Military Review

On the nationalization of the Russian space

21
Reforming the rocket and space industry has become an obvious necessity after a series of unsuccessful launches of spacecraft. After all, to endure the situation is impossible. And the state did not suffer. At the request of the country's leadership, plans for the transformation of the Federal Space Agency (Roskosmos) were prepared by the Military-Industrial Commission and Roskosmos itself. However, after hearing the proposals of both parties, the state decided in its own way. Let's see what the authorities wanted, what they will receive as a result and what else is needed for the revival of Russia as a space power.


On the nationalization of the Russian space


The plan of the Military Industrial Commission (MIC) provided for the creation of a separate “United Rocket and Space Corporation” (ORKK). It should have included enterprises and organizations that previously submitted to Roskosmos. But not all. The exception should have been four companies that are involved in strategic defense programs. These are the corporations "Kometa", "Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering", "Strategic Control Centers" and the State Rocket Center. Makeev. They should have remained under the jurisdiction of the space agency, which is understandable - the head of the military-industrial complex Dmitry Rogozin suggested that over time, ORKK be brought to IPO (partial sale of the corporation’s shares). This, of course, would allow to receive additional funds for the development of the industry, but it is impossible to give into private hands the structure forging the country's nuclear shield. And therefore, the most important defense enterprises proposed to leave Roscosmos subordinate.

The agency’s own plan envisaged its transformation into a state corporation, like Rosatom State Corporation, which should strengthen control over individual enterprises that are now acting as independent organizations only fulfilling government orders (they are formed by Roskosmos). At the same time, not all enterprises in the space industry are now owned by the state.

Thus, RSC Energia seems to be officially administered by Roskosmos and depends entirely on government orders, acting as the main contractor for the manned cosmonautics. But in fact, the state owns only 38% of this corporation. Other shares are owned by CJSC Leader, OJSC IK Development and individuals. All of these owners line up the corporate policy in accordance with their interests. And the state, which provides the lion's share of orders and profits, cannot fully control what is happening in the corporation, influence the adoption of internal decisions. The corporation can always make it clear: “we are working on your order, and everything else is our internal business.” Actually, that's what happens.

As an illustration of how little influence the state has on enterprises in the industry, one can cite a conflict between Roscosmos and the same RSC Energia on the Sea Launch project. Contrary to the opinion of Roskosmos, the RKK leadership actually acquired this commercial project when its unprofitability almost led to Sea Launch to bankruptcy. And now, to support its unprofitable launch site, RSC asks the state to provide Sea Launch within the framework of the Federal Space Program. Or even more - buy the launch platform from Energia. In response, the State Space Agency presents materials on the financial irregularities identified by the RKK to the Federal Property Management Agency and is trying to change the board of directors. What else can Roscosmos do? After all, he - just a customer, not the owner of the corporation. That is why Roskosmos and the military industrial complex agree on the main points in their programs: in order to change the existing state of affairs, it is necessary to return control of enterprises to the state. Moreover, they receive all the profits from government orders, not from commercial ones. And in the coming years, RKK will receive billions of dollars in funds for the creation of a new manned transport ship (PTK), which will be replaced by Soyuz by 2020. To allocate such funds to a corporation, on whose work the state cannot influence, is simply foolish. Therefore, at a meeting on reforming the industry, Dmitry Rogozin proposed to return the Korolev RSC Energia to state ownership. Fully.

But why, then, does Rogozin talk about the sale of shares in the future ORKK? Why collect state property once squandered, if later it will again have to be given into private hands?

It is worth remembering here that the domestic research and production rocket and space complex is unparalleled in the world. It was created by a great power for great tasks. And the current space programs simply do not correspond to its scale. And if we do not have really large-scale and truly ambitious tasks, then the space industry will simply have nothing to load.

We have already written about the situation with NPO "Energomash". This company produces engines RD-180 for the American company General Dynamics. The Security Council of Russia believes that such cooperation is a threat to our national security. However, in case of freezing the contract, NPO Energomash will find itself in a difficult position, since its capacities will be unclaimed. Today, the state has nothing to load one of the best enterprises in the industry and its unique, high-class team.

In other words, it is imperative to regain control of the industry. Otherwise, the rocket will fall. Today, the space complex is not ready to cope even with the current, very modest tasks, and it is necessary to restore order. But if large space programs do not follow this, then the industry will again have to be let go “on free bread”.

Now about what the state decided to do with Roscosmos and its subordinate enterprises. Today it is known that the United Rocket and Space Corporation with 100% state property will be created. It will include all research and production organizations in the industry, including the Kometa corporations, the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering, the Strategic Control Centers and the State Rocket Center for them. Makeev. This means that there will be no sale of ORKK shares even in the long term - they do not give such assets into private hands. The squandered ownership shares of individual enterprises will be returned to the state, as has already been done in shipbuilding and aircraft building. That is, there will be a state corporation. But not on the basis of the current Federal Space Agency, but as a separate structure. Roscosmos itself is not going anywhere (the number of employees will even increase, right up to 450 people). He will remain the general customer who forms the state policy in the space sphere. And the general contractor of all works will not be individual corporations, but ORKK. Among other things, this will allow not to divide corporations into partially defense and fully defense. And strategic military programs can be conducted from the direct customer - from the Ministry of Defense.

A little distracted, it should be said that in the domestic space industry can not be separated from the defense component of the civil and defense companies from civil. There are no civilian enterprises in this industry. It is difficult to regard as “non-military" such organizations as the GKNPTs named after MV Khrunicheva or RSC Energia. In fact, no separate “civilian space” exists anywhere in the world. The exceptions are a few new private companies that have emerged in recent years, created by enthusiasts and get a chance due to the cancellation of many of its own American NASA programs. In all other cases, the space programs of developing States. And mainly - for military purposes. And all commercial and scientific space programs are secondary. The first (mainly telecommunication) are used for the partial return of funds invested by states in the development of the space industry. The latter most often have both fundamental and applied scientific and military significance. In addition, scientific programs give space exploration a humanistic appearance. But the main point of space exploration, both at the dawn of orbital flights, and now is the new opportunities in the military sphere that open up to any space power. And therefore, there are no commercially viable structures in the space sphere. Always and everywhere the main customer and initiator of new programs is the state.

The decision not to separate the military and civilian components of the cosmos is absolutely correct. The defense tasks for the space industry, which are able to load the work of the enterprise - more than enough. But this is not enough. We have to think about other programs of its own manned space station, about the development of the Moon and on flights to the planets of the solar system. Such ambitious tasks created our rocket and space complex. They will be able to revive it. It remains to restore order, and you can begin to restore the status of a great space power. Our space industry is not created for carting space tourists and not for single launches of foreign satellites, and for large-scale breakthrough for the stars. Or it will be so, or it will not be at all.
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  1. smel
    smel 27 September 2013 06: 30 New
    +7
    Well then. I would like to believe that all efforts are aimed at improving and improving the space industry. That the problems born by the state itself in a reformist impulse will be resolved. And we know that they will be resolved at our expense. However, I would like to hear a surname list of those who put this industry on their knees. And also see the punishment of a madman who has ruined the military-industrial complex. The example of Serdyukov and Co. does not yet allow to believe in justice
    1. Nicholas C.
      Nicholas C. 27 September 2013 06: 36 New
      +3
      Quote: Author Alexander Gorbenko
      It remains to restore order, and you can begin to restore the status of a great space power.

      Left? From proposed measures to order very far.

      Well, the top space officials have not sat down like that. Of course you need to transplant, and some transplant.
      Only further than work - the horse did not roll.
      1. slacker
        slacker 27 September 2013 09: 45 New
        +7
        The best way to preserve and recreate the Russian high-tech and defense industry is its nationalization. All other schemes lead to corruption, technological lag, decline and collapse.
        1. AVV
          AVV 27 September 2013 12: 44 New
          +1
          Time to collect stones !!!
    2. ben gun
      27 September 2013 07: 40 New
      0
      Efforts are directed, and we will find out what happens. But the creation of a rigid vertical hierarchy in the industry with a clear division into the General Contractor and the Customer, with the revival of military acceptance in any case should only be beneficial. The only drawback is that duplicate component manufacturing will have to be scaled down and rebuilt by these enterprises.
    3. vadimus
      vadimus 27 September 2013 08: 06 New
      +4
      to populate distant planets with bribes (without spacesuits, of course), this is the advanced task of our space industry !!!
      1. alone
        alone 27 September 2013 10: 13 New
        0
        Quote: vadimus
        The head of the military-industrial complex, Dmitry Rogozin, proposed over time to bring the ORKK to an IPO (partial sale of corporation shares). This, of course, would make it possible to obtain additional funds for the development of the industry, but it is impossible to give privately the structure forging the country's nuclear shield.


        mm, it turns out that Rogozin sometimes also tries to propose and act. What benefits from his actions and proposals can only be guessed. As practice shows, any industry that falls into private hands, in most cases ends in failure. Especially in the military-industrial complex
        1. Ruslan_F38
          Ruslan_F38 27 September 2013 10: 23 New
          -2
          It remains to restore order, and you can begin to restore the status of a great space power.
          - and Popovkin will apparently put in order forever and cunningly smiling, and forever reporting Rogozin - we’ll go so far of course, only from our goals, and not to them. Also, selling stocks of strategic enterprises is cool! Rogozin is just super! Maybe then sell the entire US defense industry at once - there is a dough sea.
      2. Geisenberg
        Geisenberg 27 September 2013 13: 57 New
        0
        Quote: vadimus
        to populate distant planets with bribes (without spacesuits, of course), this is the advanced task of our space industry !!!


        It is you who narrowed down the global program of state development to an industry. But in general, your train of thought is correct.
      3. does it
        does it 27 September 2013 18: 38 New
        0
        Quote: vadimus
        to populate distant planets with bribes (without spacesuits, of course), this is the advanced task of our space industry !!!

        First you need to fly to them. We prefer to fly around the planet, rather than build a base on the moon and Mars.
  2. andrei332809
    andrei332809 27 September 2013 06: 40 New
    +4
    for a long time we still burp from the fruits of privatization. how now to revive technical schools and vocational schools? where to get high-quality assemblers and machinists? Yes, and the highly educated ... the design idea is limping on both legs. no matter how the second shrapnel
    1. smel
      smel 27 September 2013 06: 46 New
      +2
      . designer's thought is limping on both legs.
      I agree. But for some reason our leaders decided that in order to stop limping, we also had to take away the property of the RAS. By the way ... I suggest Vasilyev to the role of the head of the managing structure of the selected property from academics.
      1. Geisenberg
        Geisenberg 27 September 2013 14: 04 New
        0
        Quote: smel
        . designer's thought is limping on both legs.
        I agree. But for some reason our leaders decided that in order to stop limping, we also had to take away the property of the RAS. By the way ... I suggest Vasilyev to the role of the head of the managing structure of the selected property from academics.


        Yes, I would not say that it is limping. The Chinese are lame, they themselves are inept and copy everything in a row crazy. And ours for another 40 years will be quite relevant to itself.
    2. Geisenberg
      Geisenberg 27 September 2013 14: 02 New
      +1
      Quote: andrei332809
      for a long time we still burp from the fruits of privatization. how now to revive technical schools and vocational schools? where to get high-quality assemblers and machinists? Yes, and the highly educated ... the design idea is limping on both legs. no matter how the second shrapnel


      Why do university graduates not suit you? The same vocational schools only without practical training. They’ll train them for a year or two at work and you can safely retire. Indeed, in the end, they decide all the money - give them a salary and stupidly trample on collectors, even though the education is higher. Now the queues (for work) of economists with lawyers will be beaten to failure and the graduation of normal specialists will begin, focused on the creation of real things, and not balabol with businessmen.
      1. andrei332809
        andrei332809 27 September 2013 14: 59 New
        +2
        Quote: Geisenberg
        Why do university graduates not suit you?

        Yes, you know, units of newly-minted engineers want to work on a profile, try to understand, enter a topic. to benefit production (sorry, grandiloquent happened). and most just sit on your ass, do not even try to understand what they are doing, the day has passed and okay. and, of course, the armor from the army attracts them a lot. how many there were, they said frankly, I’m only allowed to sit until 27, and then I’ll go to oil (gas) to my uncle (aunt, brother, father)
        1. Geisenberg
          Geisenberg 28 September 2013 11: 27 New
          0
          Quote: andrei332809
          Quote: Geisenberg
          Why do university graduates not suit you?

          Yes, you know, units of newly minted engineers want to work on a profile, they try


          The key word is money, not even that - earnings. The dude sits, counts the days - let them, then let them count the pennies, so that not even enough for beer. Actually, if you try - let the pennies not be bothered to count. I have a friend, he says so - he is ready to work for a percentage of the transaction without a salary, and he works and earns. You can take their entire release to work. Only stupid people and loafers will leave in a month, but normal ones will remain. I’ll see how such a miracle stays up to 27 without money, if he will sit on the percentage and pay his own social rate.
          1. andrei332809
            andrei332809 28 September 2013 12: 18 New
            0
            Quote: Geisenberg
            The key word is money, not even that - earnings. The dude sits, counts the days - let them, then let them count the pennies later,

            everything is a little different. in the defense industry, it’s mostly time-lapse. so that the sedentary and the working ones will receive approximately the same at the end of the month. The difference is formed by the discharge, and the seated one will never make a mistake, since he does nothing. the salary is constant for both, and no one will receive less. this does not apply to hard workers, to techoluhi and engineers
  3. Sunjar
    Sunjar 27 September 2013 07: 45 New
    +3
    Reasonable idea. But what the hell did you need to dismantle all this, since now they are returning to state control again? The idiots-politicians-reformers of the 90-ies should already be responsible for their actions before the people for the damage done to us, many still have not died. E-e-e-eh, it only remains to amuse oneself with such thoughts, because none of the current politicians will admit that their policy is poop orangutan, and they themselves are imbeciles in their development. So they pour mud on the Soviet past, otherwise they will have to recognize themselves as criminals-enemies of the people.

    According to the article: they’re unlikely to fly to the moon, because it will become known that the Americans never got there, and that this is all falsification. There is still some kind of agreement between our states (maybe once they provided something, or maybe they themselves have some compromising information). Those who doubt the veracity of this position may be asked why they were able to do this when the United States lagged behind the USSR in the space program from the very beginning (the first satellite of the USSR launched, the first to send a man into space, the first to make an orbital station, the lunar rover to the moon ), why the United States so developed on our engines fly (RD-180 and NK-21)? BUT?
    1. vober
      vober 27 September 2013 11: 36 New
      0
      After they staged a performance with the towers of the World Trade Center, and then also with the Boston Marathon, all confidence about their flight to the moon disappeared. Moreover, the mass of inconsistencies in the presented information is known. They simply consider us stupid - people pick it up ...
    2. Geisenberg
      Geisenberg 27 September 2013 14: 06 New
      0
      Quote: Sunjar
      Reasonable idea. Just what the hell did you have to dissociate all this, now


      Yes, do you understand whether a lot of money was invested by someone so that the bear-fight would tear this country apart. Yes, something went wrong and didn’t work out until the end, but something remained.
  4. Strashila
    Strashila 27 September 2013 08: 49 New
    +2
    Sea launch ... sea launch ... carriers on the basis of Sineva saturned satellites into space practically from the wall of the pier in the north ... and what prevents us from making a trip to the equator and launching from there ... and to military commanders and satellites in orbit.
    “Moreover, they receive all the profit from government orders, and not from commercial ones." ... but only carriers performing state orders fall.
    1. ben gun
      27 September 2013 09: 35 New
      +2
      Satellites in one way or another connected with GLONASS are falling. Well, the GLONASS satellites themselves are sudden! suddenly fail at the same time as the fall of the upright launch vehicle.
    2. Odonushka
      Odonushka 27 September 2013 09: 53 New
      +3
      Yes, probably many people noticed that missiles with foreign satellites normally fly, and as with domestic satellites, they either fall or miss ...
  5. theadenter
    theadenter 27 September 2013 09: 54 New
    0
    For the sake of reform, they may have dropped missiles. What is not a reason?
  6. Betahon
    Betahon 27 September 2013 09: 59 New
    +3
    The question here is deeper! ...
    No administrative reformation will lead to anything without the presence of highly qualified personnel, which are becoming less and less!
    Forges of personnel, MAI, Baumansky, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, ...- are almost ruined, graduates have a beggarly salary for their level. In the best case, he will invite some prosholoshny Western university or laboratory ...
    It is urgent to solve the personnel-political problem, then things will go!
  7. Mikhail m
    Mikhail m 27 September 2013 10: 01 New
    +1
    Medvedev was going to insure launches. And it is not unclear to the wretched that the premiums of insurers will ALWAYS be greater than the losses from unsuccessful launches. Another feeding trough opens.
    Here it is worth recalling that the domestic scientific and production rocket and space complex has no equal in the world. It was created by a great power for great tasks. And current space programs simply do not correspond to its scale.

    Not a hat for Senka. So without commercial launches can not do. But to set a super-task such as the colonization of the Moon and Mars, the development of asteroids, with the involvement of foreign investors - here you can see a vast field for the activities of the space industry. But there is no and is not visible in the manual of a person who is able to set such goals and move towards their solution. All small businesses are concerned.
  8. washi
    washi 27 September 2013 10: 55 New
    +3
    Instead of privatizing, only the light and food industries were allowed to privatize EVERYTHING. As a result, most enterprises important to the economy and defense have fallen under the control of foreign capital or local oligarchs. It is necessary to review the privatization of at least defense-significant enterprises.
  9. Yuri Y.
    Yuri Y. 27 September 2013 11: 45 New
    0
    In the text, of course, the right decision, without nationalization, the space industry probably has no prospects. But so far this is the first step, such a time, on the path to recovery. Here and the frames (it was correctly noticed) and acceptance, etc.