ISRAELI COMPLEX "LAHAT"
"LAHAT" (in the translation from Hebrew "heat", "heat"; from the English. LAser Homing ATtack Missile or Laser Homing Anti-Tank) light anti-tank guided missile equipped with a semi-active laser homing head (GOS). Lahat is an initiative developed by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI), launched in 1992 under a contract with the Israel Defense Force. The completion of the development was reported at the end of 1998. The rocket is capable of striking various types of targets: armored vehicles, ships, engineering and fortifications, helicopters. The main objectives of the Lahat rocket are to fire and defeat the main battle tanks and helicopters outside the range of conventional tank guns. It can also be effective in urban environments where it is essential to ensure minimal collateral damage.
Originally, the Lahat rocket was developed as a tank-guided missile for firing from an 105-mm tank gun MNNUMX or 68-mm guns MG120 (MG251) of Merkava tanks (Merkava in Hebrew means chariot), but can also be used on all types of guns specified calibers. In the 253-mm version, it has an ordinary brass sleeve, in the 105-mm version it has a shortened sleeve and an adapter of the same diameter as the tray. In tanks, the Lahat shot fits like other types of ammunition in a rack. The loading of the shot is done manually, like ordinary projectiles.
Unlike other types of tank ammunition, the presence of a gun for "Lahat" is not a prerequisite for use. IAI has also developed a container version of the Lahat rocket for installation on armored vehicles or aerial platforms. On a light armored vehicle or helicopter, two containers of four missiles each can be mounted. In addition, the rocket can be launched from recoilless guns and tubular launchers placed on various types of carriers: patrol boats, UAVs, helicopters, HMMWV type cars and lightly armored vehicles, self-propelled anti-aircraft installations, etc.
The shot for 120-mm guns contains the same rocket as for the 105-mm gun, but the rocket itself is placed in a container consisting of two halves. After the shot, the container halves open and fall close to the tank.
The rocket is made according to the normal aerodynamic configuration, although it could rather be attributed to wingless aircraft with small aerodynamic rudders in the tail section. The rocket consists of a homing head that perceives the laser radiation reflected from the target. It is followed by a leading charge of the warhead (CU) and an electronics unit with a battery. Next comes the main warhead with a safety-actuating mechanism, a rocket engine and a steering compartment.
The semi-active laser guidance system allows direct pointing from a shooting platform (tank) or indirectly (out of line of sight) when the target is illuminated by a laser beam from the side, for example, from a UAV, another tank, a helicopter or a gunner-operator. This is a significant advantage, in contrast to domestic systems with tele-orientation in a laser beam ("Reflex", "Bastion", etc.), which can be used only in conditions of optical visibility of targets.
The average flight speed of the 285 rocket — 300 m / s. Although the flight time of the missile at a range of 4 km is 14, the target is illuminated for only 2-3 with the final segment of the flight path. When fired from a tank or launched from a ground platform, the maximum flight range is 6 — 8 km, and for an air launch, 8 — 13 km. The circular deviation of the missile from the target does not exceed 0,7 m. When firing at helicopters, the rocket flies on a flat trajectory, when firing at armored targets - at the outboard. Attacking an armored target, "Lahat" swoops at it at an angle of more than 30 °, hitting the target from above into the most vulnerable places. In addition, the attacking top of the ammunition allows you to fight with targets, hidden in the folds of the terrain, and to avoid defeat being in front of their own troops and equipment. The maximum head viewing area is 85 °, the field of view is 25 °. The large viewing angle of the head makes it possible to expand the boundaries of the missile launch zone and ensure shooting at the outboard trajectory.
Through the use of precharge tandem cumulative warhead (leader) provides overcoming dynamic protection. In general, the armor penetration of the warhead is 800 mm steel homogeneous armor. Tank-guided missile (TUR) "Lahal" can also carry the means of countering the active protection systems of tanks.
The Lahat complex is widely advertised and demonstrated at trade shows and is offered for sale. At the end of January, 2004, India, on the proving ground in the Thar desert, successfully tested the Israeli “Lahat” from its main battle tank “Arjun” (“Arjuna” in the lane with skt. "White, light" - the hero of the ancient Indian epic "Mahabhara-ta" ). The TOUR hit the target at a distance of 5 km, which was the basis for making a decision on the procurement of the complex and its installation on the Ap'ip tank. It was planned at the end of 2004 to order in Israel about 1000 TOUR in the amount of 22 million USD. Later, Israel signed a contract with India for licensed production of the complex. Also considered the possibility of using the complex for arming tanks of European countries.
Table 1 Performance characteristics of the Lahat TOUR
Maximum range, km ground launch air launch
Mass of shot / missile / warhead, kg
Rocket average flight speed, m / s
Armor penetration of homogeneous armor, mm
Quarter PU mass (with rockets), kg
In 2005, IAI tested the Lahat TUR with a shooting from a Leopard 2-4 tank equipped with an 120-mm cannon. To this end, the fire control system of the tank “Leopard 2” of the company Rheinmetall Defense Electronics was modified by IAI to fire the Lahat missile at a maximum range of 6 km. Two missiles successfully hit targets that were at a distance of 4 km. One of the targets was motionless, the second was moving. The targets were tank mockups. Tests were held at the site of the Technical Center weapons and ammunition of the Bundeswehr in Meppen. More than 50 experts from 11 countries attended. In the course of these firing, the Lahat missiles were first used in Europe.
The Lahat complex is offered by developers as an additional subsystem, which requires only minor changes to the tank fire control system. It was reported that he was adopted by the tanks "Merkava" of all modifications. The cost of the shot in 1999 prices was about 20 thousand USD. The Lahat complex, apart from Israel and India, is also in service with Croatia.
In foreign media, there is information that Israel was working on the creation of a second generation of 105-mm tank guided munitions, known as "Excalibur" (not to be confused with the eponymous US-Swedish 155-mm guided artillery shell). The development of the projectile was carried out since the beginning of the 1990's. on its own initiative at the expense of the Israeli state corporation Israel Military Industries (IMI). At the end of 1999, IMI announced the development of a new extended-range tank homing ammunition attacking the target from the top beyond the direct line of sight. In 2001, IMI teamed up with another Israeli company, Rafael, to further develop the concept of the projectile. The Excalibur was designed for 120-mm smoothbore and 105-mm rifled tank guns with a major focus on the latter, since tanks armed with 105-mm guns still make up the bulk of the Israeli defense forces.
The shell is made according to the aerodynamic design of a duck. In the head compartment with a length of 161 mm there is a millimeter-range HOS, allowing the tank to immediately leave the place of the shot, that is, to realize the principle of “shot and forget”, and the gunner to switch to another target. Behind the head is an electronics unit with a length of 33 mm. The next compartment, 189 mm long, includes a leading charge of a cumulative warhead and a steering block with four aerodynamic rudders to control the projectile along the course, pitch and roll. Next in the compartment length 79 mm is an inertial guidance system. It is followed by the 165-mm compartment with the main charge of the cumulative warhead. In the tail section there are six stabilizers, which open up after the projectile is taken out of the barrel. The projectile is fired on a hinged trajectory, and when approaching the target it “dives” down, hitting the target from above at the most vulnerable upper surfaces of the armored vehicle.
In 2003, firing tests of preliminary versions of the projectile were conducted. But by the middle of 2007, Excalibur was still in the early stages of development and subsequently the work on this project was interrupted for financial reasons. Nevertheless, he served as a prototype for the development of the South Korean guided projectile "KSTAM-I".
South Korean KSTAM COMPLEXES
Tank-guided munitions attacking a target from above can also be attributed to the two self-guided South Korean projectiles KSTAM-I (Korean Smart Top-Attack Munition) and KSTAM-II. Both shells do not have a rocket engine, and are fired from a tank gun in the area of the enemy tank. Unlike most modern ATGMs, during the flight of which the gunner-operator must accompany the target, the KSTAM shells operate on the “shot-and-forget” principle. For firing these projectiles, a mounted trajectory is used as in howitzer artillery.
KSTAM-I, modeled on the Israeli Excalibur, is capable of hitting targets at ranges from 2 to 5 km. The projectile is made according to the aerodynamic scheme "duck", has a seeker and a tandem cumulative warhead. When firing at the maximum range, the projectile flies almost along the ballistic trajectory, reaching the maximum height of 350 m. Flying up to the target, after it is detected by the homing head, approximately 1 km to the target, the projectile makes a hill and attacks the target under the maximum angle of
The second version of the projectile - "KSTAM-H" was developed jointly with the German corporation Diehl Corporation. The basis was taken of the SMArt-155 self-targeting combat element (Suchzunder-Munition fur die Artillerie-155), housed in the same-name 155-mm cassette developed by Diehl Corporation and Rheinmetall. KSTAM-II implements the principle of “shot and forget” and can hit stationary and moving targets beyond the direct line of sight.
Compared to KSTAM-I, it has much greater capabilities. The ammunition has a millimeter-head homing head, an infrared (IR) target sensor and a warhead that forms an “impact core” located along the axis of the projectile.
The projectile does not have a rocket engine and is fired into a given area of the expected location of the targets, upon reaching which the parachutes are opened. Ammunition decreases at a speed of 13 m / s, rotating at a frequency of 3 rev / s. When it reaches a height of about 150 m, it starts scanning an area of about 35000 m2 using radar and an infrared target sensor. When a target hits the IR sensor's field of view, the warhead is undermined to form a “shock core”. The minimum range of the projectile is 2 km, the maximum is 8 km, the circular probable deviation is less than 1 m. Both the KSTAM-I and KSTAM-P projectiles can be fired from the 120 barrel of the South Korean K2 main battle tank " Black Panther ”(Black Panther). The tank, according to military experts, is considered, if not one of the best, then at least the most expensive tank in the world. Its cost is estimated at 8,5 — 8,8 million USD.
FRENCH COMPLEX "POLYNEGE"
С2002, a French company Nexter (formerly Giat Industries), under a contract with the General Directorate for Armament of France (Defense Procurements Agency - DGA), is developing a Tank-guided missile “Polynege” of caliber 120-mm, capable of being fired from the gun of the main Leclerc combat tank. The Polynege is designed in accordance with the requirements for improving the performance of the Leclerc tank in terms of firing opportunities beyond the line of sight. The target will be determined either by the crew of the vehicle, or transmitted from ground reconnaissance vehicles, or from UAVs, helicopters, and airplanes.
Projectile "Polynege" is made by the aerodynamic configuration "duck". Four rudders are located in the front, and in the tail are six large tail consoles for stabilization and planning. At the head of the projectile is a combined IR-laser hose. It is followed by the steering compartment. In the central part of the projectile is supposed to place the warhead, which forms when undermining a compact striking element - "shock core", with the warhead axis perpendicular to the rocket axis. Alternatively, conventional cumulative warheads are also considered. At the moment, the projectile layout does not include a rocket engine, but with minor design changes it can be placed in the tail section.
The shell has a mass of 20 kg and is placed in a combustible, with the exception of the igniter and the bottom of the sleeve. Weight shot 28 kg, length 984 mm. The projectile has a fairly large initial speed of 600 — 800 m / s, which provides it with a maximum range of 8 km.
There are two possible attack modes for armored targets - the direct attack mode and the off-line attack mode. In the first case, when firing at an open visible target, the projectile flies along a flat trajectory, and the guidance is carried out using an IR-GOS or a reflected laser beam using a semi-active laser seeker.
In the second case, when firing at closed positions at long ranges, the tracking system will be controlled by a satellite GPS system or an inertial guidance system, and in the final leg of the flight, guidance will also be carried out either by means of IR-GOS or by semi-active laser GOS.
The maximum launching distance in 8 km is as follows: the first 3,5 km flight goes up to 650 m, then planning to 7,5 km range to 500 m and then follows a dive and a target hit from above. In this case, it would be advisable to use a conventional tandem cumulative warhead.
Since the projectile is under development and demonstration tests, the data and guidance modes described above are not final. The presented characteristics (tabl.xnumx and tabl.xnumx) are the goals that are to be achieved rather than the results achieved.
2 table. The characteristics of the projectile "Polynege"
Shot weight, kg
Projectile weight, kg
minimum / maximum
Shot length, mm
Initial speed, m / s
Impact core / shaped charge
Laser semi-active / IR-GOS
In 2005, tests were carried out of individual elements of the projectile and the mockup of the projectile in a wind tunnel. The first demonstration firing was conducted in November 2007. The second demonstration firing in March, 2008, showed the ability of the projectile for a pre-programmed flight over a distance of more than 5 km.
In 2008, the Nexter contract with the French General Authority for Armament DGA is over. However, in December, 2008 DGA sponsored a series of additional tests for the Polynege projectile, conducted by Nexter Munitions together with TDA Armaments SAS, which develops mortar bombs, detonators and other ammunition. The purpose of these tests was to test the concept of laser-guided munitions and to evaluate the results obtained during the implementation of the Polynege project for the possible transfer of the developed technologies to the new program. In April
2009 technology developed in the Polynege project was incorporated into a new, more extensive program called Metric-Precision Munition (MRM) to develop a family of guided artillery ammunition with a modular semi-active laser homing system. The program is implemented jointly by Nexter and TDA Armaments SAS. It is assumed that the developed GOS may be built into a number of ammunition, including the 155-mm MRM guided artillery shell, similar to the US-Swedish 155-mm guided projectile Excalibur.
Demonstration tests under the MRM program are planned for 2012. Immediate efforts will be focused on the creation of 120-mm mortar mines, as well as 120-mm guided tank ammunition, which is much higher than the mine overload. Nexter assumes that as a result of the work carried out under the new program, the Polynege tank projectile will be adopted in 2015.
UKRAINIAN COMPLEX "KOMBAT" and "STUGNA"
With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the formation of a new independent state, part of the factories and technologies located in the united Soviet state turned out to be on the territory of Ukraine. This allowed her to begin the independent production, sale and improvement of tank guided missiles (TUR), developed earlier in conjunction with Russia.
The Kombat tank-guided missile was created by the State Kyiv Luch Design Bureau using a number of technical solutions borrowed from the Russian Cobra. The rocket, like its Russian counterparts, is launched from the barrel of the X-NUMX-mm tank guns of the T-125, T-72UD and T-80 Oplot tanks. A missile can be fired from a tank moving at speeds up to 84 km / h at fixed and moving at speeds up to 30 km / h objects of armored vehicles, including those equipped with dynamic protection, as well as at small targets such as DOT, DZOT, tank trenches, hovering helicopters and other targets. The maximum flight range of the rocket is 70 km. The flight time of the rocket at this range is 5 with. The total weight of the shot - 16,3 kg, length - 30,45 mm. "Combat" has four stabilizer and steering, located in the tail section, and a tandem cumulative warhead. The mass of the explosive of the main charge is 1083 kg, armor penetration 2,5 mm.
Developed export-oriented version of the rocket in caliber 120 mm for foreign tank guns. This version of the rocket has a length of 930 mm, a mass of 27 kg shot and a tandem cumulative warhead with 700 mm armor penetration.
The control system of the TURBAT "Kombat" is a tele-orientation of the rocket in a laser beam, similar to the Russian complexes "Reflex" and "Svir". As some media outlets point out, the peculiarity of the guidance and the advantage is that the laser beam does not shine on the target, but on the tail of a rocket flying above the gunner line — the goal is that, if there are laser irradiation sensors on enemy tanks, it is impossible to detect the flying missile. Only at the end of the flight path of the entire 0,3 with, the laser beam is combined with the target. But also the domestic tank complexes have such an opportunity - this is the shooting mode exceeding several meters of the flight path of a rocket above the gunner-target line.
Taking into account the constant increase in armor thickness, and the fact that the development of active defense complexes (KAZ), capable of hitting flying guided missiles, is becoming widespread abroad, the principle of attacking armored targets with attacking tanks from above is becoming more and more widespread. kernels. This principle of hitting armored targets has already been implemented in the Swedish ATGM RBS56 "VS 2", the US BGM-71F "TOW 2В", in the short-range ATGM (to 600 m) "Predator", developed for the US Marine Corps, and in some of the above foreign tank guided munitions.
Considering that the declared armor penetration of the Kombat 750 mm TUR cannot be considered satisfactory for penetrating the frontal armor of modern tanks, the specialists of the Kiev Luch design bureau proposed to equip the missile with two combat units located perpendicular to the rocket axis. This would allow her, without entering the zone of the KAZ (for example, the domestic KAZ Arena), from the height to 20 m hit the target from the top to the least protected places.
True, since, unlike foreign ATGMs, the rocket rotates, the specialists of the Luch design bureau need to resolve the issue of synchronizing the moment of detonation of combat units with the angular speed of rotation and the speed of the missile’s flight over the target, which is not such an easy task. Apparently, therefore, the combat units are invited to deploy relative to each other at 180 °. For the same reason, another option is offered - installing a warhead on bearings located on the rocket axis.
When the rocket rotates, this will make it possible for the warhead to remain almost stationary. It is believed that the use of such a development could be economically justified compared to the creation of a new complex with autonomous homing, since the modernization of the rocket is possible on the basis of the already developed and mass-produced elements and does not require significant changes to the fire control system.
The Kombat complex is produced from 1999 and, according to media reports, is exported to Pakistan and Georgia.
Before the conflict with South Ossetia in August 2008, the Combat tour of 400 was delivered to Georgia, and the next round of TOUR was delivered to 2009.
The Kiev-based Luch Design Bureau also developed an 100-mm “Stug-on” tank-guided missile (river in Ukraine). The design of the "Stugna" is very close to the Soviet complex "Kastyt", developed at the end of the 1970-s. in the Tula Instrument Design Bureau. The rocket is designed for firing from the 100-mm cannon of the T-55 tank and the MT-12 anti-tank cannon at fixed and moving armored objects that have spaced, combined or monolithic armor, including equipped with dynamic protection, as well as small targets such as DOT, tank in a trench, a hovering helicopter. At its base, shots were developed for the 100-mm guns of the BMP-3, for the 105-mm rifled guns and the 115-mm tank gun.
3 table. Performance characteristics of guided missiles (Ukraine)
The name of the complex
UR for BMP-3
Rocket caliber, mm
Rocket length, mm
Rocket weight, kg
Max, firing range, m
Flight time to max, range, s
Type of warhead
Penetration for DZ, mm
Semi-automatic, laser beam
It is impossible not to mention another development, which can be attributed to the tank-controlled ammunition. Although it is not intended to destroy tanks, but having it in a tank weapon kit would greatly facilitate the task of finding targets and firing at closed positions.
As noted earlier (see the Weapon, No.3, 2011), for firing guided missiles at targets that are out of line of sight, it is necessary to have reconnaissance and target designation equipment in front of the tank group. For this purpose it is supposed to use, first of all, UAVs or robotized ground crewless machines. For example, the US military is planning to send in front of their tank groups BLA class 1 T-Hawk or helicopter type BLA (MQ-8B Fire Scout, Fire-X or А160Т Hummingbird). However, this is not very convenient, since for this, the tank unit must be accompanied by specialists in controlling and maintaining the UAV with special equipment in a separate machine, which can reduce the autonomy and ability of the tank group to operate independently.
In order for a tank group to be able to independently identify targets beyond direct line of sight, the Italian company Oto Melara, under a contract with the Italian Ministry of Defense, developed a one-time small-sized unmanned aerial vehicle Horus, designed to launch from an 120-mm smooth-bore tank gun. Two aircraft and two ground control stations were manufactured, ready for delivery to the customer.
Italian drone is equipped with a pulling propeller driven by an electric motor. The electric motor is powered by lithium batteries. The length of the Horus is 98 cm, height - 34,6 cm, wing span 165 cm, weight - 1,3 kg. The drone body and aerodynamic surfaces are made of carbon fiberglass. The device is made by the aerodynamic scheme "duck". The controls are located on relatively small folding aerodynamic surfaces located in front of the unit. The folding wings and downward keel are located in the tail section.
The cruising speed of the Horus UAV is 21,6 km / h, and the maximum is 108 km / h. The device is capable of being in the air for about half an hour As a payload, the device is equipped with an electro-optical camera that provides continuous output of video information about the situation on the battlefield. The use of the Horus UAV will provide the tank commander with an operatively deployed independent source for obtaining intelligence information and will enable tank crews to independently gather intelligence information. However, the capabilities of the UAV are limited only by visual reconnaissance, without laser targeting, which makes it impossible to use guided munitions with a semi-active laser seeker, but does not exclude the possibility of using KSTAM-II ammunition with a self-targeting combat element.
As expected, the Italian main battle tanks С1 "Ariete" will be equipped with the first new drones. Around 200 such machines are in service with Italy. Perhaps they will also be equipped with the new development of the company Oto Melara - the armored wheeled combat vehicle CENTAURO-2 with the 120-mm smooth-bore tank gun, presented at the IDEX-2011 exhibition in Abu Dhabi, UAE. Placing an 120-mm tank gun on such a light wheeled vehicle, which allows firing from the board at a zero elevation angle of the barrel, is in itself a significant technical achievement, not to mention the possibility of launching a reconnaissance unmanned aerial vehicle from this vehicle.
Table 4. Characteristics of the UAV "Horus"
Flight time, min
Speed, km / h