In the US Army, the information space is already considered as a battlefield.
When analysts today talk about future wars, they mean clashes no longer of countries and peoples, as in former times, but of civilizations. The problem of civilizations is now so urgent that their interaction against the background of accelerating globalization processes may become an axial problem of the first half of the 21st century. And the information component of armed conflicts is increasingly coming to the fore.
Intercivilizational wars and armed conflicts are considered to be those in which one civilization or a state (coalition) representing it aims to violently destroy another, supplant its historically established culture and lifestyle, implant its own in their place.
FIGHT FOR SURVIVAL
It is believed that the current civilizations are Western, Islamic, Orthodox, Confucian-Buddhist, Hindu, Latin American, Russian, Japanese. Some scholars add to the emerging African civilization. It is believed that in the near future, the main source of conflict will be relations between the West and a number of Islamic-Confucian countries. At the same time, military force will remain the decisive means of resolving inter-civilization conflicts and interstate disputes. But not only she.
In the XXI century, humanity is forced to solve a fundamentally new and completely non-trivial task - how to survive in the conditions of the rampant elements of economic growth and a population of people.
It is already clear that the edge of the problem will focus on solving crises with food, resources, and environmental pollution. In this regard, large-scale work is underway to provide their states with new territories and sources of raw materials, which under certain conditions can turn into a war for survival.
American political scientist Zbigniew Brzezinski proposes a project that encompasses a large-scale expansion against Russia. So, he is not satisfied that Russia still remains the owner of the largest territory in the world, stretching to ten time zones and significantly surpassing American, Chinese or European. He unequivocally hints that it would be nice to limit her territorial property, since, in his opinion, the loss of territory is not the main problem for Russia. Brzezinski advises to decentralize Russia, to dismember it into three parts - European Russia, the Siberian Republic and the Far Eastern Republic. At the same time, the ideologue of American hegemony proposes to hand over the European territory of Russia, China - Siberia, Japan - the Far East, under the control of the Old World.
Another political analyst, Martin Howard, recommends that the rest of the country (including regional leaders) be accustomed to the idea that their peace and prosperity depend not on the regional balance of power, but on the peaceful and undisturbed presence of the United States, whose military resources exceed the capabilities of any of them.
Thus, it can be stated that new, more intense problems have arisen in the present world, which under certain conditions can be the cause of wars and armed conflicts. Only in modern wars, the full potential of a strike falls not on the armed forces and not on the political elite of the enemy, but on its system of command and control weapons, economic objects. At the same time, informational confrontation and ideological influence on the military-political leadership, officers, soldiers, and the population of the opposing country are increasing immeasurably. The strategy of physical destruction of the enemy is increasingly becoming of secondary importance. The idea of violating its psychological stability comes to the fore. In the course of propaganda is - the impact on the minds and feelings of warriors, the civilian population and the government of a hostile state. The effectiveness of the ideological war clearly demonstrated the collapse of the USSR, when the personnel and armament of the Soviet army remained intact, and the country was gone.
In general, as the analysis of numerous studies shows, the thesis of the prevalence of the moral and psychological factor over the physical destruction of the enemy becomes more and more common. The war, even in its traditional form, is seen by military experts not only and not so much by military clashes on the battlefield, as by complex information-technological, cognitive-psychological, virtual-real phenomenon.
According to Western experts, modern war is an information war, and it is won by one whose information systems are more perfect. “Computers are weapons, and the front line is everywhere,” writes American military analyst James Adams in his book The Next World War. The term “information war” itself appeared in the middle of the 80 of the last century in connection with the new tasks of the US armed forces after the end of the Cold War and began to be actively used after the operation “Desert Storm” in 1991. Then, for the first time, new information technologies were used as means of warfare by the multinational forces of the United States and its allies against Iraq.
In November, 1991, General Glenn Otis, the former commander of the US Army Training and Doctrine Command, published a paper that explicitly stated: “From Operation Desert Storm, many lessons can be learned. Some of them are new, others are old. One lesson, however, is truly fundamental: the nature of war has radically changed. The side that wins the information campaign will win. We have demonstrated this lesson to the whole world: information is the key to modern war in strategic, operational, tactical and technical terms. ” Shortly thereafter, the term “information war” was officially enshrined in the directive of the US Department of Defense (December 21 1992 of the year).
Currently, in the US military circles, information warfare refers to actions taken to achieve information superiority in supporting the national military strategy by influencing enemy information and information systems, while ensuring security and protecting their own similar systems.
The assessment of the main directions of such a war is confirmed by the allocation of information forms of confrontation in the programs of the National Defense University of the United States such as EW, the war with the use of intelligence, psychological and cybernetic, the fight against hackers.
Exploring information wars, American analysts introduce the concept of "information superiority" - the ability to collect, process and distribute a continuous flow of information while prohibiting its adversary from using (receiving). Americans, in their conception, raise the question of strengthening the work of integrating information operations into an independent type of combat, along with other operations of the armed forces (from physical elimination to psychological operations against computer network protection systems). In this context, the problem of assessing the military damage inflicted on the enemy by such operations is considered separately. Moreover, assessing them as a promising independent type of combat (due to which the Pentagon hopes to achieve decisive results in the future), the command of the US Armed Forces assumes the introduction of appropriate formations into the armed forces staffed with specialists who have received special training and equipped with modern information weapons.
Information weapons are means of destroying, distorting or stealing information files, extracting necessary information from them after overcoming protection systems, restricting or preventing access to them by legitimate users, disrupting the operation of technical equipment, disabling telecommunication networks, computer systems, and all high-tech tools. social life and the functioning of the state. It is especially dangerous for computer systems of state authorities, command and control of troops and weapons, finance and banks, the economy of the country, as well as for people with information-psychological (psychophysical) influence on them in order to change and control their individual and collective behavior.
Information weapons can be used to initiate large-scale man-made disasters on the territory of the enemy as a result of a violation of the regular management of technological processes and objects dealing with a large number of hazardous substances and a high concentration of energy. At the same time, in its effectiveness it is comparable to OMP.
In 1995 – 1996, high-tech warfare was tested in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In particular, the Predator unmanned reconnaissance vehicles provided information about the location of hostilities in real time, up to and including the actions of an individual soldier. As a result of its computer processing, an exact image of the battlefield was obtained, and instructions were given to destroy the identified targets.
In October, the 1998 of the United States Armed Forces launched the Unified Doctrine of Information Operations, which is a concentrated presentation of the views of the US military leadership on the nature, organization of the impact on the information resources of the enemy and the protection of their own resources from similar influences. As stated in the foreword of the doctrine: "The ability of the US military to preempt or prevent crises and conflicts in peacetime and to win in wartime depends crucially on the effectiveness of information operations at all levels of war and across the entire spectrum of hostilities." It is natural that information technologies were practiced during the NATO aggression in Yugoslavia in the 1999 year.
Defining the features of the information war, US government security expert Richard A. Clark introduces the concept of "cyber war": "These are actions of one nation state with penetration into computers or networks of another nation state to achieve the goals of damage or destruction." The American magazine The Economist describes cyberwar as the fifth war area after earth, sea, air, and space. The importance of readiness to conduct cyber warfare is evidenced by the fact that a whole military unit has been created in the US - the US cyber command.
With the onset of cyberwar, hacker attacks on computer systems and servers of command and control centers, government agencies, financial and business centers will be launched first. This attack will be supported by the activation of computer viruses, primarily “Trojan horses”, “embedded” in the enemy's computer in peacetime. In addition, it is supposed to use special devices that, during an explosion, create a powerful electromagnetic pulse or biological means, like special types of microbes, capable of destroying electronic circuits and insulating materials in computers.
Information sabotage will be conducted with the purpose of unauthorized access to databases, violation of communication lines, theft and copying of information, its concealment and distortion. The effectiveness of hacker attacks showed a case that occurred in the US in 1988 year. Then an American student R. Morris “launched” a virus through the Internet, which for three days (from 2 to 4 in November 1988 of the year) disabled virtually the entire US computer network. The computers of the National Security Agency, the US Air Force Strategic Command, local networks of all major universities and research centers were paralyzed. The damage was estimated at more than 100 million.
The practice of today shows that only one video posted on YouTube can cause riots around the world. And what will happen if there are hundreds, thousands of such videos? They are capable of provoking not only a civil war inside the country, but also cause a world fire. According to Major General Alexander Vladimirov: “Modern wars are fought on the level of consciousness and ideas, and only there and in this way are the most complete victories achieved. The war is being waged by new operational tools that look like modern geopolitical technologies that are informational. ”
And in the opinion of Major General Vladimir Slipchenko: “Possession of information resources in future wars becomes an indispensable attribute, as in past wars, the defeat of the enemy's armed forces, the seizure of its territory, the destruction of its economic potential and the overthrow of the political system.”
FOR WHOM IS THE EXCELLENCE
It is already clear that the information confrontation is the factor that has a significant impact on the very war of the future. The states will solve all their problems not with the help of groupings of troops on the basis of manpower, but with the use of weapons on new physical principles and gaining information superiority.
In an armed struggle, a future victory can be achieved through an information operation, as a result of which the economic potential of the enemy will be destroyed. In the conditions of a destroyed economy, the armed forces are doomed, first, to lose their combat capability, and then to complete collapse. In such circumstances, the political system will inevitably collapse.
This was the case during the armed conflict in Libya in 2011, when the coalition forces of NATO blocked the network information resources of the government of Muammar Gaddafi and exercised control over the Internet-controlled life-support infrastructure and the country's banking system.
Understanding the importance of informational confrontation, the US administration created cyber command back in June 2009, which was responsible for the security of Defense Networks, conducting computer intelligence, preventing cyber attacks on America, and preemptive attacks on opponents preparing such actions. At present, the 24 th cybernetic army of the Air Force and the 10 th Navy cyber fleet have been formed. About 10, thousands of cybersecurity experts work at the Center for Strategic and International Studies as part of the US Cyber Challenge program. In addition to the United States, about 100 countries of the world also have units in the armed forces for conducting operations in cyberspace.
Considering all the danger and seriousness of the computer confrontation in the future war, the new leadership of the Russian Defense Ministry today, as part of the ongoing military reform, needs to start creating an independent branch of service in the Russian Armed Forces - Cyber Troops, whose main task will be to conduct cybernetic operations and gain information superiority.