Military Review

Notes Russian admiral. From the memoirs of the commander of the cruiser "Varyag"

Notes Russian admiral. From the memoirs of the commander of the cruiser "Varyag"

27 January (9 February) 1904, defending the honor of Russia, the cruiser "Varyag" one took the battle with the Japanese squadron (6 cruisers and 8 destroyers). This fight is memorable to all of us. He belongs to Eternity. The people remember the sacred feat of "Varyag" and its glorious commander. This is a feat of martyrdom, a feat that has become a strong symbol of the inflexible great Russian spirit.

The Italian newspaper Matino wrote: “On the bridge of“ Varyag ”his handsome commander stood motionless and calm. The thundering “Hurray!” Broke out of the chest of all and rolled around. On all ships, music played the Russian anthem, picked up by the crews, to which the Russian ships responded with the same majestic and warlike anthem. The air was clear and the sea calmed down. The feat of great self-sacrifice took on epic proportions "...

Being at rest (in 1905 due to intrigues Rudnev was dismissed, he lived in the village of Myshenka, Tula province), the rear admiral wrote a lengthy essay "The Battle of Varyag at Chemulpo 27 January 1904 of the Year" (St. Petersburg, 1907) , then the autobiographical book “World tour of the cruiser“ Africa ”in 1880-1883 years” (St. Petersburg, 1909), he also worked on memoirs, but, alas, the manuscript was lost during the civil war. Until the end of his days, he was engaged in worldly affairs, business, he was a guardian of the Zemstvo schools, he was a ktitor of the church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God in the village of Savina of the Tula Province. (now there is the Rudnev Museum), where he found his last refuge. The people's hero 100 died years ago, 7 / 20 July 1913.

If we know almost everything about the “Varyag” fight, then the story of the journey to “Africa” today remains the property of only a narrow circle of specialists, the book has never been reprinted, however it is remarkable in many respects - first, this is a document of the Russian maritime era lifestyle and services; A series of interesting sketches of distant, mysterious countries and their inhabitants smoothly unfolds on its pages. Secondly, this composition undoubtedly conveys the living breath of time thanks to the author’s keen observation (who often calls himself Lieutenant R. in the narration, speaking from a third person), which, to a certain extent, helps to make a correct judgment about the personality of a young officer - a man high culture, exemplary, executive, honest, with an indispensable sense of duty, service to the Fatherland, devotion to the Sovereign. And a kindness, love of neighbor and a bright Orthodox worldview seems positively to be the vertical of this character. All these qualities, strengthened over the years, will affect the commander of "Varyag" at the time of the glorious battle, about which people still sing songs. And if during the command of “Varyag” the image of Rudnev is seen like an epic monument, then during the voyage on “Africa” it is still young, gaining strength and knowledge.

Vsevolod Fedorovich firmly remembered the paternal commandment: “It is your honor to mark the 200th anniversary of the Russian Rudnev’s service the fleet. Remember - among the Ore cowards and traitors were not. Do not bow your head before the enemy while she is intact. Do not lower the flag before him! ”
So ... in April, 1880 Mr. Rudnev was assigned to the cruiser "Africa".

“In the 1880 year, due to the expected political complications in the Far East, several ships were sent from Kronstadt to replenish the squadron of the Pacific Ocean. Subsequently, the political clouds scattered, the ships returned, but the share of “Africa” still had an extremely rare and interesting voyage ... ”In the three-year round-the-world tour, the Government’s Marine Program for the Study of the World Ocean was to be performed.

“[The Indian Ocean] did not meet us very graciously, although we immediately fell into the associated monsoon; a strong wind added to the course, but at the same time did not leave the cruiser alone, forcing it to swing from side to side quite earnestly, and the sweeps reached 30 and more degrees. In addition to this, the humidity of the air, with strong heat, was so great that everything was done wet: the bed, the linen, and the dress on her. Hot food was not always used, at first the cook managed to cook soup, but the helpful monsoon threw it out of the pan. I don’t remember what and how he cooked, but only we were looking forward to coming to Singapore.

There were also entertainments - strong squalls with rain often attacked the cruiser, during the day they still didn’t cause much trouble, but at night they were just bored. You are standing on the bridge, there is impenetrable darkness all around, and suddenly something black is coming from the side, darker than the night, you barely have time to make an order to lower the sails, howling whistling and howling in gear and pouring rain soak through. The watch officer will ask if everything is all right on Mars, and, having received an answer, he again walks to the next squall, carefully looking at the surrounding darkness. As we approached the Strait of Malacca, the ocean became calmer, and we managed to see one of the rare natural phenomena: the entire sea all the way to the horizon represented a dull luminous surface of a milky color with sharply delineated boundaries. The cruiser, walking on the dark water, gradually approaching this sort of snowy plain, entered it and within exactly an hour walked exactly in milk, while the water scooped out from the side had no color. ”

“... we left Singapore in good weather and decently high outdoor temperatures. It was so quiet and peaceful, we all hoped that the weather would be settled for long; however, already on August 15, at sunset, the sky turned a dark purple color, undoubtedly indicating a change in the weather, and therefore an order was given to prepare to meet the unpleasant guest of the China Sea - a typhoon ... Before 5 in the morning of August 18, with the wind that crossed to the southwest, the hurricane blew with the greatest force; excitement and swell reached considerable size, and the greatest swings reached 40 degrees to the side; the deck from the incident waves was all the time in the water. The wind howled in the rigging, the cruiser threw like a chip, something popped, thundered — in a word, the situation was terrible. This went on until 6 o'clock in the morning, when, finally, the barometer moved up, the strength of the hurricane began to weaken ...

I had to stand, being tied to the handrail, holding with one hand and changing the position of the legs according to the inclination of the bridge, with the other hand I closed each side of the face in turn, because the pain from the rain that hit with great force was unbearable.

With each sweep of the vessel, the waves poured from head to toe, and in the course of the four-hour watch I did not have a dry thread left; however, this did not prevent the vigorous, even cheerful mood of the spirit. The calmness of the Commander, who managed to breathe confidence and vigor into us, was also transmitted to the team. You are standing on the bridge in such a terrible situation, and it is very painful to watch the rain yourself and watch at the sight of the watch sailors, who made incredible efforts to dance around the harmonica near the forecastle, where only the spray fell; for the sake of balance, their comic movements at times made them laugh heartily. Down in the decks and in the mess room, there was nothing to think about any comfort - they barely had time to pump out the water everywhere. The officers worked in shifts in the decks, and the free ones rested on the benches in the mess room, and they had to put their heads and feet ... When the day had gone, the order was given on my watch: to open the hatches. The team poured to the top, and as one, removing their caps, crossed themselves, thanks to God for salvation from the threatened danger. ”

“On September 17, the cruiser later anchored in a bay near Vladivostok ... Now let's say about Vladivostok. The city is stretched on one side of the Golden Horn Bay, while the other side is covered with forest, and right next to the water are Makovsky's coal depots. At the time we are describing, the corners of the streets were nailed with street names, but the streets themselves were not yet, except for the paved Svetlana and the same in the officer suburb ... The church was one, very small, wooden. They collected money for the cathedral, but they disappeared somewhere, and for a long time Vladivostok did not have a cathedral. ”

On the night of December 4, "Africa" ​​anchored in Yokohama raid.

“... the youth decided ... to visit Tokyo. And, no matter how crazy it sounds for the new Russian rumor (edition: NM), the first thing I decided to visit in Tokyo was the Russian Spiritual Mission, headed by our friend, already a bishop, Nikolai. Our first visit was to the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission, built in the northern part of the Soto-Siro district in the Suruga Dai area. The house is two-storied, stone, stands on a mountain, on the slopes of which Japanese wooden houses huddle. The church is small, simple, but quite decent, bright and very clean. We went to the liturgy, which was performed by a young hieromonk with a Japanese deacon, the children sang from school. It is extremely pleasant to see the blessing in the church, men and women stand on different sides, no one is late, they don’t talk or turn around.

Sermon to say came out himself Bishop Nicholas, and the Japanese sat on the floor. The Japanese speech of the esteemed shepherd flowed like a live stream, and it was clear that the listeners had not uttered a single word from his sermon.

The Japanese are not accustomed to standing on their feet for long periods of time, and therefore they sit on the floor during the preaching of the bishop. Before leaving, we visited Bishop Nicholas, who received us in the most cordial manner. ”

“December 20 - New Year's Day with foreigners. I had to go round all the vessels standing in the roads, but they were assembled decently, here were the British, Americans, Italians, Germans, French and Japanese. The officers went on two shifts, the fact is that they usually forced them to drink a glass of champagne on each ship, and there are more than 20, naturally, one shift cannot withstand welcoming receptions. ” “25-th came to the cruiser Bishop Nicholas. 1 January 1881, we met standing on the roadstead of Yokohama, it was the first new year, met in a foreign land, everyone was sad, and therefore after a modest dinner, they immediately went to cabins.

“January 21 (1881) was invited to introduce himself to Mikado. His Majesty Mikado Mutsuhito (the same one that in 1907 will present the highest award of Japan - the Order of the Rising Sun II Art. N.M.) in the general's hall in the hall near an armchair upholstered in silk fabric of lilac color with woven silver asters. uniform with two princes on the sides. From the entrance, bows began, in three steps, until we reached the emperor, who exchanged brief greetings with the admiral. Then they began to back up to the door. In another room, we drank a cup of tea and went back to Yokohama. ”

February 21 "triumph ... on the occasion of the accession to the throne of the Sovereign Emperor. In the morning there was a prayer, flag-raising salutes, a boat race in the afternoon, and the 28 February illumination in the evening the cruiser "Africa" ​​left Yokohama, heading for Owari Bay with the permission of Mikado, who wanted to pay special attention to our ports that were not open to Europeans.

"March 4 went to Toba Bay, which is also not open to Europeans."

There, the crew found the tragic news of the March 1 event in St. Petersburg. (Murder by terrorists Sovereign Alexander II - NM). “The Yokagam raid at our ward represented a sad picture - the flags are lowered, the yards are crossed and there is complete silence even as the admiral passes. A visiting priest served a requiem, led us to take the oath of the new Sovereign, and served a prayer service on the occasion of the accession to the throne of Emperor Alexander III. We were all deeply shocked and really grieved. Mikado sent a sympathetic telegram to the embassy ... "

“On May 2, on execution of the order, we settled in Singapore ...” Soon the cruiser was called to Vladivostok, and from there on July 12, 1881, with the thunder of salutes and shouts of “Hurray”, the cruiser “Africa” smoothly moved into a long way. ” The first item of the large Pacific program was an inspection of the remaining Russian possessions in the northern part of the Great Ocean.

"29 July left cordial Petropavlovsk and, despite the fog, reached the next day the island of Bering - a group of Commander Islands, anchored behind the island Toporkov ... After seeing the Aleuts village ... went into the church ... At 8, the hours of the evening went further, in the morning they anchor off Medniy Island (the same group), an agent of a Russian-American company appeared here ... who conveyed the request of the island’s population to allow visiting a Russian warship, as they had never seen warships before. Residents on the shore are placed in good wooden houses, earn a decent amount, and do not tolerate lack. Despite the large ripples that made the cruiser almost scoop the sides, standing at anchor, many people came on their frail boats, they were well met, treated, showed the whole ship and amused by the music. When they left Africa, they escorted her on the boats, shouting “Hurray!”. ”

“August 1 hit the hurricane wing in the Bering Sea, the wind and the pitching were deadly (the ship’s spans reached 40 ° to the side), only 4 of the morning when the fog spread in 9 saw the island on Unalashka anchor in the port of Illulyuk of the Captain's Bay.

Priest Innocent, an American agent and a doctor arrived at the admiral; Of course, we immediately went ashore to see the Russian church and school for learning the Russian language, we met two priests from the Aleuts.

Father Innocent is popular, worshipers built him a house in appreciation; salary gets 1800 p. in year. There are also Russian churches on the neighboring islands, since the Aleuts are Orthodox and speak Russian. ”

20 August "Africa" ​​arrived in San Francisco. “In the evening, the admiral with officers in epaulets went to the opening of the exhibition, we were left with a passage among a huge crowd, we were met with a hymn, showed the exhibition, were treated to champagne and in abundance with speeches. Practical Yankees connected the pleasant with the useful, having rendered the squadron's attention, made decent money - they published that on the opening day of the exhibition the Russian admiral with officers in uniform would be appointed and appointed two dollars for the entrance (4 rubles), the gathering gathered to the exhibition. 30 August on the occasion of the holiday (St. Alexander Nevsky) sent a team to the church under the command of the company commander. Back came back with music surrounded by a mass of people. When the team got into the boats, a man and then a woman approached the company commander, each of them filed a wonderful bouquet of flowers. The consul explained that they were expressing their feelings here quickly and simply: they liked the passing of the team and therefore immediately threw money at the head of the initiator, bought bouquets and presented them as an expression of their pleasure. ”

September 28 “Africa” left the continent for a long time to complete the island program (Sandwich Islands, Marquesas Islands). “One night I saw a wonderful phenomenon when a brilliant blue flame burst from under the cruiser from two sides, as if we were sailing on the sea of ​​fire. The sea did not shine with sparkles (as is usual in warm countries), but with a whole solid mass, which spread in vast semicircles as the broad, dense wave receded, then wriggling green fiery snakes, flickering far and turning further into spots, to dots. Although the glow of the sea - an ordinary thing, but when it is presented in large sizes, it turns a great picture.

Then there were New Zealand and Australia, in Sydney they met the new 1882, and left for Melbourne. “In our free time we visited theaters, friends, danced with the consul and received guests ourselves. The girls were surprised to see us white - they thought that we were black and we were eating tallow candles. ” “Despite the visible attention and convenient parking provided to us, we were happy to leave 12 February from Melbourne, although it was a pity to leave the gay city without the stinging rules. The reason that sped up our departure and made it happy was the daily newspaper articles that contained unpleasant things and slander. The newspapers openly expressed the fear that the squadron had come to look, and determine the possibility of conquering the Australian colonies. ”

February 26 "Africa" ​​went to the Indian Ocean, ending three quarters of its program.

“4 April came to a new interesting country of the Siamese king. The next morning, the first thing climbed to the highest tower to get acquainted with the surroundings. ... but the trouble is that the tower itself was at the local version of the cemetery, or rather on a large courtyard, divided into several parts. In one part are hopelessly ill, in the second - there are gallows and chopping blocks for head chopping. The third part serves as a place for burning the corpses, if the relatives are able to pay 35 cents (kopecks) for this, otherwise the corpses are thrown into the fourth yard, the most terrible of all. In it constantly live eagles and condors, which immediately distribute among themselves fresh corpses. In the middle of the courtyard there is a pyramid of skulls, immediately there are a lot of bones and body parts lying around, not yet eaten by birds.

Panting from the murderous smell, not taking away the handkerchiefs from the nose, we still went around the yard, carefully passing the terrible owners of the yard. Sitting condors are taller than a man, they feel their strength and do not let the road pass.

For a change of impression, we went to see the temples and palaces ... We successfully got to the palace, because we saw how his domination the sacred white elephant deigned to go for a walk, when it left, a guard of honor was called to give honor. The guard as part of one company is constantly at the premises and is called upon leaving the elephant and returning it home. Then we went to inspect the pagodas - there is luxury and beauty everywhere, the floors are lined with marble, the walls are decorated with a mosaic of gold plates and colored pieces, the doors of ebony with mother-of-pearl inlay are all original and valuable. Especially rich is the main temple, in it the Buddha is made of ebony with diamond eyes. The charm of the temples was complemented by the sounds of stringed instruments, which merged into harmonious chords during the worship service there. ”

Then there were Saigon, Hong Kong ... 25 May cruiser came to Nagasaki, and 15 August to Petropavlovsk.

“24 on August on the anniversary of the Petropavlovsk battle took place the solemn opening of the monument to the killed soldiers while defending the city in 1854. The monument was put up with funds collected by a subscription between officers of the Pacific Squadron, its location on the spit allows ships entering the raid to admire its gilded tip from the distance (in the middle of 30's, it was transferred to Nikolskaya Sopka NM). For the parade, a consolidated company under the command of Lieutenant V.F.R. brought the braid to the spit, by which time the clergy had arrived; when the march was established according to this ceremony, they moved forward to a mass grave to serve a memorial service in the presence of the surviving participant of the battle soldier Karandashev. From the cemetery, the procession moved to the cathedral, where the mass was served, and then they all went to the spit to the monument. When the curtain was removed, both vessels saluted, after which the crew went through a ceremonial march. ”

“In September, the cruiser went around the northern shores of Kamchatka and the islands. This time the swimming is extremely difficult due to frequent fogs, fresh winds and a huge wave ... ". “October 5 after entering the sea fell into a violent storm with frost and snow. It was with great difficulty that Dr. Kalinowski was brought to the Bering Island ... It was impossible to look without laughter at the amazement and fright of the residents, who saw the sailors for the first time on horseback, took horsemen for gods and fell down on their horses. ”

Christmas holidays and New 1883 year “Africa” and its team met in Hong Kong. It was already the fourth year of the voyage, but the return was still not expected. Suddenly, in early February, they received an order to return to Russia.

"Solemnly raised a long pennant (pennant - a narrow flag in the form of a ribbon raised on warships. When returning home, according to the existing custom, a pennant is lifted, the length of which is equal to the length of the ship plus 100 feet for each year of sailing. At the end of the pennant, glass balls are sewn, so that they float on the water when there is no wind./ Comm. Leith. R. /) and February 6 went into the Indian Ocean. " At the transition to Ceylon continued intense exercises. Stops went from Ceylon to Tenedos.

On the eve of Easter, arrived in Jaffa. “On the morning of April 14, everyone gathered at the inn to simultaneously enter the holy city of Jerusalem. we all with the admiral and the team went to the temple of the Resurrection to watch the washing of the feet (Maundy Thursday) ... With candlelight in the preceding clergy and choristers, we went to the Holy Places.

First of all, against the entrance doors were attached to the plate, on which Jesus Christ was laid, after being removed from the cross, the plate lies under a canopy so low that you have to kneel down to attach. Then they came to the chapel of the Holy Sepulcher (Kuvuklion), it is made of marble and consists of two sections. The first section, or chapel, of angels - here Mary the Magdalene and the Most Pure Mother of God heard the joyful news of the Resurrection of Christ, in the same aisle now stands a marble vase with a piece of stone, which was removed from the tomb. In the second compartment lies a slab, denoting the place of the Holy Sepulcher, enter, bending through a low passage. Words can’t convey the feeling of awe and joy that you were honored to attach to the tomb of the Lord, you must experience it. ”

“After dinner, despite the fatigue, we went ... along Via dolorosa — the path of the Savior’s sufferings. We walked all the way, stopping at places where the Savior fell under the weight of the cross, in one place lies a piece of a column that cannot be lifted - this is a silent witness to the sufferings of Christ ... Further along the Mount of Olives, the place where Jesus Christ sat on a donkey before entering Jerusalem - this place was bought by the Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich to build a chapel in memory in Bose of the late Sovereign Emperor Alexander II. Finally climbed to the top, where there was the Ascension of the Lord.

15 April. Early in the morning, they mounted horses and, partly, donkeys, together with our team, to go to Bethlehem. The road goes through the sands and rocks without any greenery, but there is a lot of dust; the stop was at the monastery of St. Elijah, where we were treated to jam and wine. Near the monastery there is a well - the meeting place of Rachel and the pea field sent from Jacob.

It is said that the Mother of God, passing with the apostles past this place, asked the person who sowed peas what he sows, that of greediness said: "I sow stones." The Virgin Mary said to this: "Be according to your word."

Indeed, when peas grew, there were pebbles in the pods, they can be found now; we have accumulated for memory. Since then, the field does not belong to anyone, and the Turks do not allow anyone to touch the sworn place.

They drove into Bethlehem solemnly, everywhere they called guards (Turkish — N. M.) into a gun to give honor, and the inhabitants stood up and bowed. We drove straight to the house where the Savior's manger was; after going through the courtyard, they entered the temple, the altar of which was built on the very den, 15 steps down lead to the underground church or nativity scene - this is a natural cave in the rock, now overlaid with marble; place of birth is marked with a silver star. A little further another cave, where there were creches; here was the worship of the Magi ...

At the end of the inspection, we returned to Jerusalem at 2 o'clock in the afternoon ... we had to take away the shroud to the Holy Trinity Cathedral during the mission. At 10, the hours of the evening with the consul went to the tomb of the Lord for the night service ... In the cathedral they went to the altar and after some time went on a holy procession with a shroud to the Holy Places.

16 April. Great Saturday ... At 2 one o'clock in the afternoon they went to the temple of the Resurrection ... All the lights were turned off in the temple: at that time the Orthodox Arabs began to shout: "Our faith is strong" ...

After some time, the patriarch, without the upper garb, walked into the chapel of the Holy Sepulcher (inspected by the Turkish authorities), the door was locked behind him.

A short time of his prayers passed, as he gave a candle lit by Holy fire to the window of the chapel; the person who took the candle was carried on his hands to the altar, to light the inextinguishable lamp (in it the fire does not cease all year round and is extinguished only on Great Saturday in order to light the sacred fire again). When the lamp was lit, they began to light candles. Mostly bundles in 33 candles. According to legend, in ancient times, Catholics taught Turks and Arabs to demand that the patriarch publicly bring down the fire, and they themselves stood at the Holy Sepulcher; after some time, the fire descended outside the chapel to the Orthodox patriarch, striking a column (which has a crack); then [the Orthodox] Arabs began shouting: “Our faith is strong", it has survived until now. They returned home from the church ... We had just had lunch, when they came to go to the Holy Sepulcher to listen to the matins and to join. the chapel itself, where we stood for the whole service, was attached to the tomb and joined (they confessed before dinner). At 6, the hours of the morning came out of the temple, not noticing how the night passed in prayer (from 9 in the evening to 6 in the morning). ”

Further, the path lay in the Mediterranean Sea. April 25 “Africa” ... went to the Austrian Bay Cattaro. “Naturally, at the first opportunity we went ashore to wander around the small Cattaro, its environs, and reached the capital of Montenegro, Cetinje. The road goes through the mountains in zigzags, over stones without any greenery, the ascent is very tiring, but still we overcame all the difficulties towards the complete approval of the Montenegrins encountered. A tall fellow in a picturesque costume will come up to you and ask: “Russian?”, Having received the answer, he will certainly pat him on the shoulder in a friendly manner and say: “Kind” ... April 28 went to Ancona. ” And then Naples.

“Which is already time it is necessary to be in Naples, and each time, except admiration of nature, species, some special, inexplicable feeling seizes. Even in the evening, to stand on duty and that is good: a wonderful, quiet, warm evening, the moon illuminates the raid, and with it standing ships and a lot of moving boats; here one stopped, there were the sounds of mandolin and guitars, accompanying the wonderful singing that made the sailors leave the beds upstairs. ... we did not waste time in vain - at every opportunity we left and just ran away to the shore ... "

21 on May left from Naples.

“June 5 left the coast of Spain, the country of black eyes, beautiful costumes and unspeakable grace. With the departure of Kadiks, we spread prostration to the Mediterranean Sea, leaving behind us so much of what we had seen and experienced. The Atlantic Ocean tried to dispel our sadness - chatted "Africa" ​​in all directions, invited various winds to blow on us, even the rain was among those invited, but all without success ... it was a pity to leave, although it was nice to return home. "

“June 24 is on its feet from early morning, a reward is announced to the one who sees Tolbukhin lighthouse first. Suddenly the messenger ran: “The lighthouse opened”, and a friendly “Hurray!” Announced the mess-room, and then transferred to the crew ... ”The cruiser came to Kronstadt.

Soon it became known about the upcoming Supreme Review. “Finally, the desired review took place. The review went brilliantly, Lieutenant R. was terribly in command of an all-in-one job (general work) when setting sail, although at the same time he was happy with the happiness that fell to his lot to stand on the bridge between Her Majesty the Empress and the Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich. When firing mines, the Commander asked His Majesty to appoint a target, the mine went to a point, but the Commander thought that the Sovereign took this as an accident, and therefore asked to take another shot at the designated target. Mina, and this time, went right on purpose - then the Sovereign deigned to graciously thank the Commander and the mine officer. "The result of the review [of Africa] was the order: The review was brilliant, the cruiser was found by the commission in perfect order of battle and exemplary cleanliness and serviceability in all parts, to the highest extent possible with the vigilant care of the commander and the zealous assistance of all officers."

“On July 11, we ended the campaign ... Lieutenant R., received on July 15 the order of St. Stanislav 3 degree - the only one of all officers. Thus ended an extremely interesting and instructive voyage, and in many respects we were obliged to a Commander, an extremely strict, but also able to thank and teach. ”

The commander of the ship on all voyages was the captain of 2 rank Yevgeny Ivanovich Alekseev, later an admiral and governor of His Imperial Majesty in the Far East. Together with him, Rudnev made another round-the-world voyage on the cruiser Admiral Nakhimov (1889-1891). Together they served in the Russian East, together they fought in the Russian-Japanese in 1904. Recall that the book V.F. Rudnev about traveling on the cruiser "Africa" ​​saw the light in 1909, then who only scolded Admiral Alekseyev, but the student rightly paid tribute to his teacher, having assessed objectively his professional and human qualities. “The Orthodox-monarchical views of Rudnev himself, which he so clearly found in his notes, were also unpopular in that year,” writes the historian of the Russian-Japanese war, B.G. Galenin. - It is important to take note and remember to characterize the “Lieutenant R.” ... It can be argued that this person was loyal, reliable and courageous.

The author of the book later became one of the most famous officers of the Russian Navy for the whole history it.

So much known that, say, in 1954 (when the 50 anniversary of the feat of “Varyag” was celebrated), there was no person in the “former” Soviet Union who did not know this officer of the Russian Imperial Fleet, who became a national hero not only in Russia, but and the Soviet Empire. The case itself is unique and without precedent ”(Galenin BG Tsushima is a sign of the end of Russian history. The hidden causes of well-known events. M., 2009).

Next year marks the 110 anniversary of the heroic battle of the cruiser Varyag, in connection with which I propose that the public turn to the President of Russia V.V. Putin, Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation S.K. Shoigu and the deputies of the State Duma with the initiative to approve 9 of February as the Day of Russian Military Glory, with a memorable date on the calendar.
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  1. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 8 October 2013 10: 04
    Eternal memory to heroes !!!

    1. svp67
      svp67 8 October 2013 10: 07
      Quote: smiths xnumx
      Eternal memory to heroes !!!

      Good day Roman. Their GLORY is ALWAYS ALWAYS with THEM and with US. But honestly, did the COMMANDER do everything so that this glory was greater?
      1. smiths xnumx
        smiths xnumx 8 October 2013 10: 27
        Hi Sergey, you and I were not there, but this beautiful song was written by the German Rudolf Greitz, who was delighted with the feat of Russian sailors. Rudnev was also awarded the Order of St. George 4th degree, lower ranks - St. George's Crosses IV degree. Captain 1st Rank VF Rudnev, in addition to the order, received the rank of Adjutant Wing and became the commander of the battleship Andrew the First-Called (still under construction in St. Petersburg). And to believe the modern so-called. "historians" do not respect themselves, everyone writes as it suits him.
        1. svp67
          svp67 8 October 2013 11: 00
          Quote: Kuznetsov 1977
          Hi Sergey, you and I were not there

          I agree. And I do not question the feat itself. But as an officer and commander, I still want to understand if the COMMANDER did everything so that the crew’s willingness to sacrifice themselves and all the crew’s work would bring greater results. And honestly, a lot of questions ...
  2. Breeze59
    Breeze59 8 October 2013 11: 46
    I don’t dare to invade the dispute, if I’m not mistaken, of naval officers, but it seems to me, a land man, even a son of a sailor, that COMMANDER Rudnev has done enough, if not everything, so that the crew’s readiness for self-sacrifice will still delight the descendants. Russia. And on that holds. The author, many thanks.
    1. svp67
      svp67 8 October 2013 12: 35
      Quote: Breeze59
      so that the crew’s readiness for self-sacrifice still arouses admiration of descendants. Russia is still alive.
      This does not cause any disputes. The question is different, but did the COMMANDER use all the strengths of his weapons and position to save the ship and complete the task. There has been a debate about this for more than a century, and in particular, Admiral Rudnev was not accepted into the admiral's society and was forced to resign, which also characterizes him as a person of honor. But questions remained.
      1. smile
        smile 8 October 2013 16: 55
        It’s clear what you’re talking about. I think that most of those who are interested in history are familiar with the controversy over the correctness of Rudnev’s actions, including why he did not prevent the Japanese from landing from transports. But the article, in general, is not about that, therefore there is nothing about that fight and its various ratings.
    2. alex20081308
      alex20081308 8 October 2013 18: 04
      Another legend. Let it live. It will not be worse. But it was not quite like that.
    3. Motors1991
      Motors1991 8 October 2013 19: 15
      But it seems to me that Rudnev did not take the initiative. He should have left Chemulpo before the Japanese attack, and not patiently wait for the order, when it was clear that the war was about to begin and the cruiser would be blocked. In a similar situation, the captain of the frigate Aurora Izylmetev this is exactly what he did when, just before the declaration of war, lulling the vigilance of the Englishmen and Frenchmen watching him, he left the Peruvian port of Callao at night. Then Aurora said her weighty word during the defense of Petropavlovsk. As for the battle itself, Rudnev had to do what Askold did during the battle in the Yellow Sea, breaking through at full steam into the sea, where not a single Japanese ship could catch it, but drowned the ship and called it a feat. By the way, in combat training, the same-type Askold far surpassed Varyag, shot more often and most importantly.
      1. Ulysses
        Ulysses 8 October 2013 22: 56
        Varyag had no "vapors".
        At best, 19 knots, thanks to American shipbuilders.

        “Upon arrival in the Far East, the cruiser was completely unsuitable for combat service - the new ship needed major repairs. During sea trials, boiler tubes were constantly bursting, bearings overheated - the engine crew after numerous accidents was already afraid to approach this“ overseas miracle of technology. ”“ Varyag ” with great difficulty and risk could give no more than 19 knots for a short time, and the recommended speed for him was now only 14 knots. "
  3. parij777
    parij777 8 October 2013 13: 10
    Photos of beautiful girls 18 Moscow
  4. samoletil18
    samoletil18 8 October 2013 23: 20
    If only, if only! Why didn't Lutyens blow up the jammed steering wheel in the only campaign of the "Bismarck"? Well, he drowned "Huda", and how many British navy, and how many Germans? So it's easy for Rudnev to give advice ... being already aware of what happened after, and not what is in the future. Maybe Nicholas II did not involve Russia in the First World War.
  5. Bassman
    Bassman 9 October 2013 01: 50
    We must not forget that besides the Varyag, there was also a slow-moving Korean with a 13-knot speed, which Rudnev could not abandon, and the detachment returned to Chemulpo, having probably exhausted all possibilities for a breakthrough.
    1. redwolf_13
      redwolf_13 9 October 2013 07: 57
      Forgive me, why didn't he use the "Korean" as a firebrand? That is, he could not throw the low-speed galosh, but he could not flood but he could not blow up his ship. In 2 months the Japanese raised the Voryag from the shallow waters, carried out repairs on it and put it under their flag. WHAT prevented the ship commander from BLOWING up his ship. Do you know that the persuasion of the officers of the international squadron, who first abandoned our ships to die, and then actually handed the ship over to the enemy. Yes, and in the fleet, Rudnev was characterized as a very soft, inactive commander and person.
      1. Bassman
        Bassman 9 October 2013 23: 46
        I agree with you that it was necessary to blow up the Varyag despite the protests of the officers of the international squadron. But what could have been blocked by the Korean? The raid where were stationers of other powers? Rudnev acted according to the traditions of the Russian fleet, attacked the enemy regardless of their number. In my opinion, he would not have been able to break through without the Koreyets, and two eight-inch guns of the gunboat, albeit not long-range ones, came in handy Let me remind you that the Russian fleet at that time did not know loud defeats at sea! Naturally, the mentality of a naval officer of that time did not allow the idea of ​​sinking a Russian ship without a fight, not counting Sevastopol in 1854. where the ships were sunk based on strategic objectives. Remember the brig "Mercury". But at that time it was not a new ship. In skillful hands, the old ship is a formidable weapon. Therefore, I think that Rudnev had no choice. Just go out with the detachment entrusted to him and give battle. And he did not disgrace the honor of the Russian officer.
        Best regards wink
        RS Reading fiction about this battle, a lot of damage on Japanese ships and even the death of one destroyer are described, but somehow in the journal "Rodina" there were reports of the Japanese about this battle. From them I learned for myself - not a single hit on Japanese ships was recorded ...
    2. Motors1991
      Motors1991 9 October 2013 14: 50
      The Korean commander Belyakov suggested that Rudnev transfer the team to the Varyag, the cannon-boat was flooded and break on the cruiser. There were obsolete guns on the Korean, they couldn’t penetrate the Japanese, so he couldn’t help in the battle, not only because of the low speed of the boat the Varyag started the battle at speed about 13 knots, and when Rudnev decided on a breakthrough it was too late, the Japanese managed to get close and the cruiser turned into a pile of metal in a few minutes. From my point of view, the cruiser Varyag was mediocrely lost. In the end, after the Japanese ultimatum, it was possible to stretch time in the evening, the Japanese would hardly have decided to attack the Russians in the port among the neutral warships, and there is night, how many fugitives she saves.
  6. unknown
    unknown 13 October 2013 19: 32
    Rudnev stupidly lost a warship.
    Prior to being appointed commander of the cruiser, he was chief of the port.
    It would seem that he should have good organizational skills.
    But service on the ship completely destroyed.
    The latest fastest cruiser after repair showed a speed of 20 knots, instead of 24,5 in tests
    In battle, this speed is not shown.
    History knows other examples. In the battle of the Falkland Islands, the obsolete British armored cruiser, originally the slowest of the entire series, during the chase exceeded its speed in acceptance tests by as many as four knots.
    And the Japanese were even slower. Their vaunted armored cruisers actually walked 14-17 knots.
    Damage to the cruiser in battle was minimal.
    Not having exhausted the combat capabilities of the cruiser, the ship sank. Got to the Japanese.
    What is the feat?
    Here is the "Askold" heroic cruiser.
    He fought actively. In the Yellow Sea broke through successively through two armored cruisers.