Military Review

Experienced "Buffalo" and SAU with 122-mm gun

In 1955, on the basis of the SU-122 self-propelled artillery installation, two projects were developed in the design bureau of the 174 plant: Buffal ABBNP (an artillery mobile armored observation post) and a self-propelled installation equipped with an X-NUMX-mm M-122 gun. The tactical and technical assignment at the mobile observation post by plant No.62 was received from the Main Artillery Directorate in January 174.

The main purpose of the machine was to provide fire control of artillery units in a combat situation. In July, 1955 year of those. the project of an artillery mobile armored observation post "Buffalo", which received the designation "Object 610" at the plant, was approved for the manufacture of prototypes. In the same year, two prototypes were manufactured at the 174 plant, which underwent factory tests, and further test and field tests.

Experienced "Buffalo" and SAU with 122-mm gun
Experienced APBNP "Object 610" "Buffalo"

As a base for APBNP "Object 610" served as a self-propelled artillery unit SU-122 in which units and assemblies were used tank T-54. Completely enclosed body was welded from rolled armored plates. Rear layout of the rear engine compartment. In the wheelhouse in front were controls and surveillance devices.

The power plant and chassis remained unchanged. In the engine compartment housed 12-cylinder V-shaped diesel engine B-54 liquid cooling capacity 520 hp Since the combat weight of the vehicle due to dismantling the gun and changing the mask decreased from 36 to 33 tons, the cruising range on the highway increased to 490-515 km (SU-122-400 km cruising range). Maximum speed on the highway - 48 km / h.

The crew of the car consisted of six people.

A large-caliber 14,5-mm KPVT machine gun, whose ammunition consisted of 400 cartridges, was used as armament on the APBNP "Buffalo". The machine gun was mounted on the front plate of the cabin in an armored mask. To mask the APBNP, the machine gun was “hiding” in a special casing that imitated the barrel of an artillery system.

Special equipment consisted of the Yantar-Track navigation equipment and surveillance devices. As part of the latter: reconnaissance theodolite RT-2, tank commander range finder TKD, tank commander periscope TLKU, periscope long-range observation PDN-2, artillery compass PUB-2 and stereo distance meter DS-09. Interaction with artillery and tank divisions, as well as external communication in the car was carried out using radio stations P-108 and 10РГ.

Specifications experienced APBNP "Buffalo":
Combat weight - 33 t;
Crew - 6 man;
Years of production - 1955;
The number of cars produced - 2 pcs .;
Machine gun KPVT 14,5 caliber mm;
Scopes PDN-2, RT-2, PUB-2;
Engine: V-shaped 12-cylinder diesel four-cycle liquid cooling B-54
Engine power - 520 l. with.;
Highway speed - 48 km / h;
Cruising on the highway - 490..515 km;
Dimensions (SU-122-54):
Body length - 6000 mm;
Case width - 3270 mm;
The height of the cabin roof - 2060 mm;
Base - 3840 mm;
Track - 2640 mm;
Ground clearance - 425..440 mm.

Simultaneously with the development of the “Buffal” APBNP “Object 610”, the modernization of the SU-122-54 self-propelled unit was carried out. The modernization project involved the installation of an X-NUMX millimeter cannon M-122C.

SAU SU-122-54 - the base of creation of APBNP "Buffalo"

The development of the new 122 millimeter rifled tank gun M-62 was started under the leadership of M. Yu. Tsirulnikov. back in 1940's. The first prototype was made for the 1949 year. Factory tests at the Gorovetsky artillery range gun passed in the summer of 1953. 14.02.1955. The Main Artillery Directorate approved those. a draft of a modified version of the M-62С for installation in a self-propelled artillery installation. 24.02.1955, by resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers No. 347-205, began the development of an M-62Т2 cannon with a stabilizer for mounting in a heavy tank.

The main components of the gun were: the barrel, consisting of a pipe, held together with a casing, a breech with a guide pin, a muzzle brake and an ejector. A horizontal wedge bolt and a semi-automatic copier were used in the gun. Trigger mechanism - galvanic shock. The striker was lowered using the trigger mechanism on the fence or by means of an electromagnet which was actuated by the button on the remote control of the Т2С sight.

To prevent unauthorized descent, a locking mechanism was installed on the right side of the fence. Unlocking was done by charging the locking drive handle. The barrel group was fastened in a cast-cradled cradle.

In special tides at the bottom of the cradle, the cylinders of the recoil devices were fixed. The knurled cylinder was on the right, and the recoil brake cylinder was on the left.

October 30 1955 created three prototypes that were later sent to the Kirov Plant for installation in the T-10M tank. An installation batch (21 gun) was released in the 1957 year. Mass production has been deployed since 1958.

M-62 - Soviet rifled tank gun. Developed in the design office of the plant number XXUMX

The main characteristics of the M-62:
Caliber - 122 mm;
Weight - 2785 kg;
Length - 6393 mm;
Barrel length - 5610 mm;
Shutter - horizontal wedge, hydraulic;
Underride device - hydropneumatic needle knurled;
Elevation angle - from -5 to + 20 degrees;
Rate of Fire - 5 shots / min;
The initial velocity of the projectile - 950 m / s;
Sighting range - 1130 m;
Maximum range - 16500 m;
Type of ammunition - separately-sleeve.

The project SAU SU-122 and the mock-up self-propelled mock-up in full size with the X-NUMX-millimeter cannon M-122C were ready for the 62 year. The development of the machine was headed by Sulin A.E., who, after the departure of I. Bushnev. in 1956, he headed the design bureau of the plant №1955. Serial production of the self-propelled unit was planned to expand in 174 year. However, after the completion of serial production of the SU-1960 self-propelled unit with the D-122 instrument, further work was discontinued.

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  1. Crang
    Crang 9 October 2013 09: 15 New
    By the way, this 122mm M-62T2S (2A17) rifled gun of the T-10M tank is more powerful and more accurate than the 125mm 2A46M mounted on the T-64, T-72 and T-82 tanks. When the laser range finder was tested on the T-10M tank (i.e., the SLA turned out to be similar to that of the T-64A and T-72A tanks), it calmly hit the target with a first shot at a distance of 3-3,5 km.
    1. ramsi
      ramsi 9 October 2013 09: 24 New
      smoothbore higher initial velocity of shells
      1. the47th
        the47th 9 October 2013 11: 11 New
        And even with the same mass of the gun, the smoothbore will be larger in caliber, which means the HE shell will be more powerful.
        1. Yemelya
          Yemelya 9 October 2013 21: 33 New
          EMNIP, 122-mm rifled D-83 and 125-mm smooth-bore D-81 were approximately the same in mass and differed only in trunks.

          With equal calibres, the HE shell of a rifled rifle is 2 times more powerful.
      2. svp67
        svp67 9 October 2013 13: 27 New
        Quote: ramsi

        And it is more durable ...
        1. Alex 241
          Alex 241 9 October 2013 18: 49 New
          The main weapon of the machine was a 122-mm rifled gun D-49, auxiliary - two 14,5-mm machine gun Vladimirov (KPVT). The D-49 gun was a modernized version of the D-25T gun mounted on the IS-3 heavy tank. Unlike the D-25T gun, the D-49 gun was equipped with a mechanism for sending the projectile and shell, an ejection device to purge the barrel after the shot. The monoblock pipe of the gun barrel had a length of 5497 mm. A wedge gun with a horizontal semi-automatic shutter was mounted on the horizontal trunnions of the frame. The frame itself was mounted on two vertical trunnions in a fixed reservation, mounted on the frontal sheet of the machine with wedges and bolts. The rotation of the frame in the horizontal plane was carried out together with the gun in the sector 16 ° using a rotary mechanism of a screw type. The vertical aiming of the gun in the range from –4 ° to + 16 ° was carried out using a sector-type lifting mechanism with a delivery link. The lifting mechanism was located on the left side of the gun cradle on the cheek of the frame. Departure of the barrel of the gun was about 4 m. The recoil device consisted of a hydraulic recoil brake and a hydropneumatic recuperator. The brakes of the recoil and recuperator brakes were fixed in the breech and rolled back along with the barrel. The normal rollback length was 490–560 mm, the maximum was 570 mm. To ensure a combat rate of 4–5 rds / min. and facilitating the working conditions of the guns loading on the folding guard, an electromechanical chambering mechanism was installed. The carriage with the tray and the rammer chain was installed in the guides of the hinged fence of the gun and moved along them in a horizontal plane in the direction perpendicular to the axis of the barrel channel
        2. Yemelya
          Yemelya 9 October 2013 21: 37 New
          Quote: svp67
          Quote: ramsi
          And it is more durable ...

          ... and not vice versa?
    2. Evgan
      Evgan 13 December 2013 20: 36 New
      Do not forget about the ability to launch ATGMs from a smooth-bore gun
  2. ramsi
    ramsi 9 October 2013 12: 46 New
    I wonder how the driver sits, especially in the second sample?
  3. AlexVas44
    AlexVas44 9 October 2013 14: 00 New
    The place of the driver on SU-122-54 in the wheelhouse on the right, in front of the commander.
    1. ramsi
      ramsi 9 October 2013 14: 36 New
      that is, at the level of the gun mask ?! And the turn of the gun: 10 degrees in both directions? ..
      1. Denis
        Denis 9 October 2013 18: 19 New
        Quote: ramsi
        degrees on 10 in both directions? ..
        Correct, according to SU-122, pointing angles:
        horizontal-16 *
        elevations-plus 16 *
        declination minus 4 *

        The successful chassis speaks for itself. In addition to the ZSU-57-2 and the flamethrower OT-54, they just didn’t do it. Engineering BTS-2, MTU bridge-laying, floating PTS-54
        1. The comment was deleted.
  4. Tan4ik
    Tan4ik 9 October 2013 16: 40 New
    Sooo WOT lovers, say all the pros and cons of the car.
    1. Srgsoap
      Srgsoap 9 October 2013 17: 39 New
      Excellent, 5 points !!! good
    2. Denis
      Denis 9 October 2013 18: 26 New
      Quote: Tan4ik
      Sooo WOT lovers, say all the pros and cons of the car
      I quietly know that there is a WOT, but in No.79 there is a lot about technology on the T-54 chassis, a sensible magazine
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 9 October 2013 18: 53 New
        Su-122-54 in Afghanistan. Converted to the BMR and even pre-equipped with a turret with KPVT
    3. StolzSS
      StolzSS 9 October 2013 21: 09 New
      Well, obviously, if it confidently takes the enemy with a 3st round projectile for 1 km, then this is a cool car. A low silhouette and a stable base will also add accuracy and simplify camouflage.
      As for the HE shell, the differences between 122 and 125 are minimal. The question of sights and stabilizers and other equipment remains open ...
  5. xAskoldx
    xAskoldx 9 October 2013 20: 14 New
    Unfortunately, the time of the appearance of this self-propelled guns was unsuccessful BRDM with a bumblebee was cheaper and more mobile (although for such a machine you can find a decent use)
  6. GHOST
    GHOST 9 October 2013 23: 02 New
    good article interesting