Military Review

Service history "Admiral Nakhimov" - "Chervona Ukraine"

15
"Admiral Nakhimov" (with 26.12.1922 - "Chervona Ukraine", with 6.2.1950 - "STZh-4", with 30.10.1950 - "TsL-53")


Launched on October 18 1913 at the factory "Russud". 18 March 1914 r. Included in BSF listings. 25 launched in October 1915. Construction suspended in March. 1918.

In January, 1920, when evacuating whites from Nikolaev, was taken to Odessa in an unfinished form. When evacuating from Odessa in February 1920, the whites tried to take the cruiser to Sevastopol. But he froze into the ice, and without the help of icebreakers it was not possible. After the capture of Odessa by the Red Army, at the end of 1920, the Admiral Nakhimov was transferred to Nikolaev to the Naval plant. In 1923, the completion of the cruiser on the original project began.

By order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic of 7 in December 1922, the cruiser “Admiral Nakhimov” was given the new name “Chervona Ukraine”. 29 October 1924 of the USSR Labor and Defense Council approved a report by the High Government Commission on the allocation of funds for the completion, overhaul and modernization of a number of ships, including the Chervona Ukraine and Svetlana cruisers. Both cruisers were completed under the original project, but with increased anti-aircraft and torpedo weapons.

At the end of April, 1926 of Chervona Ukraine successfully completed factory testing of mechanisms and mooring trials. The ship was put into the dock for inspection and painting the underwater part of the hull. 13 June 1926 cruiser presented on sea trials. The average speed with five runs was 29,82 knots, the highest speed obtained during the tests was close to the requirements of the original design specifications (30 knots). December 7 admissions tests successfully completed, and the plant began to eliminate the small comments of the selection committee.

21 March The 1927 cruiser “Chervona Ukraine” entered service and was incorporated into the Separate Division of the destroyers of the Black Sea Naval Forces (MCMS), as the Black Sea Fleet was called until 1935. In the same 1927, the cruiser participated in the autumn maneuvers of the MCMS. For three years, before the battleship Parisian Commune and the cruiser Profintern, Chervona Ukraine were the largest ship of the MCME from the Baltic. It housed the headquarters of the Separate Division of the destroyers (division commander Yu.V.Sheltinga). On the cruiser, the flag was raised by the head of the MSCM, VM Orlov.

September 12 1927 g. Under the flag of the commander WMSM V.M. Orlova cruiser out of Sevastopol. On the traverse of Yalta, the ship hit the epicenter of the Crimean earthquake, did not receive damage.

Here is how this event, which served at that time on the cruiser as watch supervisor N.G. Kuznetsov, described: “The lighthouses of the southern coast of Crimea did not have time to escape, and Yalta was still on the beam of the cruiser, as if we were greatly attacked by rocks or hit about some heavy object.

- Stop the car! - commanded Nesvits-cue.
- What happened? - the commander who was on the bridge addressed him fleet V.M. Orlov.

"Chervona Ukraine" soon after entry into operation


No one could give an answer. External and internal inspection of the cruiser showed that there was no damage, the mechanisms were in good repair, they work normally, but for some reason the connection with the base was lost. Soon came the news: in the Crimea earthquake. Its epicenter was located just in the area where our cruiser was located ”(N.G. Kuznetsov. On the eve. Military Nizdat 1989, p. 50).

On September 13, the ship arrived at the Sochi raid, the head of the Red Army Naval Forces, RA Muklevich, arrived at it and the ship headed for Sevastopol. September 14-22 “Chervona Ukraine” participated in maneuvers of the WMSM.

From 27 May to 7 June 1928 of Chervona Ukraine (commander N.N. Nesvitsky) with the destroyers Petrovsky, Shaumyan and Frunze went to Istanbul in response to a visit of a detachment of Turkish ships to Sevastopol. On the night of June 3 on a cruiser stationed in Istanbul a fire broke out in the aft boiler room. The boiler was removed, and a cover was put on the pipe to stop the access of air to the fire source. For some time the ship was de-energized, fire pumps stopped. To fight the fire, the crew had only fire extinguishers and a hand pump. Soon the boiler was diluted in another compartment and the fire was extinguished. In the afternoon of June 3, the detachment left Istanbul, accompanying the Izmir yacht, on which the padishah of Afghanistan, Amannul Khan, returned from Turkey. The detachment escorted the yacht to Batumi, where the padishah went ashore.

24-25 July 1929, the cruiser made a trip from Sevastopol to Sochi along the shores of the Crimea and the Caucasus. Onboard were the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) I.V. Stalin, the chairman of the Central Control Commission of the CPSU (b), the People's Commissar of the RCT, G.K.Ordzhonikidze, accompanied by Commander WMSM V.Morlova. During the campaign, they observed the teachings of the heterogeneous fleet forces, were present at the concert of the ship's amateur performance. In memory of this crossing, I.V. Stalin made an entry in the logbook: “I was on the cruiser“ Chervona Ukraine ”. I was present at the evening of amateur performance ... Wonderful people, brave cultural comrades, ready to do anything for the sake of our common cause ... "

"Chervona Ukraine" in Sevastopol, 1927-1929 The ship is equipped with a tarpaulin hangar, and the booms of aircraft cranes serve as a roof frame


"Chervona Ukraine", 1927 — 1929


9 March 1930. By order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR No. 014, a brigade was formed (with 1932 -division) of cruisers MCMR, which included the cruiser “Chervona Ukraine”, arrived from the Baltic battleship “Paris Commune” and the cruiser “Profintern”, as well as Nikolaev "Red Caucasus". Kadatsky (1930-1932), Yu.F.Rall (1932-1935), I.S. Yumashev (1935-1937), L.A. Vladimir (1939-1940), S.G.Gorshkov (1940 -1941).

From 2 to 16 in October 1930, as part of the practical MSCM (squad commander Yu.V.Sheltinga, cruiser commander P.A. Evdokimov) with the destroyers “Zamozhennik” and “Shahumyan” made a hike along the route Sevastopol - Istanbul (3-5.10 ) -Messina (7-10.10) - Piraeus (11-14.10) -Sevastopol. During the transition tactical exercises were developed to repel attacks from submarines, destroyers, torpedo boats, navigators gained extensive practice in studying the Mediterranean theater and the Black Sea straits.

JVStalin and G.K. Ordzhonikidze among the sailors of the cruiser “Chervona Ukraine” on the crossing from Sevastopol to Sochi. June 1929


Before the transition from the Baltika "Profin-turn" and the entry into service of the "Red Caucasus", the ancient "Comintern" (in the foreground) was the partner "Chervony of Ukraine"


"Chervona Ukraine", the end of 1920-ies.


On the deck of the “Chervona of Ukraine” during the trip abroad, June 1930


“Chervona Ukraine” in Messina, October 1930. On the starboard side are the destroyers “Shaumyan” and “Independent”


10-13 October 1931 cruiser participated in the autumn maneuvers of the WMSM.

From 26 August to 6 September 1932 with the cruiser "Profintern", three destroyers and three gunboats made a trip to the Sea of ​​Azov.

From November 1933 to September 1936 the cruiser was commanded by N.G. Kuznetsov - later the people's commissar of the Navy, Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union.

24 October 1933 “Chervona Ukraine” with the cruiser “Profintern” departed from Sevastopol, accompanying the Turkish steamer “Izmir”, on which the Soviet government delegation headed by the People's Commissar K.Ye. Voroshilov to celebrate the 10 anniversary of the Turkish Republic. On the way the ships got into a heavy storm. On the morning of October 26, they arrived in Istanbul, and after 6 hours the cruisers returned and October 27 arrived in Sevastopol. On November 9, both cruisers under the general command of the Chief of Staff of the Emergency Response Center, KI Dushenov, again went to Istanbul and on November 11 entered into guarding the Izmir steamship with the returning delegation. 12 November squad arrived in Odessa. As the best cruiser RKKF “Chervona Ukraine” were presented with the passing Red Banner and the charter of the Komsomol Central Committee. In 1933, the cruiser commander N.G. Kuznetsov was awarded a diploma of the Central Election Commission of the USSR and nominal gold watches.


After the division of cruisers was formed on the Black Sea in 1930, Chervona Ukraine received distinctive marks on chimneys


"Chervona Ukraine", the beginning of the 1930-ies.


“Chervona Ukraine”, 1935. A flying boat Dornier “Val” flies over the cruiser


Chervona Ukraine, 1937-1938


In 1934, when leaving the Sevastopol Bay for autumn maneuvers, he wound a boom network on the screws, could not participate in a training battle, and did not receive first place in the Naval Forces, which he was to receive at the end of the school year.

In 1934-1935 Chervona Ukraine has undergone modernization at Sevmorzavod.

In the summer of 1935, the cruiser flying the flag of the brigade commander Yu.F. Rally, went from Sevastopol to Istanbul, delivering the body of the deceased Turkish ambassador to the USSR Vasyf Chinar to his homeland. On the way back, the cruiser passed through the Bosphorus at night, which the large ships usually did not do.

In July, the cruiser delivered the heavy industry commissar GK Ordzhonidze from Sochi to Yalta, with his wife and the accompanying people's commissar of health of the RSFSR G.N. Kaminsky from Sochi to Yalta. During this trip, the commander of the ship N.G. Kuznetsov was rewarded with a GAZ-A car. In the same 1935, the cruiser Chervona Ukraine won first place in all types of combat training, the commander was awarded the Order of the Red Star.

In March, 1937, Chervona Ukraine and Red Caucasus, made a round trip along the shores of the Black Sea. On March 5, the ships dispersed as countercourses with the Turkish battleship Yavuz (b. Goben), accompanied by three destroyers.

22 June 1939 “Chervona Ukraine” was incorporated into the formed squadron of the Black Sea Fleet. From 26 August 1939 to 1 in May 1941, the cruiser was overhauled at Sevmorzavod.

From 13 to 17 in May, 1941 of Chervona Ukraine under the flag of the Deputy Commissar of the Navy, Vice Admiral G. I. Levchenko, sailed the route Sevastopol - Poti - Novorossiysk - Kerch - Feodosiya - Sevastopol. From 14 to 18 June, she participated in fleet maneuvers - the last before the war.

The beginning of the Great Patriotic War "Chervona Ukraine" (commander captain 1 of the rank N.Ye.Basisty) met in the main fleet base - Sevastopol. The ship, six weeks before the war, emerged from repair, only proceeded to carry out shooting, so it was listed in the 2 line.


"Chervona Ukraine" in Sevastopol, 1939. Snapshot from the cruiser "Red Caucasus"


On the very first day of the war, the fleet set about defensive minefields around its bases. 22 June 90 mines were loaded onto the ship from the approaching barge. 23 June in 13.33 "Chervona Ukraine" under the flag of the commander of the cruiser brigade captain 1 of the rank S. Gorshkov together with the cruiser "Red Caucasus" withdrew from the Main base. At 16.20, the ships approached the minefield setting area, and at 19.15 they returned to Sevastopol.

24 June, taking mines, with the cruiser "Red Caucasus" "Chervona Ukraine" in 8.40 went into the sea under the flag of the brigade. Having completed the setting of the barrier, the cruisers in the 11.38 headed for the base. While on the Inkerman road, they found a tugboat with a floating crane that was going towards the cruisers from the base. In 12.52, at a distance of 40, m from the stem exploded and sank the floating crane, the tug SP-2 was damaged by an explosion. Cruisers stalled the course and worked full back. In 13.06, having received the seismic of the commander of the OVR: “Follow the base holding on to the Nordic Edge of the Ying-Kermanny Transition”, the ships entered the raid.

Fleet commander F.S.Octyabrsky subsequently wrote: “Why was it necessary to put minefields from the first days of the war? Against whom did they put them? After all, the enemy is a land enemy; he mainly has at sea Aviation Yes, torpedo boats, which mines are not a hindrance. And so, despite the fact that the mines will be more of an obstacle for us than the enemy, they forced us to put mines on which more of their ships were killed than the enemy. In our country, three destroyers alone died on their mines. ”

The military council of the fleet decided to relocate the brigade of cruisers. On the night of July 5, Chervona Ukraine, together with the Red Caucasus cruiser and three destroyers, moved from Sevastopol to Novorossiysk, a new home base.

The air reconnaissance detected a concentration of enemy transports in the Konstanz-Sulin area. To counter the possible landing, 13 of August were formed three detachments of ships. Chervona Ukraine with three destroyers were included in the 3 squad.

On August 5, the defense of Odessa began, the ships of the Black Sea Fleet supported the troops, delivering reinforcements, ammunition and daily shelling of enemy positions. Initially, these tasks were performed by destroyers of the Novik type and gunboats.

"Chervona Ukraine" in Odessa, 1941,


20 August 1941, the enemy launched an offensive near Odessa, Red Army units were forced to retreat to new lines. After that, new destroyers and old cruisers were sent to Odessa.

27 August “Chervona Ukraine” left Novorossiysk and in the morning 28 August arrived in Sevastopol. Having taken on board the 6 squad of volunteer sailors as part of the 720 man, on the same day the ship went to Odessa on 20.45. The cruiser was flying the flag of the Deputy Commissar of the Navy, Vice-Admiral G. I. Levchenko, a member of the Military Council of the Fleet, the counter-enemy NM Kulakov and the brigade commander SG Gorshkov were also on it. August 29 in 7.10 cruiser arrived in Odessa. Having landed the volunteers and sent a correction post to the shore, the ship entered the raid. "Chervona Ukraine" was accompanied by two small hunters who provided its anti-submarine defense, as well as those who had the task of covering the cruiser with smoke curtains from enemy batteries. From a distance of 70 kbt, the cruiser opened fire with eight octopus volleys at enemy positions in the region of vil. Ilyinka. The 6-inch battery tried to cover the cruiser, but, having finished shooting, it came out from under fire. On the same day, the cruiser shelled the area with. Sverdlovo, firing on the 12-node turn, alternately with both sides. Two enemy batteries, attempting to shoot at Chervona Ukraine, were suppressed by the artillery of the leader Tashkent and the destroyer Intelligent. 30 August ship executed four shots, and was twice fired by enemy batteries. 29 and 30 August firing was carried out without any interference from the enemy, so the cruiser had the opportunity to stand with locked cars for several hours to fire at the enemy in quiet conditions. On August 31, the ship’s artillery opened fire five times, supporting parts of the eastern sector of defense. During the shooting, shells began to lie down near the ship, as a result of which the cruiser was forced to move away from the shelling zone. The enemy's battery fired from the area of ​​the village of Novaya Dofinovka.

On this day, the 16.20 cruiser, which was parked with stalled vehicles, was attacked by a group of enemy aircraft. The cruiser ceased firing along the shore and made a turn while turning to the left. Anti-aircraft gunners put a veil in front of the aircraft, which dropped bombs that fell with an undershoot in 2 KBT aft.

September 1 cruiser in 10.00 came to the position on the 20-node course fired der. Vizirka and Sverdlovka. At the same time, he himself came under fire, but did not change the course so as not to shoot down the tip of his guns. Then, from a distance of 62, the KBT opened fire on the battery that was firing at the ships, after eight minutes it was silent. In 11.56, the cruiser attacked seven Ju-88 bombers, repelling the attack without loss. In 13.45, the enemy's battery from Novaya Dofinovka began shelling the harbor, where the transports were unloaded. The cruiser, together with the destroyer Fascinating, opened fire on her, and the battery was destroyed in 13.56, and a strong explosion was observed in her position. During the operation near Odessa, the cruiser spent 842 130-mm, 236 100-mm and 452 45mm shells.


"Chervona Ukraine" firing the main caliber on the coastal targets


The 2-3 of September the cruiser moved from Odessa to the main base, and the 4-5 of September - to Novorossiysk. 17 September in 13.20 “Chervona Ukraine” left Novorossiysk, guarding the transports “Armenia” and “Ukraine”, with troops sent to Odessa. On September 18, the cruiser handed over transports to two destroyers at 11.08, while he entered the main base. The ship began to install the degaussing device, so he did not participate in the landing of the landing party at Grigorievka.

29 September The Supreme Command decided to evacuate the OOP and strengthen the defense of the Crimea at the expense of its troops. October 2 in 16.00 cruiser out of Sevastopol to Tendra to evacuate parts of the Tendrovsky combat area. Having taken on board the 2 Battalion of the 2 Marine Regiment, the ship in September 12.53 3 took him to Sevastopol. October 6 cruiser re-emerged to Tendre. However, the parts of the Tendrovsky combat area were not notified of the ship’s departure, and it returned to the main base on October 7 in October.

October 13 in 16.30 "Chervona Ukraine" under the banner of the squadron commander Rear Admiral L.A. Vladimir with the cruiser "Red Caucasus" came out of
Sevastopol to Odessa to participate in the final operation of the evacuation of the OOP. On the morning of October 14, the ships arrived in Odessa and anchored. LAVladimirsky did not allow the cruisers to enter the harbor, as they were unable to maneuver during the air raids. October 15 on the cruiser was deployed KP Commander OOP Rear Admiral GVZhukova. During the night of October 16, rear-guard battalions began to arrive at the port and be loaded onto ships and transports. Around 7.00, the task force led by Major General I.Ye. Petrov, commander of the Maritime Army, led the withdrawal of troops to the cruiser. In 5.28, having received 1164 fighters and commanders from the 25 th Chapaevsky and 2 th cavalry divisions, the cruiser withdrew from the anchor and, together with other ships, began to guard the transports. Then, increasing speed, he broke away from the caravan and in the afternoon arrived in Sevastopol.

In the night from 30 to 31 in October, the cruiser participated in the evacuation of the Tendrovsky combat area. Having taken a battalion of marines (700 people), he took him to Sevastopol.

October 30 German troops reached the distant approaches to Sevastopol, the heroic defense of the city began. November 1 "Chervona Ukraine" was included in the detachment of ship support for the Sevastopol garrison, the squadron commander-in-chief of the squadron captain 1 rank VA Andreev. The ship was stationed at the port of Sovtorgflot (located next to the Grafskaya) at anchor and mooring lines, set on two barrels and bollards.

On November 5, Captain 1 of the rank N.Ye. Bassisty was appointed commander of the Light Forces Unit of the Black Sea Fleet. The new cruiser commander, captain 2 of the rank, N.А.Zaruba, was delayed, N.E.Basisty handed over the case to foreman V.А.Parhomenko and on November 7 departed to Poti.

On November 7, a directive was issued to the Supreme Commander No. XXUMX in Sevastopol, signed by Supreme Commander Stalin, Chief of the General Staff of the Red Army, Marshal Shaposhnikov and People's Commissar of the Navy Admiral Kuznetsov. The directive stated: “the main task of the Black Sea Fleet is to consider the active defense of Sevastopol and the Kerch Peninsula as a whole; Sevastopol does not surrender in any way and defend it with all his might; all three old cruisers and old destroyers to keep in Sevastopol, from this composition to form a maneuverable detachment ... "

On November 8, the cruiser Chervona Ukraine, the first of the Black Sea Fleet ships, opened fire on the German troops advancing on Sevastopol in the Mekenziya farm area. On this day, the cruiser fired 230 shells. 9 and 10 on November, the ship’s artillery bombarded enemy concentrations in the south-eastern approaches to Sevastopol, spending 48 and 100 shells, respectively.

"Chervona Ukraine" firing the main caliber on the coastal targets


On the stern bridge "Chervons of Ukraine"


On November 11, German troops launched the first assault on Sevastopol. On this day, the cruiser shot at the Kadikovka-Varnutka area, having consumed 682 130-mm shells. As a result, three batteries were brought to silence, 18 vehicles and armored personnel carriers were destroyed, 4 tank. The wear of the trunks of 130-mm guns has reached its limit.

On November 12, having received an application from the corps, the cruiser at 9.00 opened fire on the German forces at Balaklava, making 8 three-guns. Bearing heavy losses from the fire of ship artillery, the German command threw aircraft against the ships. In 11.45, an air reconnaissance aircraft appeared over Sevastopol, and an alarm was played on the ship. A few minutes later the enemy bombers made a massive raid on the main base. Aircraft struck the main blow to the ships stationed in the bay.

“Chervona Ukraine” in the period from 12.00 to 12.15 was attacked by three groups of aircraft (a total of 23 machines). The first of nine bombers was repelled by the anti-aircraft guns of the ship, one aircraft was hit. It was followed by the second, which succeeded in sighting the bombs on the cruiser, and the dive bombers completed the strike.

In 12.08, a high-explosive bomb weighing 100 kg exploded at a distance of 5-7 m from the starboard abeam 92-100 sk. After a few seconds, the second such bomb exploded in the area of ​​the 4-th torpedo tube at the port side of the left side. The torpedo tube was blown off the basement and dropped overboard. There was a fire on the deck.

Three minutes later, a time bomb weighing 500 kg exploded on the ground in the immediate vicinity of the starboard side of the ship in the 9-12 area w / w. The explosion broke the anchor-chain of the right anchor and the pearl, which was wound up on a barrel. Cruiser nose pressed to the pier. Burst stern mooring end from the left side. In 12.12, the same bomb exploded under the bottom of the ship from the left side, in the vicinity of 48-54 wp. From the explosions, the ship hull vibrated. The cruiser began to roll to the left side, there was a trim on the nose. In the premises for a short time the lights went out, but emergency lighting was turned on.

Reports from the combat posts at the GKP and the BCh-5 commander were received on what was happening on the ship’s premises and on the measures taken. Since the connection with the individual combat posts and command posts was interrupted, messengers were also used. The struggle for survivability in combat positions unfolded at the initiative of the commanders of the posts themselves.

As a result of the explosion of a bomb in the water in the 9-12 area, the spacecraft from the 0 to the 15 area were flooded. The lower deck is deformed and torn in places. Sheathing starboard length from 0 to 25 wn. and the height from the waterline to the deck of the forecastle is pierced by numerous fragments. On 49 wm. the seam of the upper deck flooring went from side to side, a gap about 150 mm wide appeared; on 48 wp. a crack appeared on the deck flooring; the skin of the sides burst and the wedge-shaped crack went under the armor belt; The trim was especially pronounced from the 49 np. in the direction of the stem and was 1 m. Upper deck to 10 sp. gone under the water.

On the upper deck, in the area of ​​the 4 torpedo apparatus, a hole with an area of ​​4 m2 was formed from the explosion of the aerial bomb. In the workshop area, spare oil tanks and three barrels of smoke and gasoline were damaged by splinters. Spilled gasoline, paint of superstructures, wood of a broken deck and hoses for fuel reception burned. In the area of ​​the infirmary compartment (92-100 sp) in 23-x places, bomb fragments pierced the board above the armor belt. In the infirmary, mattresses and linen were burning. The wall of fire across the deck rose to the bridge.

Jammed 130-mm guns № 2, 3, 4; 6, 11, 12, all three 100-mm anti-aircraft guns and four 45-mm guns failed, 14 sailors died, 90 were injured.

The fire fighting at the waist was fought by two emergency parties. The tug "Komsomolets" participated in the fight against the fire. Minor fires were extinguished after 6 minutes. Barrels of smoke and gasoline that burned the torpedo’s warhead dropped overboard. Fortunately, the torpedoes didn’t detonate (It is not clear who the cruiser 12 torpedoes could use if the enemy’s ships did not leave their bases. But they could not deliver them to the warehouse, as the set of depth charges could not).

With the State Committee received an order to quickly extinguish the fire at the waist, torpedo cellar flooded. The commander also ordered the flooding of the artillery cellars of the main caliber. Their flooding was slow, as the pressure in the fire main was low. The commander of the warhead-5 requested permission from the commander of the ship not to flood the artillery cellars located on the left side, especially the eighth cellar, whose state was

checked by the commander of the hold compartment. The fire did not threaten the cellars located in the bow of the ship. But the commander confirmed his order. This led to the loss of part of the buoyancy reserve and the loss of the entire main caliber ammunition.

In 2, 3, 4 and 5 boiler rooms, fuel oil and water poured through the second floor after the explosion. The launched bilge-fire pump did not cope with dehumidification, and the hydraulic turbine was damaged. When the water level reached the firebox of the existing boiler No. XXUMX, it had to be taken out of action. The commander of the warhead-4 ordered to urgently ignite the boiler number XXUMX.

In the 2-e engine room through the ventilation shaft poured lubricating oil, battery lighting failed. The 3 engine room was filled with smoke, so the personnel put on gas masks. In the 4-e engine room in the area of ​​the circulating pump water flowed, the place of receipt because of the large smoke could not be established. A drainage and fire pump was launched for drainage and a hydroturbine was periodically launched.

Due to the insulation failure in the bow quarters and the left aft quarter of the electrical circuit, the turbogenerators No. XXUMX and No. XXUMX had to be stopped. Turbogenerators No.1 and No.2 were connected to the starboard highway to provide stern compartments.

To straighten the roll, five roll-up starboard compartments were flooded. But it did not give the desired results. The ship had a slight trim on the nose and a roll on the left side of the 3,5-4 °. In total, he took about 3300 tons of water.


Shooting shots of the harbor of Sevastopol 12 November 1941, taken by the German reconnaissance aircraft before (above) and after (below) the raid. In the top picture the arrow indicates the cruiser “Chervona Ukraine”


The power plant was in the following condition. The boilers from 5-th to 10-th were in the flooded compartments, four bow-boilers - cut off from the general system due to the hull break on the 49 cp. with possible damage to individual pipelines. The 4 boiler was soon launched, and in the 13.05, the 2 boiler room was flooded at the current waterline. Due to the drop in pressure of fresh steam in the auxiliary line to 12.40, the turbogenerators No.3 and No.4 and all existing auxiliary mechanisms were stopped. For further struggle for the survivability of the ship, four boilers, located towards the stern of 69 SP, and two boilers in the bow, remained intact. In 12.50, boiler No. 1 was commissioned, the main condenser No.3 was prepared for operation. When connecting the boiler No. 11 to the auxiliary line, despite its forcing, the steam pressure in the line fell. Then the section of the starboard main line going from the 6 boiler compartment to the nose was turned off. The steam pressure in the line went up, the turbogenerators No.3 and No.4 were started up.

When connecting the bilge-fire pumps to the fire main, it turned out that the pressure in it over 3 kg / cm2 does not rise. This testified to its damage in the bow. Disconnecting the damaged section to the 6 boiler room allowed 13.30 to increase the pressure to 15 kg / cm2. Now it was possible to use stationary means to drain the compartments again. The water turbine and the bilge-fire pump were allowed to drain the 4 engine room, the water began to decline.

Around 14.30, the diving boat and the rescue ship Mercury approached the ship. The divers examined the underwater part of the cruiser, and the rescuer participated in the drainage of the compartments (the performance of its drainage pumps 1200 t / h).

After inspecting the starboard side, the divers reported that the cruiser was bowed up to the 20 bm. lies on the ground. In the bottom of the hole from 5 to 9 w. with torn edges, moving to the left side, with an area of ​​about 10 m 2. 9 to 40 nr. there are fragmentation holes of various sizes. The bow is broken. Left ship cheekbone rests on the pier.

Crack in the plating of the starboard on 49 w. about 150 mm wide goes down from the armor belt. Near the keel, this crack passes into a hole with ragged edges, which spreads to the left side. Kileva stringer interrupted. Essentially, the ship broke in two along the 49 sp. The dimensions of the hole near the keel are up to 8 м2, its edges are bent outwards. The commander of the warhead-5 ordered to put on it a patch, which should be mounted from three regular soft patches. Only one of them, 5x5 m in size, turned out to be intact. But it was not possible to establish this plaster either, because the end of the arching line, which was made from the stern, then the 55 track. They did not walk, they were hampered by torn edges of the hole.

Divers were ordered to inspect the port side, but the German air raid that had begun forced them to stop working. The rescuer Mercury left to assist the destroyer "Merciless" damaged by a bomb.

Since flooding crenic compartment align the roll fails, the commander CU-5 decided to dub roll descent of water from six torpedo cellar in 6-e boiler and from the eighth artillery in 4-th machine, saline boiler water from the side compartments 7-of boiler department the left side to lower into the hold, and remove all the water from the holds overboard with hydro turbines. But the position of the ship has not changed. The cruiser kept the 4 ° roll on the port side.

About 16 hours the commander of the ship, considering the ship’s condition to be catastrophic and trying to avoid losses in personnel during possible repeated air raids, reported to the fleet commander and received permission: take the crew with personal belongings to the shelter and leave the anti-aircraft division and emergency parties on the ship. In the artillery department of the rear of the Fleet Headquarters received an order to remove weapons from the ship and unload the ammunition.

The commander of the warhead-5, believing that not all the possibilities were exhausted in the struggle for the survivability of the ship, appealed to the commander of the ship to leave on board the ship all the officers of the warhead-5, bilge group, part of the electricians, machinists and boiler engineers. The commander has allowed to leave about 50% of the composition of the warhead-5. This decision violated any organization of the struggle for flooding. Many hatches and doors zadraivaemye on alarm with the departure of the team remained open, I had to batten them again. At the battle posts was reduced reduced watch. The team was preparing to go ashore, the commander and commissioner went to inspect the place of the future quartering.

In 16.30, the flagship naval engineer and chief of the EPRON arrived at the ship to check its condition and resolve the issue of further actions to assist personnel in the fight for survivability. By this time, the upper deck to 18 wn. was already in the water. Roll on the left side was 4,5 °. The ship took about 3500 tons of water.

It was decided to continue the fight for the unsinkability of the cruiser to the last opportunity, for which the entire personnel of the X-5 warheads should be returned to the ship and placed in combat positions according to the schedule; strengthen the fight against the spread of water, using all available means of the ship. To the rescue team, select two portable motor-pumps with a capacity of 60 and 300 t / h from their presence. By the morning of November 13 prepare the North Dock to receive the ship. To make the bow buoyant, wind up four 225-ton pontoons. Divers continue to survey the underwater part of the cruiser and its position on the ground. In the extreme case, when the ship loses a reserve of buoyancy, it should be landed on the ground at the pier. In fact, the cruiser did not rest on a flat platform, but on its cheekbone on the pier and a small ledge on the sloping slope of the ground.

On the status of the cruiser and the decision taken to fight for his unsinkability, the flagship mechanical engineer reported to the fleet commander and asked for orders to return the crew to the ship. The decision was approved, and the commander, military commissar and most of the personnel of the warhead-5 returned to the ship.

Emergency parties managed for some time to stop the flow of water into the capstan and Lenin cabin. Attempting to block the access of water from the 2 boiler room to the first one was unsuccessful, as the door between them was deformed. The struggle with water in the bow was complicated by the lack of energy and autonomous means of drainage, there were not enough hoses.

The main focus in the fight against spreading water has now been concentrated in the 65-69 area. and rooms located towards the stern of it. A portable hydro turbine was launched to drain the compressor compartment. Periodically, the bilge-fire pump dried the 4-e machine, and the portable hydraulic turbine - the 6-e boiler room.

Due to enemy air strikes (16.09-17.50) and depth bomb explosions, while dividing the fairway from bottom mines, the work of divers was conducted intermittently, and with the onset of darkness it was stopped.

K 17.00 in the existing boiler No. 11 salinity reached 900 ° B. Despite the work of two evaporators, the boiler water flow was high, the leakage could not be established. Instead of boiler No. 11, boiler No. 17.30 was connected to 13 and they started to fire boiler No. 14. Later on, these boilers worked alternately, feeding on salt water.

By 18.00, the list increased to 5 °, the nose went down another meter. Armor belt left side went into the water. In the middle part of the water approached the portholes. Water in the nasal headings arrived. Observation of the external state of the ship was complicated by the ensuing darkness. To combat the incoming water, it was important to have mechanisms in action. Therefore, we focused on keeping the boilers and pumps in action.

Workers arrived at 19.30 to dismantle artillery, and a crane and a barge arrived shortly thereafter, part of the personnel of the X-2 warhead returned to unload the ammunition. Electricity was supplied to the elevator of the cellar №8.

The 21 hour received new "reports: flooded 1-e boiler room, as well as cockpit - spire and machinists. Water arrives in the rooms of the mine compressor, 3-group of elevators, 6-th boiler room, electricians in the cockpit. The left edge of the upper the deck on the 49 sp. approaches the water. The roll reached 6 °, the water taken is about 4000 t.

The position of the ship worsened, the ship’s capabilities for fighting water decreased, and a request for help was sent to the EPRON emergency response team. A rescuer "Mercury" came to 24.00, and from it to drain the premises on the 65-69 sp. armed with two hoses. It was razgranzon in the struggle for the localization of the spread of water. The stern compartments were dried by ship’s means.

The nasal compartment rooms continued to be flooded. Water appeared in the communal deck from the left side, the room of bow turbine generators was flooded. The roll on the left borg reached 6,5 °. Small changes in the position of the cruiser, which occurred during the 12 hours of the struggle for flooding, indicated that it firmly lies part of the hull on the ground, resting its cheekbone on the pier. This made it possible to hope that, despite the flow of water, the ship could be kept from being flooded with available means, and during this time it would be possible to prepare the dock. On the ship, boilers operated alternately in the 6 and 7 boiler rooms and the turbine generator, which ensured the work of auxiliary mechanisms.

However, the state of the ship began to change dramatically. By one in the morning of November 13, the list reached 8 °, the draft of the ship increased. Water spread through the premises. The rescuer did not have time to pump it. In the 4 engine room, the receiver bared due to a roll at the bilge fire pump. The 6 boiler room began to be flooded, which to the 2.00 flooded over the current waterline. The left side of the communal deck was in the water. K 3.00 roll reached 11 °. The water on the upper deck approached a hole in the region of the fourth torpedo tube, and then rushed into the ship's workshop and into the 2 engine room. K 3.30 roll increased to 15 °.

The commander of the warhead-5 reported to the captain of a possible rapid increase in roll and complete loss of buoyancy. The captain of the 2 rank, I.A. Zaruba, gave the order: “To leave the personnel of the ship to all.” Changes in the situation on the ship took place at an even increasing pace. Roll on the left side increased to 25 ° -30 °. On 4.00, the DU-5 attendant reported that most of the mechanisms had been stopped. The team went on an organized floating crane, barge and barge. Roll reached 40 °. On the rescuer "Mercury" because of the impossibility to remove the hoses had to chop them off.

The ship, having lost stability and buoyancy, between 4.10 and 4.20 slid along the slope of the ground and plunged into the water with a roll of 50-55 ° to the port side at a depth of 13-16 m. Only the masts above the searchlight bridge, the right edge of the waist and a part of the middle remained over the water. chimney. In the 4-m engine room, not having managed to leave the combat post, the squad commander and four drivers died.

The death of "Chervony Ukraine" was influenced by a number of circumstances. The ship held the same firing position for several days. The cruiser "Red Crimea" arrived in Sevastopol 9 November. Under attack from aviation, he changed position on the same day. On November 10, after completing two shots at the enemy’s batteries, the ship moved from North Bay to South Bay to the refrigerator. Being in the depths of the South Bay "Red Crimea" was protected from enemy aircraft, not only anti-aircraft artillery, but also high steep banks of the bay. “Chervona Ukraine” all the time in the main base remained in one place - completely open from the North Bay.

The change of commanders took place at the height of the battles extremely hastily. N.E.Bassisty took the ship during the period of its repair and could thoroughly study its device. The new commander did not have time to fully familiarize himself with the cruiser device and was not ready to lead the fight for the survivability of the ship, besides he neglected the opinion of the commander of the warhead-5.

Four hours after receiving damage, when the ship retained about half of the buoyancy reserve and had a total 4 ° roll, violating the requirements of the Ship charter and the tradition of the Russian fleet, N.A. Zaruba at the height of the crew’s survivability struggle, left the ship and inspect the barracks in which the crew was supposed to be stationed. The departure of most of the crew from the combat posts, and then its return created a pause in the struggle for the survivability of the ship and undoubtedly had a moral impact on the sailors.

Neither the commander nor the navigator did not know the true profile of the bottom in the cruiser parking lot, hoping that in this place the flat ground and depth of 7-8 m and in the worst case the ship will land on the ground.

However, the battle for the ship continued for 11 hours.

The blame for the death of the cruiser lies on the command of the fleet. It did not provide reliable air defense of the main base of the fleet, German bombers with impunity operated over the bay, except for the cruiser that day the destroyers "Merciless" and "Perfect" received heavy damage. No order was given to change the firing position. The commander of the fleet, not having arrived personally on the damaged ship and not having heard the flagmeche report, gave the order to leave the cruiser.

19 November 1941, by order No. 00436, the cruiser Chervona Ukraine was expelled from the Navy.

The fleet commander ordered that 20 be removed from the ship by the 1941 in November for taking off coastal artillery from the ship. This task was assigned to VC-RON. For the removal of guns and unloading ammunition were organized teams from the personnel of the warhead-5 ship and divers. Deck artillery managed to remove for 10 days. Unloading ammunition was complicated by the roll of the ship. The diver had to carry the projectile on his hands to the upper deck, then he handed it to another diver, who put the projectile in a special bag, and was lifted to the surface.

By November 25, nine 130-mm guns, a twin 100-mm installation, small-caliber guns, a torpedo tube and 4000 projectiles, food and clothing were removed from the ship. After 10 December, work on the cruiser was stopped.

The guns and personnel of the 27 1941 cruiser for December 113 were equipped with four coastal defense batteries No. 114, 115, 116 and 702 (they later received the numbers 703, 704, 705 and XNUMX) who participated in the defense of Sevastopol.

130-mm gun cruiser "Chervona Ukraine", installed near the village Dergachi


In February, 1942 was re-formed the crew of a cruiser from 50 people under the command of captain 2 rank I.A. Zaruby. A cruiser recovery project was developed. It was decided to lift the ship by purging the intact compartments with air. To do this, it was necessary to seal the compartments, install mines over their entrance hatches. Work began at the end of March. However, to raise the cruiser failed. The reason was the absence in Sevastopol of the necessary funds for recovery. Yes, and hardly able to restore the cruiser under continuous bombing and shelling. The rescue and rescue team and the crews of the cruisers “Chervona Ukraine” and “Red Caucasus” before 15 in May 1942 managed to remove three more guns, shells and a propeller. Two 100-mm units were shipped to Poti and mounted on the Red Caucasus cruiser.

To fulfill the task of raising the cruiser returned again after the liberation of Sevastopol. On the basis of a diving survey, a plan was drawn up that envisaged performing a lift in three stages: turning the ship on the ground into a straight position, lifting, pumping out water and entering the dock. In the project of lifting, the ship was considered to consist of two parts with a slit on 49-50 SP, but lifted as a whole. Only 16 of January 1946 took up lifting work, they were protracted and were carried out intermittently. By April 29, the ship was straightened (residual lurch to port - 4 °), and on November 3 1947 was raised and placed in the North Bay on a plate between the North Pier and Nakhimov Bay.

Sunken "Chervona Ukraine


[center] [center]The first stage of raising the cruiser - setting on an even keel




The second stage of raising the cruiser "Chervona Ukraine"





The third stage of lifting "Chervons of Ukraine" - loading the ship into the dock


8 February 1948 The ship was raised a second time and put into the dock to seal the holes. Restore it as a battle was not necessary. 11 April 1949. The former cruiser under the new name CJW-4 was transferred to the training squad of the Black Sea Fleet for use as a training station in the fight for survivability. 30 in October 1950 was reorganized into the target ship TsL-53, and 10 in May 1952, after landing on the ground in the Bakaya Spit area for use as a target for fleet combat exercises, was excluded from the Navy lists.

In Sevastopol, a memorial plaque of red granite was installed on the coastal support of the Grafskaya quay, on which it is written: “Here, leading the battle with the enemy, 12 in November 1941 the cruiser“ Chervona Ukraine ”died. And carved silhouette of the ship.

Commanders: to 1 p Lebedinsky (7.12.1915 -?), N.N.Nesvitsky (4.19268.1930), P.A. Evdokimov (8.1930 -?), A.F.Leer (? - 11.1933), N.G. Kuznetsov (11.1933 - 5.9.1936), to 2, A.I. Zayats (5.9.1936 -?), To 1, N.YE. Bassisty (29.10.1939 - 5.11.1941), to 2, I.AZaru-ba (5-13.11.1941)


Service history "Admiral Nakhimov" - "Chervona Ukraine"
"Chervona Ukraine" in the dock. View of damage to the housing
Author:
Articles from this series:
"Svetlana". History of creation
Service history "Svetlana"
Service history "Admiral Nakhimov" - "Chervona Ukraine"
Service history "Admiral Lazarev" - "Red Caucasus"
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  1. 505506
    505506 8 October 2013 09: 19 New
    +1
    The name is clearly unfortunate (unlucky). And in recent times, "Chervona Ukraine" could not continue to serve under that name. Renamed. The fate of the name?
    1. Yarik
      Yarik 8 October 2013 17: 25 New
      0
      What's the name ... "Svetlana" in the 30s was rubbish by the standards of the fleets, where the cruisers really were. Japan, England, the United States, Italy ... even Spain. "KK", rather a testing ground for 180 - Q. And not "Washington". and not a light cruiser. It doesn’t handle heavy barrels.
      1. CARBON
        CARBON 10 October 2013 19: 45 New
        0
        I do not agree with your assessment. "Svetlan" (bookmark 1913) -8200t, 50000 hp, 29 knots, 15-130mm (8 in a salvo) -must be compared with ships similar to them that participated in the Second World War. Take the States of the cruiser "Omaha" (bookmark 1918) -9150t, 90000hp, 34 knots, 10-152mm (8 in a salvo), larger, faster, slightly more salvo weight, but generally comparable if we consider that the former were created for closed theaters, and the latter for actions in ocean).
        German "Emden 2" (bookmark 1921) 6990t, 45000 hp, 29 knots, 8-150mm (5 in a salvo).
        Japanese "Tatsuta" (bookmark 1917) 4720t, 50000 hp, 33 knots, 4-140mm. Types "Kuma", "Nagara", "Sendai" (1918-1922) 7700-8100t, 90000 hp, 35-36 knots, 7-140mm (6 per salvo). Against the background of the Germans and Japanese laid down later, they did not look weaker.
        About British peers (1916-1918) can also be said. Types "C", "D" and "E" were not superior to "Svetlan".
  2. moremansf
    moremansf 8 October 2013 09: 56 New
    +2
    Many thanks to the author for covering the history of the Navy !!!
  3. avt
    avt 8 October 2013 10: 15 New
    +6
    Quote: 505506
    The name is clearly unsuccessful (unlucky)

    Quote: 505506
    . The fate of the name?

    But you don’t need to fool around and write down specific mistakes to the name. The Germans spotted the cruiser - it was necessary to change the place. A similar case was described by Golovko in the diaries, there one commander of the destroyer after reconnaissance flight of the Germans asked for permission to change the place, he was considered a coward, but they gave the command. Golovko writes - the Germans organized a raid and immediately went down at the parking spot without looking.
    1. Per se.
      Per se. 8 October 2013 11: 20 New
      0
      Nevertheless, dear avt, from a series of these cruisers, only Chervona Ukraina (Admiral Nakhimov) died. The fact that it was necessary to change the place, and the passenger "Admiral Nakhimov" so could not collide with the bulk carrier "Pyotr Vasev", be all right, like the unfortunate "Titanic" with an iceberg. Sailors are superstitious, probably not by chance, only mistakes of captains or crews cannot explain everything. It seems that it would be better that our nuclear cruiser, after the alleged repair and modernization, was named by its original name or something other than "Admiral Nakhimov".
      1. avt
        avt 8 October 2013 11: 43 New
        +4
        Quote: Per se.
        The sailors are superstitious, probably not by chance, just the mistakes of the captains or crews cannot explain everything.

        Yeah. Everyone heard this in the midst of the heyday of all kinds of psychics and other magnetozers. But every mistake ALWAYS has a specific surname and very this surname and some other comrades, as they ruled those involved in the error and sometimes a crime, write off everything on the evil fate of the mythical name. Once Stalin was discussing an accident and asked "responsible comrades". "Who is to blame?" One technician in the ensuing silence replied - "Our technical ignorance is to blame." Stalin puffed on his pipe - "We do not punish for ignorance." It’s interesting - what would Stalin say or do if someone told him about the "mysticism of the name" in response? laughing So God gives difficulties in strength and it is up to man to overcome them correctly without attributing his mistakes to mysticism.
    2. 505506
      505506 9 October 2013 02: 39 New
      +1
      Terribly harsh uncle! Serving in the Navy, in the era of materialism, I met with so many superstitions that I was extremely surprised. I don’t explain specific errors with mysticism, BUT ...
      why is it that someone’s head (ship) is in trouble as if from a cornucopia, while another’s is within the statistical norm? Only about increased gouging in one place, and perfect discipline and order in another, is not necessary.
  4. Per se.
    Per se. 8 October 2013 10: 27 New
    +1
    It can be added here that two light cruisers of the "Svetlana" class were completed as tankers "Azneft" ("Admiral Greig") and "Grozneft" ("Admiral Spiridonov"). It is difficult to say how justified this was then, but it seems that as cruisers or light aircraft carriers, their completion would be more reasonable. In the photo "Azneft".
    1. Yarik
      Yarik 8 October 2013 18: 45 New
      0
      And as a carrier-based aircraft ... contact the Japanese.
      1. Per se.
        Per se. 8 October 2013 20: 59 New
        +1
        Quote: Yarik
        And as a carrier-based aircraft ... contact the Japanese.

        You shouldn't be ironic. The designs of the first Russian aircraft carriers were proposed even before the revolution, supporters of this were Grigorovich and Kolchak, it was supposed to remake the old battleship on the Black Sea. There were projects after the revolution, in particular, on the basis of unfinished battle cruisers of the Izmail type. As for aviation, we had planes without the Japanese, which could be used from the deck, for most biplanes this was feasible. On the diagram is the 1927 project for the alteration of the training ship Komsomolets.
        1. avt
          avt 8 October 2013 22: 11 New
          0
          Quote: Per se.
          In vain irony. Projects of the first Russian aircraft carriers were proposed even before the revolution, supporters of this were Grigorovich and Kolchak, the alteration of the old battleship on the Black Sea was supposed.

          No, in the Baltic before the war. Pilot Matsievich suggested and for this he was already allocated an old battleship - type "Admiral Spiridov". But it crashed in a plane crash and the project, as always, stalled, then on the Black Sea only seaplane carriers were. And the drawing given looks like a late project for the alteration of the "Komsomolets" - a training ship after the Civil War. By the way, the armored train "Zheleznyakov" was armed with guns from the cruiser, but I didn't notice any mention of this in the article.
  5. waisson
    waisson 8 October 2013 12: 59 New
    +1
    interesting informative article
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    parij777 8 October 2013 13: 22 New
    0
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  8. Pancreas
    Pancreas 8 October 2013 17: 29 New
    +2
    Thank. A good selection of photos.
  9. GUSAR
    GUSAR 8 October 2013 17: 45 New
    -2
    The Bolsheviks -, the great name of Admiral Nakhimov was ruined by some Ukraine, brrrr ...
  10. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 8 October 2013 20: 00 New
    +1
    Normal article, without pathos. Almost the life of the ship in a shorter version in the form of an article, not a monograph. Yes. the ship for its time was already an anachronism with its casemate guns. But then the tsarist admirals and naval commanders thought. and the Bolsheviks got what they did not sell or did not have time to cut. But the bottom line is that the Black Sea ships played the role of a kind of floating batteries, it was unrealistic to use them differently in the absence of opponents of the anologous class. As a result, we get what we have. Shooting along the coast, death from aerial bombs and various incidents due to the frankly weak Command.
  11. Kosatka
    Kosatka 8 October 2013 21: 08 New
    +2
    Thanks to the author. Nice article and just a great selection of photos. Each ship has its own destiny. But the contribution of the crew of the cruiser Chervona Ukraine in the defense of Odessa, Crimea, especially Sevastopol, is enormous. During the defense of Sevastopol, coastal batteries 702. 703. 704. 705. and three anti-aircraft batteries 54, 73,75 were fully manned by the cruiser. Every single one fought to the last shell, the sailor. The last anti-aircraft battery No. 73 was taken by the Germans (not far from the Russian Black Sea Fleet's training ground, the "Autobat" area) on July 6, 1942. Also, the sailors of the cruiser fought in the marines on the lines of the city's defenses, and almost all of them died. Eternal memory and glory to the BLACK SEASURES.
  12. Mista_dj
    Mista_dj 13 October 2013 02: 46 New
    +1
    Beautiful ship!
    IMHO: 2 of the most beautiful types of ships - the destroyer and the cruiser.
    Thanks to the author for the article and great photos!