After a series of tank biathlon competitions, finally, it became possible to draw the first conclusions about the real technical condition and, accordingly, the level of combat readiness that the main combat teams have today Tanks Russian army. Tanks, I recall, are the main striking force of the ground forces in non-nuclear, and especially in a nuclear conflict. Tanks are that main tool in modern highly mobile warfare, which allows troops to carry out active offensive operations. Without them, any army retains the ability only for defensive actions and is therefore doomed. It is regrettable to admit that the conclusions are disappointing. To understand this, it is worth analyzing three main positions in sequence:
1. Real conditions in which modern main battle tanks can fight and actually fight.
2. Passport characteristics of tanks, which today form the basis of the Russian armored forces. As far as these tanks meet the conditions of the modern tank war and the conditions of the tank biathlon competition.
3. Competition conditions for tank biathlon and how these conditions correspond to real combat conditions, as well as the capabilities of the tanks participating in these competitions.
Real combat conditions. Modern main battle tanks (MBT) have the main armament in the form of powerful smoothbore or rifled guns of caliber from 105mm to 125mm. The main means of these artillery systems for defeating enemy armored vehicles is the armored-piercing pierced projectile (BOPS). For accurate targeting of guns to the target, modern OBTs have automated fire control systems comprising digital ballistic computers (CBV) or computers with an input information sensor system, laser range finders, as well as high-precision stabilizers of guns and sights. To search and detect targets at any time of the day or night, advanced optical, television and thermal imaging cameras are used associated with the OMS of the tank. In addition, many modern tanks also have a tank information and control system (TIUS), which significantly improves command control and intelligence capabilities of tank units. In addition, Russian, Chinese and Israeli tanks have a complex of guided missile weapons (URO), which serves both to increase the range of destruction of ground targets, and to combat aviation the enemy. As auxiliary weapons, modern tanks have from one to three 7,62-12,7mm machine guns. All this allows modern MBTs to effectively (with a probability of defeat of 70-80%) fire conventional shells from a place and in motion at a distance of 2000-3000m day and night, and missiles up to 4000-6000m day and up to 2500-3000m night. The effective range of machine gun fire is 1500-2000m day and night. Also, modern MBTs have diesel or gas turbine engines with a capacity of 800-1800 hp. which allows them to accelerate along the highway to 80 km / h and maintain an average speed on rough terrain of ~ 40 km / h.
As a result, the possibilities of modern MBT provide:
- range of artillery combat 2-3km day and night, from the spot and in motion.
- missile range 4-6km day and 2,5-3km at night.
- effective range of machine-gun fire 1,5-2km day and night, from the spot and in motion.
- speed up to 40km / h on the ground and to 80km / h on the highway.
Passport characteristics of tanks. Who take part in tank biathlon competitions. To date, the main and most numerous tank in service with the Russian army is the MBT T-72B. It is these machines that take part in tank biathlon competitions, at least in the Russian Championship. What will be used at international competitions is not yet known. So, T-72B, created in the middle of 80-s of the last century, is still a reliable, powerful and very effective means of warfare. Considered one of the most powerful tanks in the world. Actively used today, although it has long been not the last word of technology. Open the manual for T-72B and look:
Dimensions: 9530mm / 3460mm / 2226mm.
Protection: combined booking (KB) + hinged dynamic protection (NDZ) + onboard rubber-fabric screens (OM) + 902B “Tucha” smoke screen system + anti-nuclear protection (ESD) + protection against napalm.
- 125mm GP 2A46M + AZ, Vn = 1700-1800m / s, DPV = 2100m, rate of fire 6-8 vyy / min, shells BOPS: ZBM32, ZBM44, OZH: OZHE, ZPMX, ZFMX, ZFMX, ZFMX, ZFMX
- 7,62mm PKT machine gun.
- 12,7mm machine gun NSVT.
- semi-automated 1А40-1: ТБВ + DVO + ЛД - complex ТПД-К1, DVO + ik - device 1К13-49, DVO + ik - device ТКН-3М + stabilizer 2Э42-XNX.
Power plant and mobility:
- V12 B-46-1 diesel engine with 840l.s power. + 7 / 1 Manual.
- Maximum speed on the highway 60km / h.
These TTHs provide the T-72B tank with a direct shot range at targets of the “tank” type 2100, detection and accurate firing of projectiles in the afternoon from place and from the course to the distance to 4000-5000. Effective projectile firing during the day is limited by the capabilities of the LMS and is ~ 2500. The maximum firing range of the OFS is approximately 10km. Missile tank can accurately and effectively shoot at 4000. Effective shooting from 7,62mm PKT machine gun in the afternoon 1500. From “Cliff” with 12,7mm NSVT machine gun to 2000. At night, things get much worse. T-72B's target detection range and effective shooting at them is limited by highly imperfect ik-instruments. At night, all types of weapons T-72B can effectively fire on 800 in passive mode and up to a maximum of 1200 in active mode. The tank can accelerate on the highway to 60km / h and maintain speed in 30-40km / h over rough terrain. As you can see, the characteristics of the T-72B tanks participating in the competition, although not fully, but partly meet the modern requirements of a tank war. "Neud" can be put mainly on part of the night battle and battle in bad weather conditions. During the day you can war.
Terms of the tank biathlon competition. Obviously, the conditions of the tank biathlon competition much softerthan real combat conditions. For example, competitions are held exclusively during the day, and therefore there are simply no estimates for the very important phase of the night battle. Shooting only from the spot and only at fixed targets. Targets that mimic enemy tanks are at a distance of 1800m, 1700m and 1500m - the distance to the distance of any modern tank, including and for T-72B. The target for firing rockets, imitating the enemy helicopter is located at a distance of just 2000, which again does not correspond to reality. What is the point of firing rockets at such distances, if the gun is definitely better before the 2-2,5km? The target for firing 12,7mm of the NSVT machine gun is at all just 900m and also simulates an enemy helicopter. The route is laid along a dirt road with overcoming a water obstacle and a track bridge. For a mistake relies 500-meter penalty area. That is, it is obvious that the shooting conditions for such monsters as T-72B are (its capabilities are listed above) and other modern MBTs, just for children. In principle, with a certain skill and the condition of a fully operational state of the tank, in such competitions good results can be shown on T-34-85 or EC-2 since the Great Patriotic War.
How does our main tank T-72B show itself in such conditions? After reviewing several competitions, I come to the conclusion with bitterness that this is not good. Not all of course, but very many. And the problems, which is very important, relate primarily to shooting. Given that the conditions for it and so perfect. Consider the first exercise: BOPS shooting at three targets at 1800, 1700 and 1500 distances. Of course, quite a few tanks hit all these targets without a single miss and knocked out 100%. So it should have been - the direct shot range of the powerful X-NUMXmm T-125B gun (at which the projectile does not rise above the target) is 72m, i.e. the trajectory of its projectile at a distance 2100m, 1800m and even more so 1700m is almost a straight line. Especially since, I repeat, the conditions for firing are ideal - the fire is fired, the target is stationary, and the T-1500B MSA has a laser range finder and automatically calculates the distance it has measured. But there were quite a few tanks that missed! In addition, several tanks never hit the target! How to explain it? The gunner has nothing to do with it - to miss the mark from such a distance you just have to be blind. Problems in non-shooting or LMS errors of these T-72B. These obviously technical problems were observed by many. Manifested in the form of stable underflights. And what will happen in real combat? Where will Abrams not be in 72m, but in 1800km and will move at the same time? Even more dismal results shows rocket shooting. Despite the laser semi-automatic aiming and 2,5% the probability of hitting a target from any distance (according to the manual), many manage not to hit the target from a distance of 80 and lose a missile. How is it going? After all, at this distance, a serviceable tank should also knock out 2000% with ordinary shells. The problems are apparently again in the unimportant technical condition of the tanks. But the real helicopter will maneuver, and it can turn out to be not on the 100km, but on the 2km. What then? At the end of the analysis shooting from anti-aircraft machine gun NSVT. The powerful 4mm machine gun is rigidly fixed on the tank's "Rock" of the tank and therefore does not bounce, but is exceptionally stable in shooting. Powerful cartridge 12,7mmx12,7mm with a heavy 108-gram bullet. High initial speed and huge bullet energy. For comparison, snipers are firing from 48mm caliber sniper rifles with a small and light (in comparison with NSVT) bullets. At the same time they hold their "sniper" in their hands, and the only mechanical stop is just the bipod, which is not fixed. At the same time get from 7,62m to human figure for a sniper a common thing and is not considered to be a record. It would seem that a huge 12,7mm machine gun with heavy bullets from the same distance (900) rigidly fixed on the frame should easily put all 25 bullets in the center of the target imitating helicopter (for more people). But what we see. Hits are quite rare. To hit a target under the terms of the competition, you need to hit it at least once. The cartridges are given 25 pieces. And hit the target of them 2-3. Some even manage to release all 25 cartridges into the milk. It is in the contour of the helicopter with 900. What will happen in reality? As for overcoming the track, the driving performance of competing T-72B claims is much less. Of course, there are sometimes problems, but on the whole, the T-72B confirms its high road performance: normal acceleration, good speed, smoothness and good handling.
Conclusion: Approximately 30-50% of T-72B tanks have some technical problems with the SLA, which do not allow them to hit enemy targets even in ideal conditions. What will happen to them in real conditions (see pukt 1: night, rain, bad weather, large distances in 1,5-2 times and moving targets that actively counteract) do not even want to think. At the same time, fully serviceable, regulated T-72B with tuned SLA showed that, at least in the daytime, they still remain powerful, reliable and accurate death machines.
And if you invite "them"? What will happen in international competitions? Of course, the Western "friends" will bring them their best models of armored vehicles in excellent condition. To put up against them the usual, average T-72B from the average military unit, as is done on the inside of Russian competitions - just disgrace. "Abrams" and "Leclerc" on a helicopter target with 2000 will hit 100% with shells, while ours will be smeared with missiles ... On the other hand, to bring specially prepared equipment, which is not in the existing troops, is also stupid. There are two ways out. Before the competition, make the most thorough adjustment, adjustment and repair of all T-72B tank systems (especially the SLA). Or send them the latest T-90A tanks, which have a much more advanced SLA and powerful engine. Well, the crews in them should be the best of the best. I hope that even with this we will have no problems.