Military Review

The current state of combat training of ground forces and the requirements for its provision with technical training aids

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The goal of combat training is to achieve, maintain and improve military professional training of personnel, their physical endurance, crew coordination, calculations, subunits, formations and their management bodies (headquarters) at the required level, ensuring the performance of combat and other tasks in accordance with their purpose. .


Tactical training

Analysis of the results of tactical training shows that the level of training units has increased slightly. The Ground Forces managed to increase the number of classes conducted at night. For tactical training, the commanders began to plan the necessary number of vehicles.


At the same time, there are shortcomings in the course of conducting tactical exercises, where, as before, the leaders focus on the stages of live firing, leaving behind the scenes the organization of combat and the training of subunits to carry out the tasks ahead. Issues of the electronic impact of the enemy, as well as complex radiation, chemical, and bacteriological conditions are not always addressed.

In addition, it is problematic to create the required combat situation in the training conditions for testing modern forms and methods of using troops due to the limited space of training tactical fields. In this regard, it is more effective to conduct classes first on a tactical simulator. For example, on a simulator of a motorized rifle company with dowry tank a platoon and a supporting mortar (artillery) battery, bringing all actions to automaticity, followed by exit to the landfills. This simulator should teach commanders of all degrees the correct decision-making, on which either victory or defeat will depend, reflecting the real losses of personnel and equipment.

Such a comprehensive class tactical simulator for training tactical managers is currently being developed and plans to have crews of combat vehicles, a simulator for a motorized infantry unit, simulators of attached and supporting units, united by a single information-modeling environment, which will allow to work as a single preparation and coordination of units to the company (battery), inclusive. The simulator allows you to simulate any terrain for training in special conditions (in the city, forest, desert, in the winter or in the northern regions), which is extremely important, since it is almost impossible to create similar conditions on real test sites.

The current state of combat training of ground forces and the requirements for its provision with technical training aids

MCP tactical simulator


At present, within the framework of the R & D, the Brigade-U is developing a tactical simulator for a reinforced motorized rifle (tank) battalion, which will be installed in the newly created training center of the new generation Mulino in the village of the same name in the Nizhny Novgorod region.

To ensure the readiness of the units to conduct a lesson on such a simulator, it is planned to equip each combined-arms team with tactical simulators for a reinforced company.

In addition, it is planned to create interactive computer classes in the training buildings of the formations for training specialists of all categories of the armed forces of the Ground Forces, which will improve the efficiency of conducting classes through the use of universal software. This will eliminate the need to attract additional material resources (posters, mock-ups, samples, etc.), which, due to their wear and aging, need to be constantly updated.

Fire training

Fire training activities are aimed at improving the individual training of military personnel and improving the skills of personnel in actions weaponsarmed with combat vehicles.


T-90 tank crew simulator


Analysis of the results of the implementation of fire training measures allows us to conclude that at the present time during the training sessions there are systemic flaws that significantly affect the quality of training.

Not all commanders can put into practice the requirements of the Course of Shooting and Combat Training Programs, as a result of which the volume, content and sequence of practicing fire training exercises are not respected.

The leaders of the classes, in most cases, cannot conduct a qualitative analysis of the actions of the trainees and the results of the shooting. Some officers, especially graduates of schools, as a result of low personal professional training do not see shortcomings in the actions of subordinates and do not take measures to eliminate them.


The old set of TCB RPG-7



Modern trainer RPG-7


Therefore, it is necessary to devote more time to classes at modern training facilities. All initial and preparatory exercises must be performed on simulators (which reduces the time for training, saves resources and eliminates the serious consequences caused by the violation of safety requirements), and then go out into the field and engage in military equipment, performing training and control shooting.

In addition, a modern tactical simulator allows you to work out exercises for managing fire units, which is not always performed during fire training.

Taking into account the experience of the ground forces of major foreign countries, it is advisable to equip tactical and fire training facilities with laser imitation systems for shooting and defeat, transferring them into the category of the command and training base, which will lower the costs for purchasing ammunition and restoring (repair) equipment (weapons).


Laser Simulator Shooting and Defeat


It is planned to create laser shooting and destruction simulators (LISPs) of the main modern combat simulation tools, providing for simulating fire from armored weapons, artillery systems, air defense systems, simulating the use of mine clearance systems, the entire line of small arms and grenade launchers, which are armed with a motorized rifle brigade.

To date, this system LISP is the most effective compared to analogues of domestic and foreign manufacturers. The LISP system being developed provides for conducting bilateral tactical exercises on a battalion scale per battalion, as well as objective control over the actions of the trained units and the preparation of materials for the analysis of tactical exercises.

Driving combat vehicles


Driving tanks at tankdrome


Conducted classes in driving combat vehicles are aimed at improving the level of training of driver mechanics, to coherent and professional actions in crews, platoons, companies, in solving various tactical tasks on the battlefield, as well as during marches and overcoming water obstacles afloat and under water.

An analysis of the measures taken in the Ground Forces for the training of driver mechanics shows that the unit commanders do not pay due attention to classes using the available training means.

One of the reasons for this is the large depreciation of the driving simulators available to the troops, both in terms of resource development and in terms of service life, which are often more than 15 years. Technical maintenance of simulators was not conducted in the Ground Forces since 2010, therefore their condition does not allow to conduct high-quality driving lessons in class conditions.

At present, a complex of polygon equipment is being created for objective monitoring of the results of driving combat vehicles and tanks at the tankodrome. The planned completion of works and the delivery of polygon equipment complexes is 2013 year.

Technical training


The Main Directorate of Combat Training of the Ground Forces to determine the actual state of the simulators available to the troops, at the initiative of JSC Training Systems, together with the Western, Southern and Central Military Districts conducted their inspection and technical examination.

The results of the inventory allow not only to assess the security of combat training of military units and training centers, but also to identify specific measures for organizing maintenance and rehabilitation of simulators, carrying out repairs, writing off obsolete or developed technical equipment simulators.

It has been established that military units are equipped with practically on 100% simulators in accordance with the timesheets to the states, and also have a significant number of simulators in excess of the standard requirement.

At the same time, in the units of constant readiness, there is an almost complete absence in the report cards to the states and in the presence of crew simulators for armored vehicles (tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, BMD, and armored personnel carriers), artillery and anti-aircraft armament complexes that are needed to co-ordinate crews after the arrival of military specialists (driver, gunner, operator, commander, etc.) from the district training centers.


Tactical simulator


The presented diagram of the distribution of simulators over the service life shows that 15% of simulators have worked over 15 years. At the same time, it was found that only about 54% of simulators are in good condition and are actively used in the training of military specialists in military units.

Such a low percentage of the presence of serviceable simulators in the troops is primarily due to the almost complete absence of maintenance and rehabilitation of simulators in the Ground Forces in 2010-2011.

It should be noted in general, the low supply of troops with modern simulators. The simulators developed by 10-20 years ago and still operated by the troops do not meet the current level of technology and modern requirements for the organization of combat training, which necessitates their profound modernization or replacement.

The problems of providing troops with simulators, including their maintenance, rehabilitation and repair, are aggravated by the low level of unification of simulators of the same type for the armament complexes of the Ground Forces.

This is especially noticeable in the armor simulators available in the troops, which were supplied by eight different enterprises of the national defense industry in the period from 1980 to 2010. Raznunifikation creates certain difficulties in training military personnel of training platoons of proper operation and ensuring the efficiency of simulators, when training unit commanders to work on simulators and methods of training military personnel using simulators, while solving military issues of ensuring simulator operability in warranty, and especially in the post-warranty period in full lack of group and repair spare parts, as well as the necessary funds for the restoration of their work ability as well as the formation of the military districts in exchange nodes funds, units and assemblies for the restoration of health trainers.


PSO-R


Currently, development work is being carried out by the Brigade-U (2011-2013) and the Connection-OVF (2012-2014) to establish the Center for Combat Training of the Ground Forces (Mulino), it was decided to create Interspecific training ground of the Southern Military District in Ashuluk.

The software-modeling environment created within these ROCs, a unified system of visualization of virtual space, complex simulators and other TCBs should be the basis for the training and training of the paratroop base of constant readiness units and training centers of the Ground Forces to prepare units at the level of platoon, company, battery, battalion, division, etc.

This will not only improve the quality of training brigades in locations, but also facilitate the adaptation of personnel and units to the training and material base of the Ground Forces Combat Training Centers during the training of military personnel in brigades and battalions.

Brigade training and material base, based on world experience in organizing combat training of troops, should rationally combine two forms of training:

• traditional (in the field) associated with the use of existing directresses, fire towns and polygons;
• computer (classroom training), which includes simulation and modeling complexes, computer simulators, simulators for training and control of the level of training, etc.

When equipping the training and material base of the formations and the Combat Training Centers, priority is given to the creation and supply of technical training aids for the training of high-tech military personnel.

This primarily relates to the calculations of modern artillery systems such as the 2C19 "Msta-S" and 2C25 "Sprut", the newest salvo-fire systems such as the Tornado-S and the Uragan-1M, and the Iskander missile system, as well as line of samples of military air defense.

Experience in the operation and maintenance of simulators in the troops showed that without organizing a system for training specialists to ensure the operation of simulators in the troops, it is impossible to ensure the necessary intensity and effectiveness of training the Ground Forces.

First of all, it is required to ensure that officers are trained to work on simulators for the chosen specialty (armored vehicles, artillery, anti-aircraft complexes, etc.) in higher education institutions or in advanced training courses, which will allow them to properly organize the training of their units.

The platoon simulators available in brigades and training centers (full-time 14 personnel) cannot ensure the proper operation of the simulators, since the training of the commanders of such platoons (contract servicemen) is not carried out, and the rest of the military platoon troops serve by the call of 1 a year.

Modern combat training provides for the intensive use of simulators in the army during the school year (8-16 hours daily), which requires the recovery of the simulators from working for 24-48 hours.

At the same time, the Order of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation on 2010, No. XXUMX, approved the “Provisional Regulation on the Basics of Organizing Servicing of Armament and Military Equipment in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation”, which provides for maintenance, rehabilitation and repair of simulators at different stages. At the same time, according to the existing experience of work organization, troubleshooting is planned for 1919 years, i.e. in general, the first year is the troubleshooting of products, the second year is the restoration.

An important factor in the provision of combat training is the presence in the troops of modern ground equipment, its ability to quickly create and manage a diverse target environment with the provision of objective information about target destruction and equipment operability in real time.

In 2009, the PSO-P radio-controlled firing equipment on the 40 target installations was adopted for the supply of the Armed Forces. On state tests set showed good results. But, unfortunately, due to the limited budget allocations for these purposes, over the past years only a few sets have been purchased.

The above problems with the maintenance and operation of simulators, as well as simulator repair, fully applies to field equipment, taking into account the fact that it works at all times of the year, in all weather conditions and time of day in the field.

The rifle and small artillery polygons are morally and physically outdated and no longer provide, with due quality, training for the rocket forces and artillery. Today, it is necessary to widely use in the training of artillery officers modeling and visualization systems, to create technical means of training such as the 9ФХNUMX simulator for training the command personnel of the artillery unit (division battery).

Requirements for advanced TCB

Changes are taking place in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation related to the reform of the Ground Forces, the formation of military units according to the mixed principle of recruitment: by contract and conscription, by reducing the service life of conscription to 1 year. The officer training system has undergone a change, and combat training is being improved in line with the existing threats to the country's security.

Each of these changes in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation has an impact on the assessment of the technical means of training available today in the Ground Forces and imposes new, increased requirements on the training means newly developed and delivered to the troops, to ensure their reliable and uninterrupted work during combat training, to reduce cost of production and the cost of their operation. Prospective TCB should include:

• unified software;
• creation of a unified visualization system for the formation of a fono target environment;
• use of three-dimensional digital space;
• a unified system of imitation of dynamic loads on students;
• single workplace instructor;
• the maximum possible unification of design and technological solutions (nodes, blocks, monitors, computers, etc.);
• modularity of construction to ensure different versions of the exercise of simulators (dynamic, static);
• the possibility of combining crew simulators into complex simulators for training units (platoon, company).

Providing the Ground Forces with new technical means of training, as well as introducing new forms of training for troops (forces), tactical echelons of the Ground Forces, Airborne Forces and Coastal Forces of the Navy, will allow to qualitatively increase the level of combat readiness of troops (forces) at the present stage and in the future.
Author:
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http://otvaga2004.ru/
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  1. Su-9
    Su-9 27 September 2013 08: 25 New
    +3
    He wrote the military. Everything about the case. Mandatory reading for all apologists for the purchase of a large number of new weapons. Until there is a working, tested and well-equipped training base, all new weapons - scrap metal. I would send half of the money for training.
  2. Aleks tv
    Aleks tv 27 September 2013 10: 26 New
    +1
    Exercise machines - an archive step in the BP BP.

    But even what is described in the article is not enough.
    Interested in the tactical simulator MCP. Here we have a few such systems. And if it’s possible to work out the interaction of TV or TR in half with sin, then TB is no longer there. And one can only dream of working out interaction with attached units within the same BTGr.
    COMMUNICATION and INTERACTION - these are the main goals of tactical “fields”.

    I did not see simulators on the use of CWF. I already wrote that without them this system has almost no effect.

    In addition, this is not in the article of simulator complexes of operation (technique in the context).

    The overhaul is additionally important, allowing the tanks of the combat training group to be converted to excellent training points without developing the motor resources of the machines - rocking chairs, imitators, body kits.

    It is important to modernize target equipment on direct lines and re-equip tankodromes.

    I really hope that this is also done and created and is simply not described in the article.
    Many thanks to the author for the raised topical topic.
    Interesting opinions.
  3. washi
    washi 27 September 2013 13: 31 New
    +1
    Fitness equipment is the minimization of training costs.
    But real training takes place in the fields.
    With the simulator you will not find shelter, you will not be able to shelter your beloved under fire, you will not be able to provide yourself with food.
    ALL modern teachings are window dressing.
    But. Try to drive the company into the PURE FIELD. Stuffed up all sorts of committees of mothers. But virtually in the steppe or in the taiga you will not learn to survive.
    If now they serve a year, then they must be cooked without days off and holidays and sleep and without barracks.
    And the barracks (the first 5 years) are only for contractors.
    And after 5 - get what you really deserve.
  4. Roman Vasilenko
    Roman Vasilenko 27 September 2013 16: 47 New
    +2
    what I’m talking about, I asked the headquarters for three days to conduct tactical training, I myself (the commander of the security department) made an application for ammunition, justification and an order for the unit in electronic form, somehow I received 15 bursts of packages, 5 RCGs of 30 mm of red light and smoke and people were given (no one to mow grass) to classes. As a result, I spent a bunch of nerves on staff freaks. All are busy with papers and unsubscribes. Everything is sad.
    1. AX
      AX 28 September 2013 08: 39 New
      0
      As I understand you ... Everything is tied to the headquarters ... Everything is in the papers ...
  5. Moore
    Moore 27 September 2013 20: 37 New
    0
    The right article, right. It remains only to deploy the average commander of the same middle link with a snout to the question of combat training. The only way to defeat fraud and tons of tops, testifying to the allegedly conducted classes, I see only one idiotic reception - a video of each lesson in accordance with the BP plan, schedules and its archiving. During inspections, to demand the presentation not of tops (plan summaries, etc.), but the corresponding video recording.
    And so, until the generation that has learned to rub points in the 90s dies or is rebuilt.
    1. Nuar
      Nuar 30 September 2013 16: 55 New
      0
      And not ashamed to write nonsense? Where then to store all these videos.

      The solution is completely different: assessment of the effectiveness of training units should be carried out top managers and not by notes, but by the results of the exercises.

      Only now there are credible shootings, and the generals are laying a pussy on them. It is necessary to make an assessment - they will send the colonel with the words: "you this, look through the notes there ..."
  6. gekz
    gekz 18 January 2016 19: 18 New
    0
    No battle can be won in the office ... A.V. Suvorov. Dear Colleagues. Trainers are needed. At the same time, you need to clearly understand: time is one-dimensional (when should a soldier engage in simulators?); a soldier serves one year; simulators (simulator training) do not have a place in combat training programs, and their content, in turn, is not adapted to simulator training; well-known forms and teaching methods are not designed for simulator training. The company is more than 100 military personnel. About 20 VUS. How many teachers are needed in the academic building. How to coordinate the content, training methodology for trainees (companies). Designing templates is possible, but modern combat is a collection of objective events, not a collection of templates. Think: put a company in classrooms. Day deal with her. With the other company to engage in the field for XNUMX hours. Both companies shoot, drive, engage in tactics and other items of combat training. A day later, both units on the tactical field. Who will succeed? But if you give LISP to these companies in the field. You cannot drive soldiers into the barracks. LISP is also a simulator. That LISP, as a simulator, tactical exercises using LISP should be (become) the basis of training in the pulp and paper industry. Other TCB and TCO improve knowledge, skills.