Military Review

Russian OPK: 20 years later ...

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Dmitry Rogozin for the first time spoke about what actually happened in our “defense” in recent years and about new developments of weapons and military equipment


October 2 held a working meeting between the Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, Dmitry ROGOZIN, and the editors-in-chief and reviewers of the leading Russian mass media. The conversation was in off the record format, but we found it possible to tell the readers of the Military-Industrial Courier about some points of the conversation.

“This year we held three major events at once which we would hardly have decided before,” began Dmitry Rogozin. - This is the International St. Petersburg Naval Salon, MAKS-2013, an exhibition of weapons in Nizhny Tagil. The same MAKS was notable for the fact that we showed new equipment in the air, which was presented not in single copies, but in small series. ”

Tactical breakthrough

Rogozin highly appreciated the results of the Russian arms exhibition in Nizhny Tagil Russia Arms EXPO 2013. It became a kind of milestone, because it was possible to perform the enormous complexity of the work on the preparation of completely new types of weapons and military equipment, in particular, three armored platforms: Armata, Boomerang, Kurganets.

Recall that the Armata is a modular heavy armored tracked vehicle, which is built with the widest use of electronics. There is no mechanical control at all. The very idea of ​​creating an “Armata” is such that the creation of a whole family of armored vehicles is ensured on the same tracked platform. This is including a heavy tank with a 125-mm gun. A new ammunition is being developed for it, which will allow it to effectively combat both armored targets and infantry. This is a heavy infantry fighting vehicle with tank the armor is very comfortable, according to Rogozin, for a motorized infantry vehicle that allows safe delivery of squads to the battlefield. Finally, it is an engineering machine that can evacuate a tank and in combat conditions replace failed units thanks to their modular layout. In general, the Armata platform is designed to create about 10 models of various military vehicles.

The same can be said about "Boomerang." This is a wheeled vehicle with increased resistance to high-explosive mine combat with a unique combat module.

“We are currently working on the latest idea of ​​our great designer Arkady Georgievich Shipunov, who recently, unfortunately, has passed away,” Rogozin said. - A year ago we talked with him on this topic. It was about the combat module called "Epoch".

The meaning of Shipunov's idea is to ensure, within one combat unit, the maximum filling of a combat vehicle with dense fire. So that one unit of armored vehicles with such an uninhabited tower could actually fight with airborne and armored vehicles, as well as with infantry. Therefore, the project is very promising.

"Kurganets" - lighter tracked vehicles compared to "Armata". All samples came to the closed show in Nizhny Tagil with their own power, with their own electronics, practically worked out systems. A total of about 10 samples of weapons and military equipment were presented, including machines of enhanced armor protection of the KamAZ and Ural plants.

“After the completion of their state tests, we will make the first purchases so that this equipment will be presented as a serial at the 9 Victory Parade of May 2015,” Rogozin said with optimism.

Work is also actively underway on the “Terminator-2” - a vehicle with tank armor, intended mainly for export deliveries. Conventionally, it is called the tank support combat vehicle (BMPT), which, according to him, is not quite right. BMPT has a universal range of applications and can not only support tanks, but also independently conduct combat operations, including in urban environments. “If we had such a machine in 1994 – 1995, then the outcome of all the battles would be completely different and there would be no such losses in Grozny and other localities of the Czech Republic,” the deputy prime minister said.

As Rogozin noted, the creation of a whole family of modern combat vehicles is a tactical breakthrough, as we managed to quickly, in a timely manner, carry out all the work on the production of prototypes, complete research and go to the ROC. This in turn made it possible to catch up with the lag in the production of armored vehicles that we had. And today, even the representatives of the Ministry of Defense give completely different, more favorable forecast estimates, including on the Terminator.

In general, the government now has the most difficult moment in working with the Federal Assembly. “We are starting to discuss the budget and went to protect all the main defense articles, not to shift tasks on the GOZ, as we say, to the right, not to transfer them over 2020 a year,” Rogozin said. - Of course, the defense budget will grow in relation to other items that are shrinking. But why did we go for it? Because you can not cut the chicken that lays the golden eggs. "

It’s impossible to make an industry work worse than it can. She already had a lot of problems in the past years, and now we are restoring many enterprises, we are training personnel, we are buying new equipment. All this affects the volume and quality of production, labor productivity.

Enough, of course, and problems. Today, 20 holds thousands of T-72 tanks with which to do something. Under the previous leadership of the Ministry of Defense, they were modernized by paying a lot of money to Uralvagonzavod. Although, according to Rogozin, it was easier to take for this T-90. Moreover, the difference in the price of upgrading the T-72 and T-90 was only two or three million rubles. But the new ideas expressed by Uralvagonzavod, suggest that you can turn the T-72 into a good three-crew combat vehicle. Apparently, the deputy prime minister liked these proposals. “Without having special training, I myself went on this machine (T-72) to the combat line and was able to conduct aimed fire at targets,” he recalled. - And quite easily. It's hard not to get out of this car. ”

Speaking about the situation in the defense industry, Dmitry Rogozin first named the following figures. In various industries, we have an increase in production volumes of 12 – 14 percent, in particular in the aircraft and shipbuilding, electronics industries. So far, he is lagging behind wage growth, but overall, its increase in the defense industry from 23 to 25 percent in one year is a decent figure. The most complex enterprises, perhaps, not only in Izhevsk. And what to do with them? Or, you can add new depressive plants to the established Kalashnikov concern, hindering the growth of the rest. Either to make the Kalashnikov concern exemplary, and with the rest to solve the issue separately. As Rogozin said, every time we try to make decisions individually for each enterprise, taking into account all the circumstances. So, apparently, will be this time.

“Now I am more or less reassured about making weapons and military equipment for the Ground Forces, everything is going according to plan there,” noted Dmitry Rogozin with satisfaction. - Also for the aircraft industry, including civil, which was recently transferred under my care. We created a working group, held a meeting. At the head set not the official, but the practice - Alexander Rubtsov, who heads the financial and leasing company "Ilyushin". And curiously, all the ministries at the deputy level were present at this meeting, voted to be headed by a person who is well aware of the practice of purchasing civil aircraft.

Started from scratch

In the creation of military aircraft, everything also goes according to plan, with the exception of aircraft engine manufacturing. On this issue, the president proposes a separate meeting. The situation there is extremely difficult. This is due to the fact that in previous years the production of engines at the Kuznetsov firm was lost, it worked specifically for the strategic Aviation. A modernization of aircraft without engines can not be carried out: they simply have nowhere to take. As Rogozin noted, everything was lost there and we are essentially restoring old engines from scratch, assembling them manually, so that later we can start at least small series. Our strategic aviation should, figuratively speaking, hold out until the emergence of a new strategic bomber. By the way, the decision to create it has already been made by the president in the framework of the project "Advanced Aviation Complex for Long-Range Aviation".

Russian OPK: 20 years later ...

What other urgent tasks facing the defense industry?

The first problem is the situation with the electronic component base (ECB). The country does not even produce televisions, not to mention complex electronic devices.

The second problem is the state of the rocket and space industry. But all the necessary decisions on it have already been made and are waiting for the approval of the president. After that, the formation of a joint rocket and space corporation will begin, which will be consolidated, compact, with separate holdings: engine-building, launching systems, control systems, etc.

The third problem is special chemistry, in particular the production of powders and ammunition. For the last 20 years, there have been no orders for the state defense order at all, even the equipment has not been updated. And almost all the products produced were exported, primarily to the American market. Now we have used the respite to restructure the industry, update production. But this requires adherence to the most serious security measures, since in the shops one has to deal with perennial deposits of powder dust.

In military shipbuilding there is only one problem - the lack of the necessary production potential. However, this is the Achilles heel of the entire “defense”: old, worn-out fixed assets. Some enterprises are easier to close than to reform. Now with everyone fleets an agreement was reached on ship repair. Every enterprise knows when which ship will dock. At the suggestion of Rogozin, now at each repair plant teams of captain-mentors (engineers) are formed, who go out to sea on ships and carry out preliminary defects. And before the ship came to the dock, but no one knew what happened to it, which units needed repair.

The situation with ship repair on the Black Sea is particularly difficult, in particular in the Novorossiysk base. It requires a completely different relationship. Therefore, a decision is developed that will be adopted by the Ministry of Defense together with the industry. Rogozin promised to support him.

Difficult situation in Kamchatka, where the deputy prime minister had to personally go and understand the reasons for the many years of inactivity of one of the submarines in Vilyuchinsk. It has been standing for seven years at the wall, without repair, and the crew assigned to the submarine is forced to serve almost ashore. On closer examination, the problem was not in industry, but in the fleet itself, which under the former commander-in-chief of the Navy could not determine what to do with this boat.

Generally, when Rogozin took the post, in shipyards he stood at the walls on the ship 40, half-built, half-destroyed, with an uncertain fate. Now there are only two of them left - the same boat in Vilyuchinsk and one boat in Komsomolsk-on-Amur.

Unfortunately, in shipbuilding of the Navy there are still no clear criteria for determining the price of products, which is reflected in the formation of the HPV. But the work in this direction is the most serious.

“I have a firm belief that in the near future we will be able to stop all litigation between the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Industry and Trade and the Federal Tariff Service,” Rogozin expressed hope. “Finally, it will become clear who is responsible for the preliminary approval of prices under the new decree of the government of the Russian Federation for military products.”

For this, a harmonious pricing system based on supply and demand will be created, which will eliminate errors, will take into account the growth of tariffs and other parameters. The development strategy of USC was reviewed at the Maritime Collegium, but received many criticisms. Therefore, will be finalized. The point is to immerse all cooperation, figuratively speaking, in the USC. That is, manufacturers of shipborne equipment and weapons, other systems must operate within the USC itself, within it. So that the Ministry of Defense could order the system as a whole at once, rather than trying to negotiate separately with a bunch of performers. The same tank without a weapon system is just a tractor. Similarly, a submarine without a torpedo weapon or speaker system will not perform a combat mission. So, the procurement of this weapon requires an integrated approach.

“We have to finish this work by January next year,” Dmitry Rogozin stressed. “And report back to the Russian president on the already agreed plan for reforming the entire production of the Navy.”

As for the civil fleet, there is also work on the creation of a consortium, which will not only take over the production of civilian vessels, offshore technology, but will also work on the implementation of the defense order. This suits the defense industry company and the defense ministry as it reduces some risks.

“In general, for us, all companies are relatives, regardless of the form of ownership,” Rogozin said frankly. - For example, there is a private plant in Zelenodolsk, which performs all defense orders on time and with high quality. It is convenient to work with him. Or take the Degtyarev Plant (ZiD) in Kovrov - an excellent serial plant, produces excellent automatic weapon, and in private hands too. And there are many such examples. ”

In 2012, the shipyard also included the Severnaya Verf plant. There are plans to build a dry dock there. Although in St. Petersburg there are three such enterprises: the Northern Shipyard, the Baltic Plant, the New Admiralty Shipyards. Plant "Northern Shipyard" - the most adapted to the execution of military orders. And with the introduction of the dry dock will expand its power. Baltzavod, according to Rogozin, will be withdrawn from the city. The problem is that he, like the New Admiralty Shipyards, was built in the time of Peter the Great. Whatever the building, the monument of architecture: impossible to demolish. Logistics in the production of ships there, terrible overhead. Hence the corresponding prices. Therefore, it is easier to move two companies outside the city, but not far so as not to lose skilled workers.

There are plans to expand the Yantar plant in Kaliningrad. Severodvinsk has great competence in submarines and large ships: Sevmash, Zvezdochka. In the future, they can become a single legal entity. However, earlier they were already a single enterprise. And now it is again becoming relevant, since the defense industry is moving to contracts of the full life cycle. The Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation is important, who creates weapons, launches them in a series, serves them in the army and in the navy, carries out scheduled repairs, and utilizes them after the end of service life. Repeat, it is easier to work with one partner who will provide this entire cycle. This is exactly what is called outsourcing in the West, and not what they have recently tried to implement under this concept.

Unique technologies

In connection with the new pricing system, three types of prices are introduced:

  • fixed - defined by the sole law of the Federal Law No. 94;
  • approximate - determined by a preliminary agreement between the Ministry of Defense and the plant;
  • at actual costs - is used when creating new complex models of equipment.

    In the United States operates about the same system. Their price is projected every two years in the course of creating a new model of weapons and military equipment. Now the Federal Tariff Service will consider labor costs, labor days, and the Ministry of Industry and Trade will determine which company is better prepared to fulfill the order of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation: machine park, bench base, personnel, etc. And of course, all together they will set the price image .

    As for the tests of the "Warrior", they will end in November. So far, they have been successful, but have shown that in addition to the “Warrior” a pistol complex will be introduced: either “Gyurza” in 9x19 and 45 calibers (now 9x21), or “Yarygin” brought to mind. The Deputy Prime Minister stressed that he himself had already shot Gyurza and he liked it. For example, with 50 meters, he punched a steel sheet 0,4 centimeter. What other gun will do it? All decisions are under discussion. The Defense Ministry planned to purchase up to six thousand sets of “Warrior”, but now, perhaps, it will raise the bar to 50 thousands. After all, a number of elements of the "Warrior" surpasses international analogues. The same helmet, body armor ...

    Good progress in the creation of domestic optics. For example, the Ural Optical and Mechanical Plant (Shvabe holding) on ​​behalf of the MIC last year engaged in localizing the production of an uncooled matrix. Solved the problem. There were also unique thermal sights, which combine the functions of a laser range finder, an electronic ballistic computer, a weather station, a video camera, a calimator, and a high-resolution thermal imaging matrix, waifai.

    As Rogozin said, in the future all our equipment on the battlefield will become robotic. If a crew is injured, for example, it can be remotely evacuated from the battlefield. In general, the prospect is behind uninhabited combat modules, which will be as close as possible to the ground and not easily accessible to tank fire. This is an intelligent weapon. The same Kovrov plant now specializes in creating tank-based combat robots to evacuate the wounded from the battlefield.

    Work continues on the creation of integrated structures, in particular, the tactical link “Constellation” communication system (EU TK). Modern Armed Forces should be controlled continuously, constantly from a single decision-making center. Therefore, a unified automated control system is needed. But, apparently, on this site, for the time being, not everything is as smooth as we would like. According to Rogozin, in order to create such an automated management system, it is necessary to concentrate the entire intellectual production potential of the companies that deal with it. For example, in the framework of a large corporation “Rostec” to form a full-fledged radio-electronic industry, which will work in the interests of the defense industry of the country. Such a decision will be discussed soon. After all, our competitors will impede the import of such products, especially of such categories as "Space", "Military". And the same space reconnaissance satellite for 95 percent consists of such an element base. We just need a breakthrough in this area.

    Dmitry Rogozin, for the first time, also told about how work is being reorganized in the government itself, for example, with the same letters. Before getting to the table for the deputy prime minister, they passed a kind of filter. Rogozin showed them already with a preliminary assessment, someone's conclusion. The vice-premier broke it, and now the correspondence first comes to him, and he decides how to proceed with the letter.

    Even more difficult to achieve interdepartmental approvals. When Dmitry Rogozin accepted the position, proposals and decisions wandered for weeks from the ministry to the ministry, from office to office, collecting the necessary conclusions. Now everything is different. Vice Prime Minister raised the representative level of meetings and meetings of the Military Industrial Commission exclusively to those people who have the right to make decisions. And if a difficult question is discussed, he simply carries out drafting: he pumps the ruling on each item right at the meeting. This, incidentally, was done, he said, at NATO headquarters when he worked there. Someone agrees, someone writes a special opinion. But then everyone signs, and the document goes to the government.

    No matter how further the situation develops in the Russian defense industry, Rogozin is deeply convinced that all our plans will be done. And this question is not even the Military-Industrial Commission under the Government of the Russian Federation, but the survival of the whole country.
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    1. true love
      true love 9 October 2013 11: 35 New
      0
      There would be more of such deputy prime ministers.
    2. military
      military 9 October 2013 11: 54 New
      +1
      good speech, mr. Rogozin!
      "As for the rest, beautiful marquise, everything is fine, everything is fine! ..."
    3. AlexisFJ
      AlexisFJ 9 October 2013 12: 50 New
      0
      Great article. In short everything to have a common picture of what is happening.
    4. rereture
      rereture 9 October 2013 18: 34 New
      +1
      Tryndet, do not sack bags.