Military Review

Cosmonautics has a limitless future, and its prospects are endless, like the Universe itself (S. P. Korolev)


October is the month of space travel.

October 4 1957 of the year the royal "seven" took to the velvet-black sky of Baikonur "Sputnik-1", opening the Space Age in stories our civilization. More than half a century has passed since then - how much has modern spacecraft achieved? Will we get to the stars soon?

I bring to your attention a short story about the most complex, interesting and exciting interplanetary expeditions of Humanity. The review intentionally does not include the landing of Americans on the moon - there is no need to inflate a meaningless argument, everyone will still have his own opinion. In any case, the greatness of lunar expeditions pales before the exploits of automatic interplanetary probes and people who had a hand in the creation of this amazing technique.

Cassini - Huygens
Developers - NASA, European Space Agency
Launch - October 15 1997.
The goal - the study of Venus and Jupiter from the flight path. Entry into orbit of Saturn, landing of the Huygens probe on Titan.
Current status - mission extended to 2017 year.

Cosmonautics has a limitless future, and its prospects are endless, like the Universe itself (S. P. Korolev)

On that fateful night, we slept quietly and did not know that the 5-ton interplanetary station Cassini swept over our heads. Launched in the direction of Venus, she, two years later, returned to the Earth again, gaining by that time the speed of 19 km / s (relative to the Earth). The worst thing was that on board the Cassini there were 32,8 kg of weapons-grade plutonium necessary for the operation of three radioisotope RTGs (due to the large distance from the Sun, it was impossible to use solar batteries in Saturn's orbit).

Fortunately, the gloomy forecasts of environmentalists were not justified - the station quietly passed at a distance of 1200 km from the planet and, having received a gravitational impulse, set off towards Jupiter. There, she once again received acceleration and three years later, July 1 2004, successfully entered the orbit of Saturn.

The "star number" of the entire mission was the separation and landing of the Huygens probe on Titan.
Saturn’s largest satellite is larger than the planet Mercury and is surrounded by a powerful gas envelope that has long attracted the attention of earth scientists. The average temperature on the surface is minus 170-180 ° С, but in the underground reservoirs the simplest forms of life could well have developed - the spectrometers show the presence of hydrocarbons in the clouds of Titan.

Well, let's see how everything turned out in reality ...

... "Huygens" flew into the orange abyss until it plopped into the soft dirt on the shore of a methane lake with floating ice floes from frozen ammonia. The nightmare landscape was supplemented with oblique streams of methane rain.
Titan became the fourth celestial body, on the surface of which the object created by human hands fell.

On this distant planet
We were greeted by cold and darkness.
Slowly drove crazy
Fog and piercing wind.

Panoramas of Titan from a height of several kilometers and on the landing site of the Huygens probe. In total, the probe managed to transfer 474 megabytes of various information, including several sound files. Following the link you can hear the sound of the wind in the atmosphere of a distant celestial body:

As for the Cassini station itself, the probe is still operating in Saturn's orbit — the most amazing plans are being expressed for its further use: from sending Cassini to Uranus, Neptune or Kuiper belt objects to bringing the probe to the collision path with Mercury. The possibility of flying through the rings of Saturn is also discussed, and if the probe does not break on ice fragments, experts suggest continuing the deadly flight, having made a leap into the upper layers of the atmosphere of Saturn.

The official version provides for less daring maneuvers - the transfer of the apparatus to an elongated orbit and the continuation of the mission to study the vicinities of the gigantic planet.

Developer - Soviet Union
Launch - December 15 1984 ("Vega-1"), December 21 1984 ("Vega-2")
The goal - the study of Venus and Halley's comet.
Current status - the project has been successfully completed.

One of the most complex and exciting space expeditions to the world of monstrous heat and eternal twilight.

In December, 1984 from Baikonur went to meet the stars two Soviet stations - five-ton machines of the Vega series. Each had an extensive scientific program, which included the study of Venus from the flight path, as well as the separation of the landing module, which, slowing down in the atmosphere of Venus, was divided into two research modules - a sealed landing gear made of strongest steel and a fantastic balloon for studying the atmosphere of the planet.

Despite its alluring brilliance at the predawn hour, the “Morning Star” is a hellish brazier shrouded in a dense carbon-dioxide atmosphere, heated to 500 ° Celsius. At the same time, the pressure on the surface of Venus reaches 90-100 of terrestrial atmospheres - like in the ocean at a depth of kilometer 1! The landing module of the Vega station worked in such conditions for 56 minutes - until the terrible heat burned through the heat protection and destroyed the fragile probe filling.

Panorama transmitted by one of the stations of the series "Venus"

Balloon probes lasted longer — at an altitude of 55 km above the surface of Venus, the atmospheric parameters look quite adequate - the pressure 0,5 of earth's atmospheres, temperature + 40 ° С. The duration of the probes was about 46 hours. During this time, each of the balloons flew in streams of a raging 12 000 hurricane km above the surface of Venus, controlling temperature, pressure, illumination, visibility range and speed of movement of air masses along the flight path. Coming out on the night side of Venus, the devices were lost in the midst of lightning flashes of a thunderstorm front.

The Venus probes died, and the Vega mission was far from complete - the flight stages of the probes, after separating the landing modules, entered a heliocentric orbit and continued their way in outer space. All circumstances evolved well. Ahead was a meeting with the comet Halley.

A year later, in March 1986, both vehicles passed at a distance of just 8030 and 8890 km from the nucleus of the famous comet, transferring 1500 images and a lot of scientific information, including data on the evaporation rate of the substance from the ice surface of the nucleus (40 tons / second).

The speed of approach of the comet and Vega vehicles exceeded 70 km / s - miss the probes by one hour and they would deviate from the target by 100 thousand km. The situation was complicated by the impossibility of predicting the comet's trajectory with the required accuracy - on the days of convergence with the space fugitive 22 of the USSR Observatory and Astrophysical Institute of the USSR, the course of Halley's comet was continuously counted to bring Vega as close as possible to its core.
Currently, both Vega vehicles are still drifting in an inactive state in heliocentric orbit.

MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging)
Developer - NASA
Launch - 3 August 2004.
The goal is to enter the orbit of Mercury.
Current state - mission is active.

None of the spacecraft has ever moved along such a bizarre trajectory: during its flight, the Messenger performed six gravitational maneuvers, alternately moving closer to the Earth (once), Venus (twice) and Mercury (three times). Despite the apparent closeness of this planet, the flight to Mercury took six and a half years!

The elusive Mercury is one of the most inaccessible celestial bodies. Very high orbital speed - 47,87 km / s - requires huge energy consumption to compensate for the difference in speed of a spacecraft launched from Earth (the orbital speed of our planet is “only” 29,8 km / s). As a result, to enter the orbit of Mercury it was necessary to type "extra" 18 km / s! None of the modern launch vehicles and accelerating units turned out to be able to give the apparatus the necessary speed - the extra kilometers per second were gained by gravitational maneuvers in the vicinity of celestial bodies (this explains the complex trajectory of the probe).

The Messenger was the first of the spacecraft that became an artificial satellite of Mercury (before that, our acquaintance with this planet was limited to data from the Mariner 10 probe that flew three times near Mercury in the 1974-75 years)

One of the main dangers of the Messenger expedition is overheating - on the orbit of Mercury the intensity of solar radiation is more than 10 kilowatts per 1 square. meter!
To protect against the intolerable heat of a nearby star, the probe was equipped with a heat shield measuring 2,5x2 meters. In addition, the device is wrapped in a multi-layer “fur coat” of thermal insulation with a developed system of radiators - but even this is hardly enough to radiate excess heat into the space during a short night when the probe hides in the shadow of Mercury.

At the same time, proximity to the Sun provides its advantages: to provide the probe with energy, two short, 1,5-meter “wings” of solar batteries are enough. But even their power turned out to be redundant - the batteries are capable of producing more than 2 kW of electricity, while 640 W is enough for normal operation of the probe.

Hayabusa ("Falcon")
Developer - Japanese Space Agency
Launch - 9 May 2003
The goal - the study of the asteroid 25143 Itokawa, the delivery of asteroid soil samples to Earth.
Current status - mission completed 13 June 2010 of the year.

The success of this mission hung literally in the balance: a solar flare damaged the solar panels, the cosmic cold knocked out two of the three probe gyroscopes, the first time the Japanese attempted to get close to the asteroid, the Japanese lost the mini-robot Minerva - the kid ricocheted off the surface and flew into outer space . Finally, during the second rendezvous, the onboard computer crashed - Hayabusa hit the surface of a celestial body, damaged an ion engine, and lost orientation.

Despite such blatant failures, the Japanese Space Agency did not lose hope of the probe returning to Earth. The specialists restored the communications and orientation of the spacecraft, reset the on-board computer. In February, 2009, they managed to start the ion engine and the final maneuver to send the device to Earth.

The 510-kg Hayabus probe enters the dense atmosphere at a speed of 12,2 km / s. Woomera Range, Australia

13 June 2010, a capsule with microscopic soil particles was safely delivered to Earth. Asteroid 25143 Itokawa became the fifth celestial body, on the surface of which was visited the spacecraft created by human hands. And the brave Japanese "Falcon" - the sixth spacecraft that delivered to Earth samples of matter from space (after the "Luna-16", "Luna-20", "Luna-24", as well as the devices "Genesis" and "Stardust").

Asteroid Particle Capsule Returned to Earth

Developer - NASA
Launch - 20 August 1977 (Voyager 2), September 5 1977 (Voyager 1)
The goal is to study the systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune from the flight path. Mission extended to study the properties of the interstellar medium.
The current state - the mission is active, the vehicles have reached the borders of the Solar System and continue their endless journey in space. It is planned to keep in touch with them for as long as possible.

I am terrified by the eternal silence of these spaces. / Blaise Pascal /

At the beginning of the 1970-ies, the US Congress, shuddering under the blows of the economic crisis, almost "ruined" a unique space expedition. This happens once in 175 years - all the outer planets line up next to each other in the same sky sector. Parade of planets!

As a result, the inhabitants of the Earth have a rare opportunity to "ride" throughout the solar system and during one expedition visit Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. At the same time, to do this along the most advantageous trajectory - the gravitational field of each of the giant planets will “bounce” the probe towards the next target, thereby increasing the speed of the probe and reducing the duration of the entire mission to 12 years. Under normal conditions, without the use of gravitational maneuvers, the path to Neptune would stretch for 30 years.

However, the congressmen flatly refused to allocate funds for space exploration - the Grand Tour expedition was in jeopardy. The distant gas giants will disperse like ships at sea - Uranus and Neptune swim around the Sun slowly and take up a position that is convenient for “interplanetary billiards” only in the middle of the XXII century. Only the trick of the NASA management to rename the Mariner 11 and Mariner 12 devices into the Voyager series devices, as well as the rejection of two other Grand Tour program launches, saved the program and realized the cherished dream of everyone interested in space. .

Mounting of the head fairing of the Voyager satellite, 1977 year

Over the 36 years of flight, these machines were lucky to see such a thing that even the wildest dreams of science fiction writers cannot compare with.

Space scouts swept over the edge of the clouds of the giant planets, inside each of which could fit on the 300 globes.

They saw volcanic eruptions on Io (one of the “Galilean” satellites of Jupiter) and electric storms in the rings of Saturn — flashes of thousand-kilometer lightning lit up the shadow side of the giant planet. Enchanting spectacle!

Voyager-2 is the first and so far the only Earth probe that has flown around Uranus and Neptune: distant ice worlds, where 900 times less light than Earth's orbit, and the average surface temperature is within minus 214 ° Celsius. The probe for the first time saw a phenomenon absolutely impossible under terrestrial conditions - cryovolcanism. Instead of hot lava, volcanoes of distant worlds erupted liquid methane and ammonia.

Voyager-1 transmitted an image of the Earth from a distance of 6 billion kilometers - Humanity managed to look at the solar system from the side, outside the ecliptic plane.

25 August 2012, the Voyager 1 probe for the first time recorded the sound of wind in an interstellar medium, becoming the first of man-made objects to go beyond the limits of the solar system.

Jupiter’s “Great Red Spot” is an atmospheric whirlwind that has been raging for hundreds of years. Its dimensions are such that the Earth would easily fit inside the molga. Unlike us, comfortably sitting in a chair at a safe distance, Voyager saw this nightmarish cyclone close!

Volcanic eruption on Io

The satellite of Neptune Triton through the eyes of Voyager 2. Short dark bands - emissions of cryovolcanoes on the satellite surface

In the scientific literature, they are no longer ashamed to call Voyagers spacecraft - both vehicles have gained the third cosmic velocity and will certainly reach the stars. When? For unmanned probes, it does not matter - after 10-15, the last sparks in their plutonium “hearts” will go out for years, and the time for Voyagers will stop. Asleep forever, they will disappear in the vast expanses of the starry ocean.

New Horizons
Developer - NASA
Launch - 19 January 2006
The goal is to study the dwarf planets of the Pluto-Charon system from the flight path.
Current status - the machine will reach the goal of 14 June 2015 of the year.

What an injustice! Nine long years of flight and only nine days for a close acquaintance with Pluto.
At the time of the closest approach of 14 on June 2015, the distance to the planet will be 12 500 km (30 is closer than the distance from Earth to the Moon).

The meeting will be short: the New Horizons probe will rush past the most mysterious celestial body, still not surveyed by spacecraft from Earth, and disappear into interstellar space at 14,95 speed, becoming the fifth spaceship of Human civilization (after the probes Pioneer 10,11 "and" Voyager-1,2 ").

It is too early to draw any conclusions - the expedition has not reached its ultimate goal. At the same time, the probe does not lose time in vain - using its cameras, spectrometers and space particle detectors, New Horizons periodically studies oncoming celestial bodies: planets, satellites, and asteroids. Equipment testing is regularly conducted, on-board computer firmware updates are updated.

As of October 2013, the probe is at a distance 750 million km from the intended target.
In addition to the 7 of the most advanced scientific instruments, there is a special “cargo” on board the probe - a capsule with the ashes of astronomer Clyde Tombo, the discoverer of Pluto.

To look at millions of years ago, you do not need a time machine, it is enough to lift your head and look at the stars.
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  1. xetai9977
    xetai9977 8 October 2013 08: 15
    Brilliant article !!! Thanks to the author! For completeness, the European project "Giotto" should be added, when the space probe was able to approach Halley's comet at a distance of 605 km in 1986. How pitiful human vanity, politics and intrigue look against the backdrop of the vast space! Honor and praise to the creators of interplanetary spacecraft, the first swallows on the infinitely long path of studying and (who knows) space exploration.
    1. ben gun
      ben gun 8 October 2013 15: 54
      And it is very unfortunate that there is no Phobos-soil among these spacecraft.
      Oleg is a great article! Write more!
  2. Dejavu
    Dejavu 8 October 2013 09: 37
    I love space and everything connected with it .... / sigh
  3. Nayhas
    Nayhas 8 October 2013 09: 44
    Vega 1 and Vega 2 is the last triumph of the Russian cosmonautics ... It was very sad when Phobos 2, having already reached Mars, didn’t get in touch. They ended the era of automatic stations for us.
  4. Magellan
    Magellan 8 October 2013 09: 52
    Forgot about AMC "Magellan"
    Magellan first performed a detailed and full-scale radar mapping of Venus. The device was launched with the help of the Atlantis STS-30 shuttle on May 4, 1989 and worked in Venus’s orbit until October 1994.

  5. chunga-changa
    chunga-changa 8 October 2013 10: 02
    Great review.
  6. Ulan
    Ulan 8 October 2013 10: 46
    It is a pity that today we have lost our leadership position in space.
    What a pity that the Lozino-Lozinsky Spiral project was not implemented, perhaps our cosmonautics was now at a different level.
    What a pity that so little information about promising work.
    What a pity that the work on the national space station has been curtailed.
    But Abramovich and Proshka are furious and don’t know what else their whims to spend the stolen billions of.
    1. postman
      postman 8 October 2013 13: 11
      Quote: Ulan
      It is a pity that today we have lost our leadership position in space.

      - not really, we are in the lead in the number of launches, as well as in the length of time H in K
      Quote: Ulan
      What a pity that the Lozino-Lozinsky Spiral project was not implemented, perhaps our cosmonautics was now at a different level.

      M USSR Grechko: “We won’t be engaged in fantasies”
      the project was not implemented (technically, technologically) either in 1965 (start) (neither in the 1970s (closure), nor in the 21st century (at the moment)

      Quote: Ulan
      What a pity that so little information about promising work.

      They simply are not at the moment, 20 years of a mess

      Quote: Ulan
      What a pity that the work on the national space station has been curtailed.

      What kind of shisha?
      ISS total costs of about $ 130 of which $ 000 billion and $ 000 billion US contribution.
      WHAT OS?
      Quote: Ulan
      But Abramovich and Proshka are furious and don’t know what else their whims to spend the stolen billions of.

      here is the solution to this question, there is a beginning of the beginnings, AND NOT ONLY TWO NAME THOSE, there is Professor Potanin, there is the best businessman Deripaska (again he received 15- or 17bn from the STATE from the STATE)
  7. postman
    postman 8 October 2013 12: 51
    Well, here's another cosmophile formed.
    (And then all about aircraft carriers, but the Falkled Mesilovo)
    Quote: Author
    One of the main dangers of the Messenger expedition is overheating - on the orbit of Mercury the intensity of solar radiation is more than 10 kilowatts per 1 square. meter!

    Yes SPEED: for the first time, mankind managed to achieve and extinguish such a speed of the SPACECRAFT, NEAR such a center of mass as the Sun, to enter the orbit of Mercury (moreover, the orbit performs PRECESSION)

    The device was launched on August 3, 2004, and in January 2008 the device first flew past its target - Mercury. To enter orbit around the planet in 2011, the device made eThere are two gravitational maneuvers near Mercury: in October 2008 and in September 2009. MESSENGER also performed one gravitational maneuver near the Earth in 2005 and two maneuvers near Venus: in October 2006 and in June 2007during which I checked the equipment.
    WHILE he (mass) dangled and braked - made a map of 99,5% of the surface of Mercury

    And just for $ 446 million, while the "covered" distance was 000 km
    5,6 CENTS per kilometer
    (Skolkovo is resting: 4,7 km from the Ring Road cost more than 5 rubles, and ... and fell apart immediately)

    you forgot about the heat pipes, how many times did you tidychil: open the PS, pomotstri processor cooling stone system
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 8 October 2013 14: 38
      Quote: Postman
      Well, here's another cosmophile formed.

      Well, why are you so fed up with Vasily, what is wrong with love for space? Oleg is not doing very badly.
      1. postman
        postman 8 October 2013 15: 11
        Quote: Nayhas
        Well what are you so fed up Vasily

        Yes, well .... of course I did not bother = I tease, just Oleg ..
        Even to shout it is not for that
        He drank my blood for a week about heat dissipation in space "And as a messenger, then? HOW? There is 10 kW per m2)
        Quote: Nayhas
        Oleg is not doing very badly.

        better about space than about falklands and about aircraft carriers.
  8. Nikolaitch
    Nikolaitch 8 October 2013 12: 59
    Great article!

    The world is ruled by capital, people are dying for metal "(c)

  9. parij777
    parij777 8 October 2013 13: 13
    Photos of beautiful girls 18 Moscow
    Beautiful online girl runetka shannen loves Fantasy, softcore and socializing
    Intim leisure Moscow region
    Beautiful naked body of women photo Moscow
  10. postman
    postman 8 October 2013 13: 18
    in the topic (on the topic)
    explanation of pioneer anomaly found

    additional slowdown of the Pioneer-10 / Pioneer-11 devices from some unaccounted-for power, acting towards the sun. Slowdown is small and is approximately 9 x 10-10 m / s2.
    what they just "tried": both the new force and the correction of Copernicus's laws, acting in the universe and the asymmetric thermal radiation of RITEGs

    Orfeu Bertolami and Frederico Francisco from the Institute of Technology in Lisbon (Instituto Superior Technico) cracked this nut:
    the secret was in a directional antenna! The reverse side of its bowl with a diameter of 2,7 meters is a good reflector for infrared waves produced by isotope generators and an electronics compartment.

    While the devices were working, to ensure communication, this antenna was constantly directed to the Earth. Given the huge distance to the "Pioneers", this also meant its almost exact direction to the Sun (in general, communication with the Pioneer-10 device was terminated more than eight years ago, and with the 11th Pioneer - since 1995).

    Thus, the thermal emission from the heated parts of the interplanetary probe turned out to be far from symmetrical, but very concentrated, directed mainly in one direction, namely, it pushes the device against movement.
    1. Far East
      Far East 8 October 2013 15: 40
      Quote: Postman

      Vasily can I ask you, what is there for all this? tobish with cosmic silence! your opinion! I think everything has a chapel! who knows! hi
      1. postman
        postman 8 October 2013 16: 23
        I honestly did not understand the question ..
        can be specified?
        (Threat to me, Smolensk Data Center apparently made the brain so that I already ceased to feel reality and understand people ....) recourse
        1. Far East
          Far East 9 October 2013 13: 37
          Quote: Far East
          what is behind all this? tobish with cosmic silence! your opinion! I think everything has a chapel! who knows!

          In your opinion, cosmos is limitless, or there is a chapel! hi
          1. postman
            postman 10 October 2013 02: 01
            Quote: Far East
            limitless, or there is a chapel!

            By definition, the UNIVERSE is UNLIMITED, like a Mobius strip

            moreover, their (universes) number is also unlimited.
            As a variant of Lukyanenko's “Line of Dreams” “Emperors of Illusions”
  11. spirit
    spirit 8 October 2013 13: 39
    That's when it will be cost-effective to extract minerals from space, then there will be a real boom !!!!
    China is not in vain striving by leaps and bounds in space, unlimited resources good
    1. Alex Nick
      Alex Nick 8 October 2013 18: 14
      The most important thing is that our desires coincide with the possibilities
    2. Santa Fe
      8 October 2013 22: 46
      Quote: spirit
      That's when it will be cost-effective to extract minerals from space, then there will be a real boom !!!!

      To do this, you need a new engine with a huge specific impulse and traction

      Chemical LREs have reached their limit - max. specific impulse value ~ 500 seconds.
      For ion engines, this value is an order of magnitude larger. But, alas, the thrust is too small - only a few fractions of Newton, the slow acceleration of the spacecraft takes years

      As a result, we have what we have: the payload of the most advanced space-rocket system is within 1% of its starting mass !!! In such circumstances, talking about any kind of industrial space exploration is simply indecent.

      Can we create new types of engines? Nuclear, explosives, photonic wink ...Maybe one day

      Deep Space-1 Ion Engine (1998-2001)
      A tank with 81 kg of liquid xenon is enough for THREE YEARS of continuous operation. But the result is corresponding - ridiculous craving 0,092 H

  12. report4
    report4 8 October 2013 13: 42
    Now the astronautics have sad times .. well, we don’t launch automatic probes, and Americans, so they sit without orbiters to deliver orbits, and it’s not clear when they will do it and whether they will do it in principle.
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 8 October 2013 14: 45
      Quote: report4
      Okay, we don’t launch automatic probes, and the Americans, so they’re sitting in orbit

      You don’t understand, automatic interplanetary stations are a tool for studying the solar system. It is the AMS that will explore space for practical purposes, and not man. Man in space has nothing to do, this is empty populism. The development of deposits on neighboring planets, asteroids will be carried out precisely by robots, so the United States is working in this direction. Our Roskosmos, on the other hand, fantasizes about settlements on the Moon, without presenting any arguments for the hell they are needed there.
      1. postman
        postman 8 October 2013 15: 16
        Quote: Nayhas
        Man in space has nothing to do, this is empty populism.

        This is true at the present stage (power ratio of LV, materials, etc.)
        Comparing is simply meaningless.
        Man (1 unit) 80 kg
        1. life space (claustrophobia, and that would be trained)
        2. air, water, food
        3. after 2. it turns out a lot of waste, but still need to wash
        4. sleeps 8 hours, rests another 2 hours, eats 1 hour, total of 24, the rest 10-11 hours
        5. I need J O P A (life support of manned vehicles): + 20 ° C, humidity, pressure, lighting and color (white, black and red will go crazy)
        6. need psychological comfort (cinema, theater, woman, preference, alcohol, etc.)

        What about the machine?
        Quote: Nayhas
        Our Roskosmos, on the other hand, fantasizes about settlements on the Moon, without presenting any arguments for the hell they are needed there.

        where else to communize
    2. kaktus
      kaktus 8 October 2013 17: 19
      and why don't I feel sorry for them? winked
    3. Santa Fe
      8 October 2013 22: 27
      Quote: report4
      okay, we don’t start automatic probes

      But the Americans start up. Immediately for everyone.

      2011 year:
      - AMC Juno (Jupiter),
      - 800 kg Curiosity Mars Rover (MSL)
      2013 year:
      - September 7, LADEE launch for moon exploration
      - MAVEN for the study of the atmosphere of Mars (the launch is scheduled for November 18, 2013)
      Quote: report4
      americos, so without means of delivering people to orbit

      purely economics - there are no suitable tasks for the Shuttle. For delivery of 2-3 people. the ISS does not have to drive a super-ship into orbit (the Shuttle was designed for a crew of 7 people + 20 tons of cargo !!)
      Quote: report4
      and, in general, it is not clear when they will do it and whether they will do it in principle.

      Manned spacecraft of the new generation "Orion". Designed for flights to LEO, as well as to the nearest celestial bodies: GSO, the Moon, the Lagrange points of the Earth-Sun system, the nearest astroids.

      The first test flight is scheduled for 2014 (however, without a crew). Launch with crew - 2017 ... 2020

      Finally, the private spacecraft Dragon from SpaceX - there is a manned version (avan-project)
  13. Corsair
    Corsair 8 October 2013 15: 25
    Excellent, informative - informative article.
    And this is how our "friends" were "happy" about our successes in space:

    Clickable Image:
    1. kaktus
      kaktus 8 October 2013 17: 20
      envied! and the first pennant on the moon is also ours wink
  14. nod739
    nod739 8 October 2013 17: 43
    Quote: Ulan
    It is a pity that today we have lost our leadership position in space.

    do not escalate, and do not swindle
    perhaps, against the background of the Americans, it’s possible to say that practically no mission for further research is complete without our missiles, spectrometers and other instruments.
    there are few of their completely research projects — in general, but there are — almost everything in near space — and this is more practical than exploring the rings of Saturn
    they have Hubble, we have Radioastron, and by the way, he broke all world records for angular resolution, realizing the most keen eye in history !!! - it just works in a different spectrum
    Yes, they have Mars rovers, Cassini, something else ... we have an empty space but this deep space
    the rest of the Japanese, Chinese, and Europeans put together the same number of scientific programs
    Further, they have zhps. we have glonass, the rest are only dreaming - the Chinese, the Europeans (Galileo does not really function)
    communication, of course, staff nowadays are more likely to steer satellite phones and other things in international projects, but for example, the Cospas-Sarsat rescue system owes primarily to the life of the USSR, and only then to the USA, although the French and Canadians took part there - and this is all the more important than the photographs of Enceladus (during its existence more than 10 thousand people have been saved, if I’m not mistaken). (yes, now, to a large extent, from 1,5 dozens of our 3 or 4 satellites, when it was more)

    about launches - silently, we are leaders
    ISS - initially - MIR-2 - again leaders, although staffers rule it more, at least while the shuttles flew - now - not sure
    so that against the background of the rest of the world, we are leaders behind the number 1 in research, but in practical astronautics, 1 in 1 or so, and number 3 in the back of the head breathes in all respects
    and the rest combined (Canada, Japan, India, ESA, etc.) occupy a common 4th position
    so dear - be proud!
    and don't say that all victories are in the past! you know, our youth hears such remarks and then they say phrases like "but in the west they do everything better" ...
  15. kaktus
    kaktus 8 October 2013 17: 50
    A rocket flies to the moon
    goes to an unearthly height
    a rocket flies up to its cherished goal,
    and rivulets wind around the ground
    and birds build nests on Earth,
    here are our centers and cradles.

    Here on Earth, roads and houses,
    winter follows in a hurry after autumn,
    spring brings the thought of summer
    and grass grows in the earth’s meadows
    and the foliage rustles on the earthly branches
    and our children will be born on earth.

    A rocket flies in the stellar high
    to planets barely visible to the moon
    from the ages man seeks to heaven,
    but still sunshine and moonlight
    as well as the light of unknown planets,
    our sinful one lies on the Earth.

    All that is rich, the Earth has given us,
    and beyond the earth there is neither good nor evil,
    and let the starships soar into the sky -
    Earth, we are all born of you
    and when climbing any
    only you are the beginning of every reference.

    K. Kuliev
  16. nod739
    nod739 8 October 2013 18: 33
    by the way
    it’s known that Westerners like to pack sweets in bright candy wrappers, and no matter what the filling is,
    The first goal of the lunar-political landing, the United States won, the Soviet Union didn’t lose much with the N1 missile. and concentrated his forces on automatic stations. (several dozen. including lunahods)
    It is known that the Americans delivered 382 kg of lunar soil to the earth, but most of the data on the lunar soil that is known to mankind today is extracted from 425 grams !! that were delivered by the Soviet Luna stations,
    I think the same can be said about the ISS, each of our expeditions conducts hundreds of different studies, experiments and experiments - enriching them with new knowledge, materials, technology keys, etc.

    literally poked on the Internet about research, the first thing came up: until 2020, it is planned to create three space observatories - "Spectrum-UV", "Spectrum-M" ("Millimetron") and "Gamma-400"
    1. Know-nothing
      Know-nothing 8 October 2013 19: 08
      This can not but rejoice, but for now

      MOSCOW, 7 Oct - RIA News. The American automatic station LADEE has successfully entered the orbit of the moon, now the device will gradually begin to reduce the height of the orbit to an altitude of about 50 kilometers, where its main scientific program will begin, the website Spaceflight101 reports.

      The LADEE probe was successfully launched in early September from the cosmodrome on Wallops Island. For about three weeks he remained in a highly elliptical near-earth orbit to reach the moon at the right time and in the right position. During this time, scientists conducted the first tests of on-board equipment and scientific instruments.

      The day before, while approaching the Moon, LADEE performed engine braking, was "picked up" by the Earth satellite's gravity and entered a circumlunar orbit with a maximum altitude of 750 kilometers. On Saturday, October 12, the device will enter a circular lunar orbit with an altitude of 250 kilometers. In this orbit, the probe will begin preparations for a research program, as well as conduct a laser communication session with the Earth. Then the orbit will be gradually lowered to an altitude of about 50 kilometers.

      The LADEE project (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) with a total cost of 280 million dollars is intended to study the extremely rarefied lunar atmosphere (exosphere) and dust particles at its surface. The data collected will help scientists judge the exosphere of Mercury and other bodies of the solar system. The LADEE apparatus will also conduct an experiment on laser communication between the Moon and the Earth. The developers said that the data transfer rate to the satellite will be up to 20 megabits per second, and from the satellite - 622 megabits.
    2. Djozz
      Djozz 8 October 2013 21: 51
      So their lunar soil of roofing felts was lost, or stolen, and whether it was actually
  17. Rusik.S
    Rusik.S 8 October 2013 20: 10
    little song about space smile
  18. saag
    saag 8 October 2013 21: 12
    Quote: Nayhas
    Our Roskosmos, on the other hand, fantasizes about settlements on the Moon, without presenting any arguments for the hell they are needed there.

    But what about the Kuzmaburg hotel, the Rainbow Bay cocktail and the lunocycle safari? This is not some Courchevel for you, the policemen will not run in :-)
  19. Firebox
    Firebox 8 October 2013 22: 20
    I hope to live up to the moment when people will freely fly to other planets as to a neighboring city wink
  20. Combitor
    Combitor 9 October 2013 01: 24
    The author wishes to publish more of these articles. Great photos. I can’t read about space without excitement and great regret that I can’t see and find out what our descendants will see and recognize, unless they destroy themselves by what is described on the pages of this site.
    PS Still, I will buy myself a telescope by all means. And there is no need to make a difference between what Russians, Americans, Japanese or natives from New Guinea have done in space exploration. THERE are no nationalities. And if "Voyager" someone "lassoes", then for them it will be deeply indifferent what letters the equipment installed there is signed with - Latin, Cyrillic, Japanese hieroglyphs or Arabic script. In that world they will only understand that Man did it. There are no nationalities.
    1. Santa Fe
      9 October 2013 01: 52
      Good night! hi

      The telescope is a wonderful thing, but it is very difficult to see directly, through its eyepiece, all the beauty of star clusters and spiral galaxies. The human eye, in contrast to the camera matrix, does not have the ability to "collect" photons and form a single image based on long-term observations (exposure duration)

      The only option is to attach a "soap box" to the lens, adjust the exposure, and independently shoot selected areas of the sky with their subsequent upload via USB port and optimization of images on a computer

      This is no longer just a hobby. This is science. Sometimes amateurs achieve impressive results - with the help of a telescope and a camera, which you can buy in an ordinary store, and simple computer equipment Greek Emmanuel Kardasis released the first amateur atlas of the albedo of the satellite Jupiter Ganymede.

      "Raw" and processed images of Ganymede (the largest satellite in the solar system)
      1. Combitor
        Combitor 9 October 2013 06: 32

        Thanks for the science. I will try to put your help into practice.
  21. PValery53
    PValery53 9 October 2013 11: 58
    Material about Cosmos is interesting. Thanks to the explorers (conquerors) of space! What perspective awaits us, humanity in the cosmic expanses of space-time? .. I listened to the sounds on the surface of Titan, the satellite of Saturn, mentally representing distant worlds ... Wow, it captures! ..
  22. Simonov
    Simonov 9 October 2013 12: 09
    Thanks to the author for publishing!
    but in life somehow it’s like that ... cosmonauts beat their salaries out of court ..
  23. lazy
    lazy 9 October 2013 16: 54
    but it’s a pity that ours didn’t launch an analogue of the voyager, it’s interesting no one came up with it or didn’t believe that it could work for so long.
  24. 17 November 2013 14: 59
    Again alone. Why not a word about the work of Babakin