Military Review

World Education Crisis: The Need for a Return To Sources

16
It would seem that modern society provides significant cognitive perspectives. However, let us turn to what they write and say about the state of the education system in different countries of the world, and there is only one diagnosis — a crisis. It has two main refractions.


The first manifestation of the crisis is the impossibility of students mastering the abundance of the information provided. Knowledge becomes eclectic and fragmentary. Passion for training in the format of testing further aggravates the crisis. The exit here, it would seem, could consist in the systematization of knowledge. Such a model was implemented, in particular, in the USSR. But such systematization is associated with the need for ideology, and this is not allowed in the modern educational system.

The second refraction of the crisis lies in the emasculation of the educational component. The teacher-student relationship system is increasingly being replaced by client relationships within an educational service. Education is impossible without determining the target image of the educated. And this, in turn, involves the nomination of a package of nationally significant values. But the task of systematizing values ​​again leads to the question of ideology.

What is the cause of the crisis? I will suggest that the case consists in the formed and more and more intensifying rupture of educational systems and their civilizational and axiological foundation.

“We,” explained the failure of the 1990 reform recipes. in Russia, one of the main projectors of the “shock therapy” policy, Jeffrey Sachs, - put the patient on the operating table, opened his chest, but he had a different anatomy. ” Thus, the fundamental error of the initial diagnosis was recognized. Russia has turned out to have “another anatomy” ... Own anatomy exists not only in Russia, but also in any civilization. And in the core of civilization systems lies nothing more than education.

Recognizing this, the question arises about the correctness of the chosen strategy for reforming education. This strategy, defined by the notion “Bologna process”, is known to proceed from the installation of universalization of education. There is a question about the correctness of this guide.

Education is directly related to the model of civilization. Through education, in essence, the corresponding civilizationally identical anthropological type is reproduced. Therefore, both the education model and its target installations are fundamentally different. Education acts as a kind of microcosm in relation to civilization. If the civilization system is destroyed, but the civilization-identical model of education has been preserved, the civilization can be recreated. If the opportunity to transmit social experience is absent, civilization with other general well-being will eventually die. The current state of Russian education must therefore be assessed not from the point of view of the criteria of the Western civilization paradigm, but from our own historical experience.
Education is always built on a certain value foundation. Attempts to replace the foundation to anything else as a building collapse can not
Let us turn to the Russian historical experience.

The school in Russia was formed as a predominantly educational institution. Of fundamental importance for its formation in this form were parochial schools. Thanks to them, the Christian value paradigm of primary education was established. The school teacher acted primarily as an educator. In the West, too, there were religious schools. But they represented only one of the segments of Western education.

Higher education in Russia reproduced a type of European Christian classical university. Initially, the universities in the Russian Empire were created as some kind of westernized enclaves. In the famous Lyceum of Tsarskoye Selo until 1820, the teaching was conducted in French. People's Orthodoxy was in opposition to Westernist secular education. And it is not by chance that the famous Uvarov triad - Orthodoxy, autocracy, nationality was put forward initially in relation to the educational sphere, and only then transferred to the state as a whole. It is also no accident that the activities of many prominent representatives of the ideology of Russian conservatism were associated with the management of the education system - M.L. Magnitsky, D.Prunich, S.S. Uvarova, P.A. Shirinsky-Shikhmatova, D.A. Tolstoy, K.P. Pobedonostsev.

The educational system of the Russian Empire had a class character. This correlated with the ideology of the noble state. But, at the same time, the modernization tasks arising from the country, which assumed educational universality, were articulated before the country. The resolution of this contradiction determined the formation of the Soviet type of education.
The universality of education in the USSR correlated with the ideological principle of egalitarianism (equality). The educational system of the United States was, on the contrary, focused on elitism. In the American elite schools, a qualitatively different education was provided than in the mass school.

Another feature of the Soviet educational system is its polytechnic character. The promotion of this principle was associated with the idea of ​​public benefit. The Soviet school was supposed to orient the student not towards individual success, which the Western educational system orients, but towards benefiting the whole society. Hence the reliance on social labor, and not on the competitive struggle of individuals.

And the third component, which characterized the Soviet educational system, was determined by the installation not only by the formation of a harmoniously developed personality, but by a new person. The educational functions were assigned to a large extent to the communist children's and youth public organizations, covering all age levels (October, pioneer, Komsomol).
The landmark chosen in the form of an American type of education that has been chosen as the target for Russian reforms today raises serious doubts. The educational system of the United States is very far from ideal. Even its very positioning as the best of the world educational systems is debatable. At least twice during the twentieth century, the Western public recognized the lack of primacy of the United States in the quality of education.

The first catalyst of this kind of educational self-reflection was the launch of an artificial Earth satellite in 1957 in the USSR. The expert analysis undertaken in the United States of the American backlog in space exploration led to the conclusion that the reason for this is the qualitative advantages of the Soviet school.

The next demonstration of the imperfections of his educational system were the technological successes of Japan. “The reason for the re-evaluation of the school system,” wrote the American educator W. Feinberg about the reasons for reforming the educational system in the United States, “was the increased economic competition from Japan. In the last decades of the twentieth century. Japan’s influence on the US education system was in many ways similar to that of the Soviet Union in the middle of the century. It was Japan that became an impartial incentive to reorient the education system and streamline curricula with a focus on traditional academic subjects. ”

A wide resonance was caused by a report compiled in 1983 by the United States National Commission on Educational Quality Problems with a shocking name “Nation in Danger” for the Western public. “We,” said the published document, “declare to the American people that for a long time we could have been legally proud of the contribution of our schools and colleges to the development of the United States and the well-being of people. However, at present, the quality of education has seriously decreased, which threatens the future of the state and people ... We have committed an act of insane educational disarmament ... We are raising a generation of Americans who are illiterate in science and technology. "

Western Europe was also not in a fundamentally better situation. “Many people believe,” French Prime Minister Jean Pompidou said in 1965, “that our education system is the best in the world ... In fact, it — and especially the secondary education system — revealed an inability to evolve and is largely based on laid down by the Jesuits in the seventeenth century and only a few modified at the end of the last century. ” After two decades, the assessment formed by French President J. d'Estaing did not change: “I think that the main failure of the Fifth Republic is that it was unable to satisfactorily solve the problem of the education and upbringing of young people”.

Beginning in the middle of the 1980-ies. Reforms did not correct the situation. Judging by the materials of sociological polls, the overwhelming majority of Americans today are extremely low on the results of the undertaken reforms. "The movement for education reform in the 80-x and 90-x. - state American university professors D.L. Clark and T.A. Estnoto - brought disappointing results. "

Production technologies are much more likely to undergo internationalization than the educational systems, which are determined by sociocultural traditions and, ultimately, by mental factors. The principal differences of educational models are found, despite the European integration process, its leading subjects are Germany, France, and the United Kingdom. “Ignoring national identity,” warns researcher in the field of comparative education B.L. Wolfson, - can lead to the creation of artificial "universal" structures, for the sake of which the material is selected and cut off everything that contradicts the a priori created scheme. " This, of course, is not about “pedagogical autarky”. Some optimal combination of national educational traditions and innovations should be achieved.

The value foundation, most often associated with a deep religious tradition, can be found in the educational systems of most countries of the world. And the genesis of the system, as is known from the theory of system analysis, largely determines its functioning. European education cannot be adequately understood without an understanding of the system of organization of medieval theological education. The Chinese educational system goes back to the Confucian teaching tradition, the Japanese to the Shinto tradition. Muslim to this day is built on the Islamic platform.

The gap with the value and civilizational foundation is thus a common problem for education in the 21st century. Need to look back. Overcoming the crisis is seen in a return to the origins of national educational systems.
Author:
Originator:
http://vbagdasaryan.ru/
16 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. AVV
    AVV 3 October 2013 13: 19
    +1
    Without fundamental knowledge, the prosperity of the economy is not possible! And that means the state !!!
  2. Arabist
    Arabist 3 October 2013 15: 28
    +3
    Without education, any country is doomed.
  3. Apollo
    Apollo 3 October 2013 15: 42
    15
    quote-The universality of education in the USSR correlated with the ideological principle of egalitarianism (equality).

    The question is what’s wrong. For example, now in Azerbaijan I would never, under any circumstances, have received not just a higher education, but even an honors diploma.

    quote-Another feature of the Soviet educational system is its polytechnic character. The advancement of this principle was associated with the idea of ​​public benefit. Soviet school was supposed to orient student is not on individual success, which is guided by the Western education system, but to bring benefits to the whole society.

    Inaccuracy in assessment and individuality was present and activities for the benefit of the whole society. Helping society, society helps you.


    And the third component, which characterized the Soviet system of education, was determined not only by the formation of a harmoniously developed personality, but by a new person. Educational Functions relied heavily on communist children's and youth public organizations covering all age levels (October, Pioneer, Komsomol).

    the ideological factor was present and that the principles were primarily based on universal values, which incidentally included the values ​​of Orthodox and Islamic morality.

    Conclusion The Soviet education system was the most advanced in the whole world, it was not in vain that young people from all over the world came to study in the USSR. I would especially like to note Soviet pedagogy, one of the best in the world, such concepts as brotherhood, friendship, helping others and compassion .And now, with a few exceptions, lost generation. am
    1. NEMO
      NEMO 3 October 2013 16: 09
      +4
      Quote: Apollon
      Conclusion The Soviet education system was the most advanced in the whole world, it was not in vain that young people from all over the world came to study in the USSR.

      Visual comparative analysis of the level of education in the USSR and Russia according to UNESCO: (clickable)
      1. alone
        alone 3 October 2013 19: 29
        +1
        I know everything that I know because I studied during the Soviet Union. It still helps. although 23 years have already passed.
  4. smel
    smel 3 October 2013 16: 50
    +7
    Wailing about the return to the former Soviet education system is useless. Useless because in our country, not a single high-ranking official was responsible for mistakes (or crimes) in his work. The main thing is to faithfully look into the eyes of your leader and not contradict him in anything. And until the inevitability of punishment for failure to work becomes the norm in the life of a civil servant, it is foolish to hope to move forward. Look at the premiere. Is he funny? Especially with his eternal reading of the tablet and the proclamation of well-known truths. Meanwhile, the first deputy of the State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography with the permit form No. 1 dumped from the country due to verification of its activities. So what? Who answered? But this gentleman knows a lot !!! So hope, as you know, dies last
    1. dmb
      dmb 4 October 2013 10: 32
      0
      Are you sure that these are mistakes? I think that these high officials have quite successfully carried out and are fulfilling the tasks assigned to them. What tasks are set, they are performed. Confirmation of this is their subsequent fate after their resignation. After all, what task does the current government set in matters of education, owner? Not the owner, but the owner, who puts his shop and his personal well-being at the forefront, for the sake of which you can stab your grandmother so that you do not spend money on its maintenance. Semi-literate shopkeepers are the dream of any ruler who thinks only about maintaining his own personal power. They are easier to manage, they will shout "Heil" about any decision of the authorities, considering it the crown of unearthly wisdom. One has only to remind this power of how the education of a generation of semi-literate shopkeepers ended in the country that gave the world Beethoven and Remarque.
  5. Alex66
    Alex66 3 October 2013 16: 57
    +3
    The first catalyst of this kind of educational self-reflection was the launch of an artificial Earth satellite in 1957 in the USSR. The expert analysis undertaken in the United States of the American backlog in space exploration led to the conclusion that the reason for this is the qualitative advantages of the Soviet school.
    It’s a pity Putin didn’t read it when Livanova shot a reprimand, although most likely the matter is not in Livanov’s professional qualities, but in his personal relations with Putin, raven - he won’t take out the crow. Well, judging by everything, our government does not need very well-educated citizens, there will not be such problems that they once solved in the USSR.
  6. Sergey Medvedev
    Sergey Medvedev 3 October 2013 17: 12
    +1
    Education is impossible without determining the target image of the educated. And this, in turn, involves the promotion of a package of nationally significant values. But the task of systematizing values ​​again brings to the question of ideology.

    The author did not offer any ideology, only raised the question. Although for Russia the answer is obvious - Orthodoxy. And the Soviet educational system brought us up on Christian commandments. They just called it differently - "the moral code of the builder of communism."
    1. Rakti-kali
      Rakti-kali 3 October 2013 23: 50
      +1
      Quote: Sergei Medvedev
      Although the answer is obvious for Russia - Orthodoxy.

      That is, the citizens of Russia - Muslims, Buddhists, Catholics, Protestants, shamanists (the peoples of Siberia and the north) should not be allowed to go to school?
  7. Yuri Y.
    Yuri Y. 3 October 2013 17: 24
    0
    The second refraction of the crisis is the emasculation of the educational component.

    This is especially not clear. Children, by definition, are still deprived or not firmly in the settings for dormitory in society or its goals. And society, also, by definition, should be interested in creating these facilities in accordance with its traditions.
    Quote: NEMO
    Visual comparative analysis of the level of education in the USSR and Russia according to UNESCO

    For this, I do not need an analysis of UNESCO, so far I had to solve the control for external students. Against the background of payment, the requirements for material sharply decreased, the level of complexity can not be compared then and today (you can solve it without opening the manual for the training manual). Then, before a person went through a detailed consultation, he had to defend the control. Now apparently licking something to build.
  8. Neighbor
    Neighbor 3 October 2013 17: 52
    +4
    The Soviet system of education revealed talented for knowledge, the current one is able to pay for a diploma.
  9. GREAT RUSSIA
    GREAT RUSSIA 3 October 2013 18: 33
    +1
    The USSR had many great programs and systems for the development of the economy and the state. It was also a program of education, armament of the army, planned economy, etc. And now? You can only buy a gold medal. Only those who have connections will go to higher universities. Everyone steals.
  10. bubla5
    bubla5 3 October 2013 19: 41
    +1
    I read the article, so the meaning for which I did not understand
  11. Revolver
    Revolver 3 October 2013 20: 07
    0
    In American elite schools, a qualitatively different education was provided than in a mass school.
    Not at all. The level of knowledge is not very different, if at all. And a year of study in such is worth more than the annual salary of a graduate in the first couple of years. The main thing for which students rush to elite schools, especially in the Ivy League, and parents, accordingly, shrink in everything and lay out money for study, this is the opportunity to make the right acquaintances. About half, or even more, of the students in such universities are the children of past graduates who today rule the American (and not only) economy, and through it, politics. And these children will also steer in due time. And the opportunity to call such a person, start a conversation with "Do you remember how they boozed in the hostel that day?", And finish "Here, one good person needs a job in ... specialty. Don't know where to turn to?" worth all the money spent on studying in such institutions. As they say here, "no matter what you know, it is important who you know."
  12. Jogan-xnumx
    Jogan-xnumx 3 October 2013 20: 47
    +3
    Sad ... what First, education collapsed, but now we want nanotechnology, innovation, industrial breakthrough, etc. fool With whom?
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 3 October 2013 22: 14
      0
      When I say that there is an innovative project in which it is proposed to replace the binary structure of building codes with a nine-digit one and in addition I talk about a transistor with a polarization system in all axes and in accordance with the numbers, the so-called experts are even afraid to hear about such a level of development. Or devices in which the limits of destruction during rotation are not shifted, but are always in a balanced state of polarization. In other words, they do not even want to hear about the anti-centrifugal effect.
  13. Ivanovich47
    Ivanovich47 3 October 2013 20: 54
    +2
    The victories of Soviet science and technology in space, rocket science, and aviation, confirmed the highest level of secondary and higher education in the USSR. The Americans, after losing in the space race (flight of Yu.A. Gagarin in 1961), spent enormous amounts of money to reform secondary and higher schools, bringing it closer to the Soviet one. In the current leaders of Russian education, the demon of reforming the Russian school in the likeness of the western one has taken over. Despite the protests of scientists and public figures, the Russian school is being turned into a stupid semblance of overseas cliches. Poor students ...
  14. Shumer
    Shumer 3 October 2013 22: 06
    +5
    I hope we will not get to this level of education.
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 3 October 2013 22: 16
      +1
      It wouldn’t be so funny that I want to cry
  15. Orik
    Orik 3 October 2013 22: 11
    +2
    It's simple, debeals are easier to manipulate. hi
  16. pensioner
    pensioner 3 October 2013 22: 19
    0
    I could not read even this short article on this subject. I just want to tell about my native. I still dream of exams at USU in the beginning. 80s. I wake up in horror that I can not answer the teacher on the ticket. I repent. There was a similar situation with me. Not often, but visited regularly. They drove us ruthlessly, but they gave us plenty of chances to become people. What are my 5 retests of matanalysis in 1 semester worth ... I talked with many graduates of this university recently. Yes. In the field of computer literacy, they certainly ... But something important has gone, that having us, without suspecting it, we have been exploiting our whole life. Namely: the algorithm of acquiring knowledge gradually enclosed in us. Absolutely in any field, with a great desire, we could become professionals. Now it is lost ... I hope that not forever. Although ... the 21st century may be the century of narrow specialists. It’s possible that it’s also very narrow ... And maybe it’s right ...
  17. vladsolo56
    vladsolo56 4 October 2013 07: 15
    0
    Education must be inextricably linked with education. Only full zero does not understand this. What is happening now with education, and not only in Russia, is a targeted action to create caste relations in society. There must be an elite, a middle class serving the elite, and half-slaves, a poorly educated mass of hard workers. Hard workers must be humble and meek. To do this, we need ideology, Islam is best suited, now it is supported and pushed around the world, and not only as the Islamists say, it is financed by those who have the largest capital in the world and the greatest ambitions. Such a society is planned to be created in the world caliphate. Where education is essentially not needed at all