In May of last year, the newspaper “VPC” published an article “Recall the hypersonic Lopat, in which it was told about the decision to resume work on the creation of a hypersonic cruise missile at the GosMCB Raduga named after A.Ya. Bereznyak”. This is the leading enterprise of OJSC Tactical Missile Armament Corporation (OJSC KTRV), but is this large-scale project capable of this integrated structure? The general director of the corporation, Boris Obnosov, mentioned this and other nuances of research in this area, summing up the results of the International Aviation and Space Salon.
Boris Obnosov, General Director of JSC KTRV, compared the implementation of the problem of hypersound with the implementation of such major projects as the launch of the first satellite and the flight of the first cosmonaut. Moreover, from a scientific and technical point of view, the task may be even more difficult.
Until the beginning of the 90 of the last century, our research and development in this area was in no way inferior to the best that happened in this area abroad, primarily in the United States of America. Then came a certain decline. Some work continued, but on the "Spade" were completely stopped. Only a couple of years ago we managed to once again draw the attention of the country's leadership to this topic.
“I'm not trying to get ahead,” says Boris Obnosov, “but we looked at all our developments and came to the conclusion that all efforts should be consolidated here. And not only because it is one of the priority tasks for Russia. Speaking of hypersound, we must first keep in mind the long-term flight in the atmosphere with speeds exceeding 4 – 5 M. We have products that today fly at a significantly higher speed, but this is either a ballistic descent or its variations. And we are talking about controlled flight in the atmosphere with speeds of 6 – 7 M, in the future - 10 – 12 M ”.
From the point of view of Boris Obnosov, this is more than an ambitious project, the implementation of which could unite the whole country. It will require hard work of a huge number of enterprises - not only those that are part of the Tactical Missiles Corporation. And despite the fact that the main developers are located in it - NPO Mashinostroenie, GosMKB Raduga and others. The main platform of JSC is also aimed at solving the problem. Efforts even of such serious players may not be enough. For a true breakthrough in this area, a long-term phased state program is needed, when each stage would end not with a paper report, but with a specific prototype of the product in the metal.
The creation of a Soviet-era cruise hypersonic missile with the proprietary name “Spade” required unique technologies comparable to real scientific discoveries: the hypersonic experimental aircraft (GELA) reached a speed of about 5 M (1 M = 1230 km / h). For some reason, the work was terminated by decision from above. Dmitry Rogozin, Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, gave a rather harsh assessment during his visit to A.Ya. Bereznyak State machine-building design bureau Raduga in May 2012 of the year.
“The decision of the political leadership of the country of the end of 80’s to artificially stop the most advanced developments in hypersound,” Rogozin said, “I cannot call a betrayal of national interests.”
Americans were more perspicacious and continued research. And today, the work that continues in the United States under the programs X-51, Falcon, HIFire, Boeung HyFly, and a number of others present a particular danger in terms of ensuring the defense capability of our country. They offer Americans the prospect of moving from demonstration prototypes to building a long-range, multifunctional hypersonic missile in 2015 – 2018. According to a number of experts, in the next five to seven years, hypersonic guided missiles will acquire the ability to deliver lightning-fast precise strikes at command and control points of the armed forces, atomic submarine bases and mine installations of intercontinental ballistic missiles, long-range bombers in the enemy’s territory, which even possessing strategic nuclear forces , just do not have time to answer. With the help of such hypersonic cruise missiles, the United States is building a new strategy to influence world politics.
OJSC KTRV has something to counter this. Rocket systems of the same “Rainbow” represent a new generation of high-precision weapons long range. This is the Ovod-ME complex with the Kh-59M2E missile, the Kh-59MK missile of the increased range of the air-to-surface class, aviation X-59MK2 guided missile, X-58UShKE anti-radar missile, Moskit-MVE missile system with 3M-80MBE anti-ship missile. There are no analogues to this weapon in the world.
Rocket X-59МE equipped with a navigation system and automatic control. The television command guidance system ensures that it is accurate to reach up to two to three meters at a distance of up to 115 kilometers. KR can fly around the terrain at a height of up to seven meters (above the sea). There are such rockets with increased range - up to 285 kilometers.
Until now, no one has surpassed the anti-ship missile system 3М-80Е Mosquito. It is designed to defeat surface ships and transports from the composition of shipborne strike groups, amphibious formations, convoys, single ships with a speed of up to 100 nodes at a distance of up to 240 kilometers. It is almost impossible to detect such a supersonic rocket that changes the flight path. Americans could not create something like this. "Mosquito" has a speed above 2,5 M and almost flashing the ship, even without a warhead.
However, such a perfect weapon is the development of yesterday. What is ahead?
The first thing - drones
It is known that restoring is always more difficult than rebuilding. Nevertheless, Boris Obnosov made it clear that the work on “Lopate” was underway, although he did not decipher which ones. Apparently, there will be no complete repetition of the prototype. After all, old technologies, like specialists, are no longer there, but all the research and developments, as Obnosov explained, will be taken into account.
At the same time, the general director of OJSC KTRV was rather skeptical about the achievements of the Americans in this field. In his opinion, America is not so far away from us in this direction and sometimes it simply gives what we wish for it. There is, for example, no information on what speeds or maximum temperatures are reached in the combustion chambers. And it's not about secrecy, because the entire US military industrial complex works primarily for sale, and therefore for advertising.
According to Obnosov, the latest test results inspire some hope. Of course, we need people, equipment, stable financing. “Anyone who thinks he came, saw and won in one year is deeply mistaken,” says Boris Viktorovich. “This work may be for decades.”
Considerable problems in any rocket are associated with debugging control systems. Much here depends on the sensitivity of the angular velocity sensors, other devices, the characteristics of the aircraft itself. On a rocket, say, a long-range question of accuracy is extremely critical. At the same small requirements for sensors others. And on high-speed rockets one has to solve the problem of engine choice - between direct-flow solid propellant and working on ordinary kerosene.
“There is no end of work,” emphasizes Obnosov. - It all depends on the speed that is set. If we talk about the 4 – 5 M, then the ramjet engine with subsonic combustion (Ramget) is fully developed for today. We have mastered it in the corporation, together with the NPO Mashinostroenie, and the Lytkarin enterprise Soyuz, we are pioneers here. ”
If you go at higher speeds, it is necessary to achieve normal operation of the engine supersonic combustion (Scramjet). At the same time, according to Obnosov, a serious problem appears: “Scramjet does not work at low speeds, and Ramget, on the contrary, does not work at high speeds. Therefore, the problem is in reducing the size of the engine. Not to mention the temperature regimes that must be provided in the combustion chamber. Ordinary materials simply cannot stand them. ”
The same questions arise at high speeds with a fairing of the rocket. Even if one achieves its ideal form, then the question of ensuring radio transparency at such high temperatures will certainly arise. This is an almost intractable problem. After all, at speeds beyond 7 – 8 M, a plasma layer appears around the rocket, which strongly interferes with the operation of the guidance system. So, we must talk about new materials, engines, types of fuel, adapted to such conditions, control systems, new modeling.
Today, there are active conversations about passenger aircraft, which will briefly enter the stratosphere at hypersonic speeds, overcoming huge distances in the shortest time. A flight from Moscow to the Far East or to New York can take only one and a half to two hours. But, according to Boris Obnosov, before creating such a manned vehicle, it is necessary to work out the critical technologies on unmanned aerial vehicles. And this is a matter of the near future. “Anyone who is the first to master hypersonic technologies will get a palm in many areas,” Boris Viktorovich is sure. “The multiplier effect will be huge, and it is also undervalued for now.”
Not so long ago, skeptics doubted the development ability of OJSC KTRV. Today, there is no doubt about the seriousness of a clear program of concrete actions of this integrated structure, scheduled for the years ahead. By presidential decree, the corporation has expanded due to such a large holding as the NPO Mashinostroenie, all the necessary regulatory work on the merger has already been carried out.
This does not mean that the NPO Mashinostroeniye brand will be forgotten, on the contrary, everything possible is being done to make it more popular. Several stages of the expansion of the corporation, the infusion of new structures into it only strengthened their power as a whole. Today OJSC KTRV unites 25 enterprises with a total of about 40 thousand. In accordance with a government decree, OJSC ICB Iskra named after I. Kartukov and OJSC Horizon are merging within the corporation. Iskra was transferred from Leningradsky Avenue Moscow to the city of Khimki on the territory of Horizon. From now on, it will be a single enterprise, which will reduce bureaucratic costs, including the maintenance of the apparatus, and the cost of production.
The revenues of the Tactical Missiles Corporation corporation have grown significantly, having amounted to 2012 billion rubles in 60 a year. Although the past year can be considered atypical, since a large number of new serial products were mastered and continue to be mastered, the peak of production of which will be in the 2014 – 2016 years. Then you can expect a two or threefold increase in production volumes.
Develops a corporation and, figuratively speaking, subsonic technology. At MAKS-2013, for example, product samples that passed or are undergoing state tests were presented. They aroused great interest from both internal and external customers. For example, anti-ship, anti-radar missiles, as well as air-to-air missiles. Presented and new anti-aircraft missile under the symbol 338 - is the development of "Vympel" in collaboration with the main customer - "Almaz-Antey." The product is promising, which was confirmed during flight tests.
The K-31AD cruise missile (K-31PD) was also demonstrated. She has just completed state tests, went into a series and will be put into service, primarily in the Russian army. The export version has also been made, all permits have been drawn up and contract negotiations are underway.
A number of products of the corporation is ready for equipping the PAK FA T-50 (a promising aviation complex of front-line aviation) and is waiting for tests from the board. For example, the X-58 rocket inside the body. There is every reason to believe that at the end of 2013, the T-50 will be fired.
The corporation began work on the development of weapon systems for the PAK DA (a promising long-range aviation complex). This issue was discussed with the firms of Tupolev and Ilyushin, who, according to Obnosov’s testimony, already have some of the products that meet the requirements, as well as a number of other promising developments of the air-to-surface, air-to-air class. "When the final requirements for the PAK DA will be imposed," Obnosov says, "the matter will not be behind the missiles."
There are good prospects for possible cooperation with other states; a certain interest is shown in adapting the products of JSC KTRV to the Rafal aircraft. This work (with Dasso Corporation) is at the initial stage.
In the direction of hypersound, there are joint projects with France. Similar work (on engines) is being done with China. A similar program is planned with India. Boris Obnosov is in favor of expanding such cooperation, because it is extremely difficult to develop such expensive systems alone.
It should be noted that if at the beginning of the twenty-first century, the share of corporation exports reached 90 percent, now there is a reverse trend. “After reaching three-year contracts and reaching the peak of our production, this proportion will certainly be reversed: the lion’s share will be made up of products under state defense orders,” Obnosov predicts. “At the same time, the total revenue share will not decrease, but will increase.”
As for the engines, the corporation has a reliable partner in the face of Motor Sich JSC. “We are not going to abandon the products on which its engines are located,” emphasizes Obnosov. - I think this is a reliable partner with the highest quality products. And if pricing issues are resolved, orders for its products will continue. We remain in close contact with our well-established partners, wherever they are, be it Ukraine, Azerbaijan or any other country, and we don’t intend to refuse to cooperate with them. ”
It’s no secret that the lack of middle managers is still a serious problem of our defense industry - the result of the generation gap in the 90s. Enterprises do not have enough designers, technologists, working basic specialties, whether it be a milling machine operator, a programmer, a setup man. This is a huge deficit. It is encouraging that in the territory of the NPO “Mashinostroenie” there is a whole faculty where young personnel are trained. The corporation also has specialized departments in MAI, MSTU, an agreement is signed with other leading universities in the country.
But it is necessary to address the personnel issue on a national scale. We need a unified state integrated program of training, adaptation and subsequent retention of young personnel. According to Boris Obnosov, today at the defense plants it is necessary to revive nepotism in the good sense of the word.
In Soviet times, when a person came to the "mailbox", he had a clear perspective. He was immediately provided with a hostel, and through 6 – 8 – 10 years - an apartment, especially family. The corporation is now the solution to housing problems - the number one priority, along with the creation of new technology.
“Today, we have laid four 17-storey houses on the main platform in the city of Korolev, which will slightly reduce the need for housing,” Obnosov says. - We regularly discuss problematic issues with the governor of the Moscow region, the mayor of the city of Korolev. The same policy is carried out in Reutov at NPO Mashinostroenie. And in Taganrog, several socially oriented houses were built, where the cost price per square meter is 28 thousand rubles. ”
There are serious developments in attracting personnel in St. Petersburg, where in one of the educational institutions an office for hypersound is opened, the relevant specialists are trained.
All of this shows how thoroughly the Tactical Missile Armament Corporation refers to the implementation of the most important state program - the creation of the world's first hypersonic cruise missiles, which, by their combined attack potential, can become the most formidable weapon after a nuclear one. And Russia, apparently, has quite good chances to be among the leaders in conquering hypersonic speeds.