Americans have always considered their special fighters the best in the world. How true this statement is is quite difficult to answer. And this is not only due to the fact that most special operations operations are not publicly advertised, but also because very few people know which special units are part of the US armed forces.
After the operation to destroy bin Laden, America does not cease to admire its fur seals and other special-purpose units. But while the citizens of America are proud and enthusiastic about the special forces, the costs of financing the Special Operations Command (in short, CSR) are constantly increasing due to a reduction in the budgets of the rest of the country's armed forces. The ranks of the soldiers of CSR are replenishing at a tremendous pace - now there are about 70 thousands of people.
The September 11 attack destroyed in the minds of citizens confidence in the ability of the army and intelligence services to destroy terrorist threats in a timely manner, which have become destabilizing factors in the modern world. The response to the September terrorist attack was a significant increase in funding for CSR - from $ 3,5 billion to $ 10,5 billion. The American military doctrine also underwent some changes - an emphasis was placed on the transition to tactics of local operations carried out by forces of elite units.
One cannot but agree with the arguments of the American military experts that any military operation involving a large number of soldiers is much more expensive than sending a well-trained detachment of fighters at the right time and place. For example, a small group of special forces participated in the operation to destroy the main terrorist bin Laden, and the success of its implementation significantly raised the political rating of Washington in the eyes of other countries, and some, such as Pakistan, also scared.
In addition to Fur Seals, Green Berets and Sea Snipers, the CSR forces also include other, no less significant, special-purpose units.
And in order to judge the possibility of the United States to ensure its own security, to observe the political and economic interests of the country, to eliminate threats to citizens and property located abroad, it is necessary to know about special forces capable of carrying out virtually any orders of the military command and the US Government.
If earlier it was possible to read about pirates in books or to see “hunters for good luck” in films, then in the last decade the revived sea robbery has caused a lot of damage to many world countries, including the USA. Many states had to take measures to protect their vessels from the actions of sea robbers. The formation of a naval anti-piracy unit in the United States was a response to the actions of sea robbers. The US Navy was forced to form a special unit of the best fighters, equip them with high-speed boats and send them to catch pirates.
Each fighter in this unit has the necessary level of decisiveness and aggressiveness in order to effectively repel the sea thugs. And although on the account of the anti-piracy detachment there are not so many military operations, they managed to occupy a worthy place among other teams of special US units.
In their actions, they use the methods and tactics of Fur Seals during the assault operations, they are able to establish defense and security as snipers and infantrymen do, they have the ability to aviation support (there are pilots in the team).
In addition, pirates are not afraid to act in close proximity to the coastline of many states. In this regard, the US CSR ranks joined the Coast Guard anti-piracy units subordinate to the command of the Coast Guard task forces. All fighters of this squad possess the skills of tactical operations on the water. Without fail, they are trained in the United Navy Training Center (North Carolina), which is the base of the marines of the East Coast. Coast Guard Special Forces fighters form part of the rapid response teams when there is a threat of supply through seaports weapons, drugs, and the commission of terrorist acts. All employees of this squad possess knowledge of maritime legislation, methods of countering terrorism, skills for detecting smuggling, search and rescue on waters, are trained in scuba diving, canine (detection of explosives), counter-sabotage activities, combat tactics and search operations.
Currently, the fight against terrorism is the most important aspect of ensuring the security of each of the world’s countries. To enhance the action in this direction are specially trained combat special forces. Thus, the anti-terrorist unit of the US Navy is not super-elite. In its main part, it serves the usual infantrymen. But despite this, they face specific combat missions to deploy and support US embassies and diplomatic missions. Marines trained to monitor the territory, to ensure physical security, to fight in urban environments, possess melee tactics and various martial arts.
A great respect is caused by the country that takes care of its specialists (both civil and military) who are in a difficult situation abroad or behind the front line. And we must pay tribute in this matter to the US Army, which has in its composition a unit to rescue the pilots.
The unit for rescuing US Air Force pilots operates, as a rule, behind enemy lines or directly behind the front line. It requires a lot of experience and professionalism in order to penetrate into enemy territory unnoticed by the enemy in order to save people, including downed pilots. In the special forces, the fighters in the rescue of the pilots are not very noticeable, since their main work is not combat attacks, but secretive penetration and rescue. But even such a “quiet job” implies the possession of the skills that are needed to withstand the armed forces of the enemy, perhaps even significantly superior to the number of fighters in the rescue team. Fighters of the rescue squad are able to wage effective guerrilla warfare, set traps and use tactics of small battles that exhaust the enemy. The staff of the rescue team of the Air Force pilots are trained in parachuting, scuba diving, possess the skills of orientation to the terrain and methods of survival, can provide professional medical care, etc.
It is believed that intelligence exists since the first military clashes. Perhaps the secret services originated about 33 centuries ago. The clever commander tries to use tactical cunning, having deceived the opponent. But this requires knowing as much as possible about the enemy — intelligence, espionage, come to the rescue.
The essence of intelligence activities today is that in a timely manner and in full to obtain and analyze information about possible internal and external threats to society and the state, as well as to take adequate measures to prevent and eliminate these threats. The CIA is one of the most important components in the structure of the US intelligence community. The CIA has its own CIA secret operations department. The unit has a small staff - only a few hundred employees. The task of the team is to solve problematic and controversial tasks. Experienced fighters from the Green Berets, Seals, Delta and Military Intelligence are recruited into the squadron. The secret special operations department works in three directions. The first is overland. It serves experienced experts in the field of intelligence, tactics and strategies of warfare, methods of releasing hostages. The second is sea, and the third is air. The specialists of these units are experienced military personnel who had previously served in the Navy and US Air Force.
The little-known US CSR special unit — the US Air Force Weather Forecasting Unit “casts” a not-so-serious attitude to it — think meteorologists! But in reality, the team is able to influence the outcome of the battle and contribute to the destruction of many enemy soldiers in a single blow. The weather forecasting unit consists of small groups of highly professional specialists who are not only engaged in weather forecasting, but also organize shelling and air operations, as well as provide technical support to ground forces. 300 forecasters, scattered around the world, and provided with the most modern equipment and equipment are at the service of forecasters. Flight units of military meteorologists have at their disposal good aviation equipment. The service effectively uses information from meteorological satellites. American meteorologists collaborate with similar units of NATO member countries.
In 2010, the Spanish air traffic controllers went on strike. Before the situation was settled, military air traffic controllers took their places. And it became clear to all that the military dispatchers are highly professional specialists who are able to take responsibility at the most critical moments. As part of US CSR, there is also a division of military air traffic controllers. These specialists rightfully occupy leading positions among the US military elite. They are considered a separate independent unit, like Marine Intelligence. Military air traffic controllers are not only able to perform the functions of air traffic controllers, but often act as experts on the problems of penetration into the rear of the enemy and as advisors to strike groups, providing air support and coordination of the entire course of the operation. Their responsibility also includes planning bombing and air raids. It is believed that it was military air traffic controllers who played a decisive role in the Libyan revolution. Specialists of this elite unit possess the skills of orientation in combat conditions, they are trained in military dispatcher courses and tactical skills courses, they undergo parachute training and scuba diving training.
In modern war and military conflicts, the importance of front-line intelligence cannot be overestimated. Therefore, the US Navy cannot do without a special front-line intelligence unit of the US Navy. In terms of numbers it is small - only 200 people. When conducting operations on land, the detachment submits to the commander of the marines, and if operating on the water - the commander of the Navy. Because of this “double” submission, the unit often receives very “delicate” tasks. A high level of training is inherent in front-line intelligence fighters, so they are deservedly placed in the same rank as Navy Seals. Here are just a small list of disciplines for which front-line scouts are trained: scuba diving, courses in rescue, survival, and counteraction. The fighters are trained in the Air Force School, Ranger School, Operational Training School, Intelligence School and Orienteering Courses.
The illustrious Marines are part of the US Navy. Its main purpose is to be a striking force in marine operations. The tasks of the marines include the seizure of the coastline and port facilities, enemy naval bases, ships and ships, as well as islands and peninsulas. The marines can attack both from the air (parachute landing) and from the water. Marines also guard coastal and other facilities, including ports and marine bases.
For a long time, these naval special forces served on warships, maintaining a ship’s command in combat, conducting reconnaissance and combat raids on the coastal strip, maintaining order on the ship, defending command from possible command insurrections. Currently, the US Navy Marine unit consists of 200 thousand people.
The regulations for the training of marines include working out quite specific skills associated with the participation in the so-called "three-unit war". The essence of this “war” is the participation of the American armed forces in crisis situations that arise in any region of the world.
In the first phase, army units participate in humanitarian actions and peacekeeping missions. If the situation does not turn out the way the "peacekeepers" plan, they will proceed to conduct direct army operations. This is where fighters of the marines begin to act, who are trained in counterguerrilla actions and the suppression of mass demonstrations, have the skills to conduct operations in wooded areas, in settlements and urban environments. Marines undergo individual sniper and anti-sniper training. During the peacekeeping mission in Somalia, more than a hundred people were killed by US marines, whom the marines considered to be a hindrance to the American mission.
The marines have been trained to pursue and harass entire enemy battalions for a long time. Marines are able to correctly track down the main objectives for army groups and take part in tactical operations conducted by the command. Marines are rightly considered the most valuable unit in the US Navy.
Marine snipers are professionals in the identification of important targets, in the ability to conduct visual observations, carry out reconnaissance on the ground and the ability to covertly penetrate enemy territory and, of course, are all experienced snipers.
Very often, the fur seals come to them for help in difficult situations. Combat snipers are always ready to conduct an operation to rescue their comrades from trouble.
American naval snipers left an “indelible memory” of themselves when eliminating riots on Fr. Haiti. A marines sniper can be an observer reconnaissance, artillery spotter and aircraft gunner, but nevertheless the main duty of a sniper is to aim at the enemy. Priority is given to the following objectives: officers, scouts, dog guides, artillery and mortar crews, observers and observation devices, snipers, personnel and equipment of the radio technical troops, crew members tanks, Armored personnel carrier, command post vehicles. The actions of snipers are designed to provide support to the Marine Corps, conducting accurate fire at the enemy from a long distance.
One of the most famous units of US CSR - Seals are involved in ground and air military operations. They specialize in sabotage and reconnaissance operations. "Seals" are able to act in any conditions, but the fighters are also excellent divers and perform well in the water. As a rule, they are involved in the case when careful intelligence and immediate action is required. Their motto is “The Only Easy Day Was Yesterday” (“The only easy day was yesterday”).
Seal divisions are divided into 8 commands: 1,2,3,4,5,7,8 and 10. The fighters who show good results in the service have the opportunity to upgrade their qualifications in the Naval Special School, to take additional physical training courses.
The 6 team of sea lions is designed to perform “draft” work. It is called "Rainbow 6" ("Rainbow"), because the insignia of the fighters of the team have different colors - red, gold, silver, blue. For example, gray means that a fighter is serving in a boat squad.
It reports directly to the leadership of the CSR and the President. A squad is considered to be a special-purpose task force and performs three tasks:
- The first is the fight against terrorism. The detachment is holding counter-terrorist operations in Afghanistan and other Middle Eastern countries. Often the team takes proactive counterterrorism actions.
- The second is the personal security of important people. For example, the fighters ensured the safety of Afghan President Hamid Karzai, at the beginning of his term.
- The third is special intelligence. The team includes trained snipers. The fighters are trained in conducting intelligence activities, as well as carrying out observation and collecting operational information.
"Seals" together with the "Delta" troops and rangers took part in the operation in Somalia, the invasion of Panama, the military conflict in the Persian Gulf, in Iraq, etc.
And although the fur seals act, most often, on land, it would be strange if there were no experts in conducting military operations under water in it. And there is such a combat unit in the structure of the Navy Seals - the Amphibious reconnaissance unit of the Marine Corps. This team is associated with the Marines reconnaissance battalion. In conducting operations, they operate in conjunction with intelligence and other units of the US Navy. The main objectives of this combat unit are: carrying out a reconnaissance of coastlines, the implementation of hydrographic survey of water areas, the study of protective equipment of coastlines in the landing areas. In 1950, the amphibious battalion was engaged in a preliminary operation in Korea. The success of this operation has saved the lives of many people and ensured that, in the future, more operational planning.
In the organizational structure of the unit of the US Navy there are detachments that perform specific functions. For example, the Marine Corps Division for the induction and adjustment of fire ANGLICO. This special group is always in the shadow of its more popular counterparts - for example, such as fur seals. But this does not become less dangerous for the enemy. The fighters of this special unit specialize in aiming and adjusting the fire, not only artillery, but also any of the attacks of the Air Force. The effectiveness of a combat operation depends on them. As a rule, ANGLICO fighters work in small groups consisting of the following specialists: the team leader, as a rule, is an experienced officer of the Navy, an observer and spotter, a radio operator, a scout and an assistant of guidance.
Fighters of the Marine Corps are involved in operations to free the hostages. To enhance this direction in the structure of the corps there is a tactical detachment for the release of hostages and the protection of objects. The main task of the unit is the protection of naval bases, including those on which nuclear weapons are stored. The fighters of the tactical detachment must pass the courses of snipers and subversive business, possess the skills of close combat. They are able to storm well-protected objects, freeing hostages and returning objects to US ownership. In the combat detachment, the roles are strictly distributed: there are so-called destroyers, penetration specialists, shooters, melee specialists and snipers.
The elite among the elite detachments of the American special forces - a group of sabotage operations ("Delta"). The best among the best special forces. Even fighters of famous Seals dream of serving in this group. Unofficially, the diversionary group is called Delta. The fighters of this unit are always on the first line of any operation. Their professionalism is so great that many compare Delta saboteurs with living gods. Their duties do not include entering into an open clash with the enemy, like the Seals of the Seals, but they are able to carry out the task of command, which other special forces groups cannot do. There are three squads in Delta — A, B, and C. Detachments are divided into small groups of 4 or 5 people. Each group specializes in a specific type of operation: mountains, sea, air, etc. During operations, soldiers have a high degree of freedom and autonomy, may be in civilian clothes, live in the area and try not to attract attention. In the structure of “Delta” there is the so-called “The Funny Platoon”, the purpose of which is the invisible penetration into the territory of the enemy shortly before the start of the operation.
Fighters "Delta" participated in all anti-terrorist operations conducted by the United States in Latin America, the Middle East, Asia. During the war with Iraq, Delta fighters guided American missiles at key Iraqi targets. It is said that it was Delta that first landed in 2001 in Afghanistan.
Twice a year, is selected for a group of sabotage operations. The test can only be carried out by the best special forces soldiers, including Fur seals. Challengers are obliged to take a 18-mile march to throw a 35-pound backpack behind their shoulders at night, go through the rough terrain of the 40-mile route with heavy load and, of course, withstand a tough psychological test. According to the results of tests for physical, psychological and intellectual preparation, the subjects are credited to the squad.
Special Forces "Green Berets" is a well-known, even outside the United States, an elite special forces unit. The first "Green Berets" was a volunteer brigade, created in 1942, and trained in covert tactics. She was later called the Devil Brigade. In 1952, the division was significantly reformed. The main goal of the unit was to conduct a partisan and anti-guerrilla war in any region of the earth. It was then that the green beret became an attribute of this division. The memorandum of this headdress said that he was "a symbol of superiority, a sign of courage, a distinctive mark in the struggle for freedom." Green berets visited many corners of the globe: on the mountain roads of Afghanistan, in Korea and Vietnam, in Kuwait and Iraq ....
Recruits come here from the most prestigious military units, such as airborne troops. Ambitious fighters "Green Berets" opened the way to the special squad "Delta", Navy Seals and Marines.
With so many elite special forces, it is also necessary to have well-trained units to support the operations of elite special forces units. And this role is played by ranger squads, formerly called “black berets.” But in the 2001 year, when berets were introduced everywhere in the American army, the ranger's headdress changed color and became sandy. Rangers follow an obligatory rule - they never abandon their comrades. The headquarters of the ranger corps is located in Fort Benning, GA.
Many young people dream of becoming a real warrior, becoming a ranger. The main task of this special forces unit is to conduct sabotage and intelligence activities. As light infantry airborne troops, they are able to act on the edge of any attack and support such actions as Delta and others by their actions. Rangers have parachute training, are skilled in scuba diving, take courses in survival techniques and medical care, are able to navigate in difficult conditions and in any terrain, have martial arts and combat tactics, and know several languages.
US CSR units have become an integral part of the armed forces of America. And it is precisely their strength, professionalism and unique military skills that Washington is counting on, shaping its military concept that will untie America’s hands and allow it to release the enormous financial resources that are so necessary today for the restructuring of the American economy.