch "Electronics" in 1979. Heavy as brass knuckles lol They worked on their own battery for up to six months, I don't remember any problems with replacement. Then I bought myself a calculator, too many coursework had to be counted. It was worth nonsense, as I recall. A year later I bought an engineering, more serious "BZ-35". And a couple of years later I took a programmable MK-52 with an external engineering block of programs. By the way, he is still alive. At the same time, in the 78th, the school had a rather powerful computer "M-222" and the installation of the newer "ES-1033" was coming to an end. The first personal computer was "Microsha" with 16 kb of all memory and with a block for connecting to a tube TV. Then the more advanced Radio-86RK and Sinclair came along. Well, then there was a lot of things ...
    Quote: uzer 13
    The really widespread penetration of the computer into the life of Russian citizens began to occur in the early 2000s, along with the Pentium-3 processor and Windows 98 OS
    In fact, the 98th Windows appeared significantly earlier than the third Pentium. The 95th Windows was standard even on the 133rd processor, and the 98th already ran well on the 166th and 200th processors. In reality, similar to modern computers "went to the masses" somewhere starting from the 286 processor (although friends still have the 86th in working order), long before the very first Pentium. The people dispersed them, upgraded them, a bunch of firms with spare parts appeared ...
    1. Mature naturalist
      Mature naturalist 11 October 2013 13: 35
      Quote: Misantrop
      Then I bought myself a calculator, too many exchange rate accounted for. Nonsense was, as I recall.

      Not a damn thing. And it was decent. I bought Sharp in the commission - I gave 130 rubles. - monthly salary of a senior engineer ...
    2. uzer 13
      uzer 13 11 October 2013 17: 25
      The clock appeared around 73-74, and then there were no calculators (and this is in Leningrad) and there was no talk about windows 98, but about the possibility of ordinary citizens to buy a computer. My friends bought them with their money, and not with folders.
  17. ESVSerge
    ESVSerge 10 October 2013 20: 38
    Quote: Gato
    We? Do you have a licensed Windows? Do many forum users have a license installed?
    Personally, I haven’t spent a penny in my life buying software. And I think - I'm not alone.

    I have both Windows and Photoshop and an antivirus and even an office license. And at work, everything is licensed. Now, after people in Russia began to respect other people's work and buy software, new programs began to appear more and more, including in Russian. I sometimes felt like a Papuan, when in many programs there were no Russian among a dozen or two languages.

    By the way, computers based on elbrus are now producing craftware:
    ykh-pk-na-baze-mikroprotsessora-elbrus-2s- /

    And here the Windows is loaded on the old Elbrus-Elbrus-3M1:
  18. ran nearby
    ran nearby 10 October 2013 20: 53
    Thanks to the author. Youth remembered :).
    The first computer, on which he worked - "NAIRI-K" The dialogue mode of operation was solved with the help of the typewriter "Consul" - a power! Then there was ES EVM 1036. Punch cards were lifted like a mine! Type a program for 50 tons of cards :), hand it over to work, you come for the result - and there is garbage: (the machine swears. Look for a map with an error, retype it all over again :). Then he got acquainted with the miracle of hostile technology - "Yamaha-KUVT" sixteen computers in a single local network. Teacher's room even with a color monitor. and the toys on it were funny ...
    And that's all at school, 84th - 86th years.
    And right now, my weak laptop is more powerful than EESok, probably about three or four
    1. Was mammoth
      Was mammoth 10 October 2013 21: 36
      Quote: next to run
      ... got acquainted with the miracle of hostile technology - "Yamaha-KUVT" sixteen computers in a single local network. Teacher's room even with a color monitor. and the toys on it were funny ...

      And I put them, and repaired. Our children are the coolest! I still can’t understand how you can push an entire matchbox into the drive.
      Quote: Su-9
      It is admirable that during the Soviet era of the 70-80s, when the general line was chosen to copy the 360 ​​system from IBM, the number of new original developments was great, and they actually kept pace with the times.

      It's true. And often better. The first Windows is generally horror. Only IBM outplayed everyone. Oddly enough, very simple. Their interface was open, free, and all others demanded to pay for its use.
      And here is the 286th when it appeared! It can be compared with Kalash.
  19. saag
    saag 10 October 2013 21: 06
    1036, I had 1022 and at 1036 we looked like tomorrow’s technique :-)
  20. Yankuz
    Yankuz 10 October 2013 21: 31
    Cool article! I remembered the young student years - in the picture just the computer on which we learned to program:
  21. zub46
    zub46 10 October 2013 22: 09
    Quote: Su-9
    answer first at least why would the Lada require bulkheads after purchase.

    With regard to "Zhiguli". In those days, it was an exceptionally high quality and reliable car. Individual copies, like my former VAZ-21011, produced in 1980, having changed three owners, is still running.
  22. Enot-poloskun
    Enot-poloskun 10 October 2013 22: 10
    I believe that we will see more domestic computers with the Russian OS on our desktop!

    Our people’s hands are golden, their heads are bright!

    Not all the time to feed Billy Gates, but use bitten apples!

    PS The only thing left is to put Chubais (not a cat), shake the liards out of him and use this funding to create the production of a Russian hardware base for a PC that meets modern requirements.

    And they will do that with us!
  23. Letterksi
    Letterksi 10 October 2013 23: 33
    Elbrus - this seems to be just what is inserted into the S-300 and S-400
  24. Mika712
    Mika712 10 October 2013 23: 37

    About 20 years ago, I ran to the institute, clutching to my chest a book about a supermachine - Elbrus. The elderly teacher, seeing the book, mysteriously grunted: "Ah, el-Burrows ...".
    The Burroughs office was good. I tried to make a processor that works in a high-level language. Entered the competition with IBM and was trampled by it.
    For some time she survived at the expense of supercomputers. These are the brainchilds of Barrows and penetrated the Iron Curtain and gave rise to the subject described above.
  25. 528Obrp
    528Obrp 11 October 2013 05: 46
    Von Neumann is outdated :)
    And there’s also such a thing
    And already for sale. But I think it's damp.
  26. Asan Ata
    Asan Ata 11 October 2013 07: 03
    The first computer, which I saw - "Ural", in 1969. Calculator - Commodor - 1977 - pride on the stream, with a gas discharge screen, girls broke after the first night of calculations. Our people from the department told how the first calculators were made: Western microcircuits were stupidly copied, layers of microcircuits were removed by grinding.
    1. 528Obrp
      528Obrp 11 October 2013 07: 14
      Quote: Asan Ata
      microcircuits stupidly copied, by grinding removed layers with microcircuits.
      Not certainly in that way. The case is removed, then the photoresist and silicon are washed off in layers, and a photo is taken after each layer. Silicon is washed off with a mixture of hydrofluoric acid with some kind of muck, and this muck does not damage the photoresist. And the photoresist is washed off by another solution, for example, alkali. And then a crystal is reproduced from the photo - silicon is coated with a photoresist, illuminated and manifested. And so layer by layer. The example is greatly simplified, but the technology is.
  27. Des10
    Des10 11 October 2013 07: 47
    He started his studies at the institute on "Nairi", served the EC1066 ... Thanks for the article.
  28. Asgard
    Asgard 11 October 2013 08: 45
    Science in our pen, there is a certain opposition ....
    It’s not for nothing that they took up the Academicians, jammed them, did not give money, and the People still build and implement something)))) And the commission on false science is no longer working-People stopped contacting the RAS (everything is in garages))) and there are just fantastic developments .....
    Wait, when the Thieves run the state’s policy, nobody gives them anything ...
    Since everything will flow to the "west" and will continue to agonize in the dollar environment))))
    Our people are talented and make for mere pennies ...
    I have two OSs on my computer, 8 (cut-off, unlicensed))) processed by Russian boys - it loads in 7 seconds, the second is a little more-full of programs in the background, but you can work incognito on the Internet ... (without putting in a course provider)))
    So the Russians cannot be defeated, but everything in the media = THIS IS NOT true (this is Wishlist)))
  29. jagdpanzer
    jagdpanzer 5 November 2013 20: 40
    my first comp was Vector Ob in the early 90s, actually one keyboard and was a comp, everything else was separate, cracked for half an hour, then bam crashed and went off again laughing but plowed oddly enough! As much as 64 KB of RAM! laughing
  30. Izhevec
    Izhevec 5 December 2015 09: 49
    Elbrus PCs began to be assembled in Izhevsk. TASS reported