Our country has always been the focus of Western intelligence services. In addition to undercover intelligence, much attention was paid to the collection of information using technical means.
In addition to electronic scanning, from the end of 40's, over the territory of the USSR began mass flights of reconnaissance aircraft of NATO countries. Especially in this case, "distinguished" the Americans.
Since the summer of 1956, high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft RB-57 and U-2 began to fly over the USSR regularly. They repeatedly flew with impunity over large administrative and industrial centers, cosmodromes and rocket ranges. The invasion of aerial reconnaissance aircraft deep into the USSR ceased only after the 1 of May 1960 of the year before the Sverdlovsk anti-aircraft missile was shot down by the previously unattainable US high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft U-2.
However, even after this, the mass launch of reconnaissance balloon probes continued. However, their effectiveness was not great, since it is almost impossible to predict the exact route of the span. The launch of balloons was rather provocative in nature, with the goal of keeping the Soviet air defense system in suspense.
Almost immediately after the beginning of space exploration in the USA, the possibility of collecting visual information from orbit was assessed. The extraterritoriality of the near-Earth space allows any artificial space object to fly over the territory of any state.
The launch plan for satellites, developed in 1956, provided for the performance of both reconnaissance functions (observation from space of Soviet objects) and the detection of launches of ballistic missiles. During the Cold War, the US military space program was aimed at gathering intelligence information about the Soviet Union.
The first successful return of the captured film was made from the Discoverer-14 satellite, which was put into 18 August 1960 orbit. Operation of the first series of satellites equipped with close-up imagery began in July 1963. KH-7 satellites took pictures with a resolution of 0,46 m. In 1967, they were replaced by the KH-8 satellite (with a resolution of 0,3) ) operated up to 1984g. Satellite KH-9 with a wide area survey with 0,6 resolution m was launched in 1971.
Reception part of the radar "Danube-3". Photo taken by the American reconnaissance satellite KH-7 in 1967
However, the use of returned film capsules was associated with a high risk of their loss; in the 1963, Samos satellites were launched, information from which could be transmitted to the ground. However, the image quality at first left much to be desired.
A fundamental solution to the problem was the development of a system of electronic data transmission in real time. From 1976 to the end of the program at the beginning of 1990's. The United States launched eight satellites of the KH-11 series with electronic data transmission system. These satellites made it possible to significantly increase the capabilities of space visual reconnaissance.
At the end of 1980's advanced satellites of the KH-11 series (weighing ~ 14 t), operating in the infrared region of the spectrum. Equipped with a main mirror with a diameter of 2 m, these satellites gave a resolution of ~ 15 cm.
In July, 2008, the US Department of Defense announced its intention to buy and deploy another one or two commercial satellites and construct another, more advanced model that would greatly facilitate tracking of areas of interest from space. These satellites can track the movement of potential enemy troops, assess the degree of "activity" in the proposed sites for the construction of nuclear facilities, detect the emergence of militant training camps. New devices can significantly enhance the operating in orbit spy network, working on the system "mosaic". Satellites can transmit photos more often, regularly updating the overall picture. In addition to intelligence purposes, the new system has civilian use. With the help of these satellites, one can learn in advance about future natural disasters, about the approach of natural disasters and to warn in time, evacuate the population, satellite images are widely used in the commercial market in the field of cartography and geology.
As part of the civil use of satellite imagery, the Google search engine launched the Google Earth project, making the images publicly available. Of course, the resolution of these images is often far from the desired and updated, not as often as we would like, but even they allow us to assess the state of the defense potential of our country.
As part of the Strategic Missile Forces as of 1 June 2013, there were 395 missile systems capable of carrying 1 303 nuclear warheads, including the Strategic Missile Forces included: 58 heavy P-36MTHXX and P-36XXXXX (X-XXXXX) heavy missiles and P-2XXXX (X-XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX) Satan), 18 missiles UR-70N UTTH (SS-100), 19 mobile ground complex RT-171PM "Topol" (SS-2), 25 complexes PT-60PM2 "Topol-M" of mine base (SS-SyN-2) SS-27 (Mineral) Mobile complexes RT-18PM2 Topol-M (SS-2) and 27 mobile complexes PC-18 Yars.
Russian strategic ICBMs based in the Strategic Missile Forces deployed in the positional areas of 11-rocket divisions, three rocket armies
Mine launchers Р-36М2, in the region of p. Dombarovsky, Orenburg region
Mine launchers RT-2PM2 "Topol-M", r-on Tatishevo, Saratov region
RT-2PM2 "Topol-M" (mobile base), Closed "Industrial" Siberian
In the combat strength of the Navy Fleet Russian Armed Forces is located 7 strategic missile carriers. The ballistic missiles that the missile carriers are equipped with are capable of carrying 512 nuclear warheads.
SSBN Ave. 667BDRM “Dolphin”, Vilyuchinsk, Kamchatka
Withdrawn from the fleet of SSBN Ave 941 "Shark" on the territory of the shipyard in Severodvinsk
SSBN "Yuri Dolgoruky" pr.955 "Borey" on the territory of the ship repair plant in Severodvinsk
The composition of the strategic aviation includes 45 strategic bombers, (13 Tu-160 and 32 Tu-95MS6 / Tu-95MS16) which are capable of carrying up to 508 long-range cruise missiles.
Tu-95 and Tu-160 at Engels Airfield
In total, therefore, as of 22 June 2013, the 448 of carriers capable of carrying 2 323 nuclear warheads were part of the Russian strategic nuclear forces. In fact, these carriers carry only 1480 nuclear warheads, since not all SLBMs on nuclear submarines are equipped with the "regular" number of nuclear rocket launchers, and the X-55 and X-555 cruise missiles are not deployed at all on strategic missile-carrier bombers.
A-135 ABM system has been deployed around Moscow. It is designed to repel a limited nuclear strike on the Russian capital and the central industrial region. It consists of the Don-2Н radar, command and measurement station and 68T53 (Gazelle) 6 anti-missile interceptor missiles, designed for interception in the atmosphere. 32 long-range 51T6 (Gorgon) anti-missiles with megaton thermonuclear warheads designed to carry out interception outside the atmosphere, removed from the system. Anti-missiles are located in the mine launchers. The system was put into service and put on alert in 1995 year.
Radar "Don-2", Sofrino
Mine missile, Ascherino
The ground component of the Missile Attack Warning System (EWS) are radars controlling outer space. Daryal-type detection radar is an over-the-horizon radar missile attack warning system (SPRN). The development was carried out from 1970-s, in 1984, the station was commissioned.
Daryal radar in Pechora, Komi Republic
The Daryal-type stations should be replaced by a new generation of Voronezh radar stations, which are being built in a year and a half (previously it took from 5 to 10 years).
The newest Russian radar of the Voronezh family is capable of detecting ballistic, space and aerodynamic objects. There are options that operate in the range of meter and decimeter waves. The basis of the radar is a phased array antenna, a fast-assembled module for personnel and several containers with radio-electronic equipment, which makes it possible to modernize the station quickly and at low cost during operation.
Radar Voronezh-M, p. Lekhtusi, Leningrad Region (object 4524, military unit 73845)
Adoption of "Voronezh" allows not only to significantly expand the capabilities of the rocket and space defense, but also to focus the ground grouping of the missile attack warning system on the territory of the Russian Federation.
The Krona radio engineering complex built in Karachay-Cherkessia is intended to control outer space and recognize space objects.
The Krona complex took up combat duty in 2000 and consists of 2's main parts: a laser-optical locator and a radar station. After computer processing, the data received by him are transferred to the CCC, the Center for Control of Outer Space
In the Far East, not far from Komsomolsk-on-Amur, is located one of the two existing KPPSs.
The seven 300-tonne antennas installed here continuously monitor the constellation of military satellites in high-elliptical and geostationary orbits.
Satellites with the help of an infrared matrix with low sensitivity record the launch of each MBR or ILV on the radiated torch and immediately transmit information to the control panel SPRN.
Optical-electronic space monitoring system - OKE Okno (Nurek, military unit 52168). It is a component of the space monitoring system (SSS). Designed to quickly obtain information about the space situation, cataloging space objects of artificial origin, determine their class, purpose and current status. The complex allows detecting any space objects at altitudes from 2000 km and up to the geostationary orbit.
The complex is located at an altitude of 2216 m above sea level in the Sanglok Mountains (Pamir), near the town of Nurek (Tajikistan) in the Khodzharki village. It is the property of Russia and is part of the space forces.
The Pacific Fleet is the only ship of the measuring complex (KIK) Marshal Krylov.
It is intended to control the flight parameters of rockets at various segments of the trajectory, as a continuation of ground-based scientific measuring points and to ensure the testing of ICBMs at the ultimate range.
The Russian Navy as a part of four fleets and the Caspian flotilla, as of the middle of 2013, there were 208 warships and boats and 68 submarines. A significant part of the ships is in permanent "repair" lasting for decades or in "reserve".
The Northern Fleet is considered to be the most combat-ready, and the only aircraft-carrying cruiser Admiral Kuznetsov is based in the region of Murmansk.
Surface ships in Severomorsk
DPL and NPS in Gadzhievo
Surface ships of the Pacific Fleet in Vladivostok
Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol
Ekranoplan and hovercraft in Kaspiysk
Naval aviation is in very poor condition. At the end of 2012, the aircraft fleet of naval aviation numbered around 300 aircraft: 24 Su-24 / MP, 21 Su-33 (in flight state no more than 12), 16 Tu-142 (in flight state no more than 10), 4 Su-25 279 UTG (16-th ship's air regiment), 38 IL-10 (in the flying state no more than 7), 12 Be-95 (mainly on the Black Sea Fleet, will be written off soon), 27 Ka-70 (no more than 10 are operational) , 29 Ka-16 (assigned to marines), 8 Ni-11, 12 AN-47 (somewhat razvedvariantah and EW), 24-26 An and An-8, 72 AN-5, 134 Tu-2, 154 Tu 2, 18 IL-1, 22 IL-1, 20 IL-4, 134 Tu-50UBL. Of these, technically sound, capable of performing a combat mission in full, no more than XNUMX%.
Patrol IL-38 at Nikolaevka airfield, Primorsky Krai
According to official data, the strength of the Russian Air Force as of May 2013 was –738 fighters, 163 bomber, 153 attack aircraft, 372 transport aircraft, 18 tankers, around 200 TCB and 500 other aircraft. This number includes aircraft that are in "storage" and in long repair.
VKP IL-80 at Chkalovsky airfield
DRLO A-50 aircraft at the airfield in Ivanovo
ATS An-22 and IL-76 at the airport in Ivanovo
Tu-22M at the airfield Shaykovka
Combat aircraft at Akhtubinsk airfield
Su-24, Su-25, Su-34 at the aerodrome of the Battlefield Operations Center in Lipetsk
Planes of the Russian Knights band in Kubinka
MiG-29 at the Lugovitsy Aerodrome
MiG-31 and Su-27 at the Angular aerodrome (Vladivostok)
Unlike the United States, where warplanes can be stored at Davis-Monten airbase for decades, in our country, decommissioned airplanes very quickly turn into scrap metal.
MiG-27 in "storage"
The Air Force consists of anti-aircraft missile forces, there are about 2000 PU ZRK C-300, C-400, "Beech" and "Pantsir-C 1"
Kapustin Yar test site
ZRK C-400 in the district of Elektrostal
LAW C-300, Irkutsk
The most modern are the C-400 and the Armor-C 1. However, the pace of their entry into the troops cannot be considered satisfactory. The problem is further aggravated by the fact that most of the complexes launched during Soviet times have practically exhausted their resources, the newest C-300P entered service with the Russian army in 1994, the element base is outdated, and new missiles are not produced for them.
At the end of the review, especially for lovers of secrecy, in order to avoid accusations of disclosing information constituting state secrets, all the data cited are taken from public, publicly available sources, a list of which is listed.
KV Chuprin "Reference book Armed forces of the CIS and Baltic countries".
Images courtesy of Google Earth.