Military Review

Unknown War of Unknown Heroes

32
Unknown War of Unknown Heroes

On the construction of the Russian road were involved from 10 to 12 thousands of prisoners of war from the Russian Empire. Photo courtesy of the author



For the first world war 1914 – 1918 the name of “imperialistic” or “Germanic” was fixed by the Soviet historians. But, right up to the October events of 1917, it was called “the Great” and “The Second Patriotic” (the first one in the 1812 year). In today's Russia, it largely continues to be an “unknown” war. What is not surprising: any memory of her was carefully washed out from the pages of textbooks stories, and its material evidence in the form of Russian military graves were mercilessly ruined (as, for example, the cemetery of the St. George Cavaliers at Sokol in Moscow) or disappeared, falling into disrepair. The only exception is probably some of the burial places in the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation - the former territory of East Prussia, and Russian memorials in the territory of foreign countries: Poland, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Romania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, France, Greece, Serbia, Slovenia, etc. It is not surprising, therefore, that the interpretation of the First World War, which was shameful and inglorious as war, continues to dominate: as if there was no victorious Galician battle (1914), unprecedented in its heroism of defense of the fortress Osovets (1914 – 1915), the Erzurum battle and the capture of Trapezund (1916) ... The only deviation from the general rule is the Brusilov breakthrough (1916) mentioned in the Soviet historiography.

On the eve of the approaching 100 anniversary of the outbreak of World War I, it is necessary to pay tribute to the memory of 1 million 300 thousand of our compatriots killed on the battlefields, 4 million 200 thousand wounded (of which 350 thousand died of wounds), 2 million 417 thousand, past the horrors of captivity, about 500 thousand. Missing.

Paradoxically, in some foreign countries, in particular, in small Slovenia, the memory of the Russian victims of the First World War has not only been carefully preserved for a century, but in recent years it has also prompted the Russian side to take part in this important matter. Every year on the last Sunday of July, near the Slovenian town of Kranjska Gora, a ceremony is held to commemorate Russian soldiers who died in Austrian captivity in the 1915 – 1917 years. The 2013 year was not an exception - in 21 the first time the official Russian delegation consisting of representatives of the parliament and the government, the Russian embassy in Slovenia honored the memory of compatriots. The Slovenian side was represented at the highest level - the ceremony was attended by the President of the Republic of Slovenia Borut Pahor and the Prime Minister Alenka Bratushek.

Traditionally, wreaths were laid to the obelisk at the mass grave of more than 300 unnamed Russian prisoners of war. Traditionally, hundreds of local residents, as well as the descendants of the first wave of Russian émigrés, came here at the call of their hearts. Traditionally, words of grief about unknown victims of World War I and expressing gratitude to the Slovenian side for preserving their memory sounded. It did not speak of this solely protocol for the Russian side, the ceremony only about the origins of the tradition, the participants of its origin were not mentioned, not a single name of the Russian prisoner of war, whose remains are buried under a monument erected and lovingly preserved by Slovenes.

RUSSIAN ROAD

According to the research of the University of Ljubljana’s Calls Zupanich-Slavec, the first Russian prisoners of war in Kranjska Gora appeared in the 1914 year - 25 Siberians, who were used primarily for household work. However, since the summer of 1915, the situation has changed. After Italy went over to the side of the Entente and declared 23 to it on May 1915 of the war of Austria-Hungary in the valley of the river Soča (Italian name Isonzo - mentioned in E. Hemingway’s novel “Goodbye weapon! ”), The so-called Soshsky Front unfolded, during which, in the period of May 1915-th to December 1917, the 12 battles took place, which ended with the defeat of the Italian troops. In this connection, large groups of Russian prisoners of war — soldiers of various nationalities: Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Tatars, Georgians, Jews, and even Volga Germans — began to be brought to Kranjska Gora by rail. All of them are usually, without distinction, called "Russians" and used their work in the construction of a strategically important highway through the high-mountain pass Vršić (1611 meters).

According to various estimates, thousands of Russian prisoners of war were involved in construction from 10 to 12. In inhuman conditions - many hours of hard physical labor, life in poorly heated barracks with poor feeding and illnesses - by October 1915, they had completed the construction of the 30-kilometer-long stretch of road leading to the front, but continued to work on supporting walls, drains and clearing roads from snow drifts. On it immediately began to transport a variety of military cargo and the transfer of troops. In parallel, the labor of prisoners of war was used for the construction of the cable car. Not only hunger, cold and diseases took their lives, but also many accidents and accidents at construction, during blasting and other types of hard work. Often prisoners of war buried their dead comrades along the road, denoting the burial with short-lived wooden crosses.

The real tragedy happened 8 March 1916, when a huge snow avalanche suddenly fell from the southern slope of the Moistrovka and Robichya mountains - tons of wet, heavy snow with tremendous force fell on the anti-avalanche shields, which, unable to withstand the onslaught, collapsed, crushing all the inhabitants of the building hulls - workers of the northern camp. Among them were Russian prisoners of war and their Austrian guards. The second time the avalanche collapsed on Sunday 12 March. Rescue work was not carried out because of the continued avalanche danger and the refusal of prisoners of war of the southern camp to senselessly risk their lives. Because of the martial law, the data on the victims were classified, so the record of their number was most likely made according to rumors and assumptions. The researchers of this catastrophe claim that the number of victims was 200 – 300 people, whereas the residents of Kranjska Gora consider that there were at least 600 people. The author of the monograph “Borovshka Village” View Cherne believes that information taken from the chronicles of the local church, which deals with 272 victims, can be considered the most reliable. When the snow melted, the dead were transported to various cemeteries, most of all to Kranjska Gora, to a mass grave, to the place where the Russian chapel was later placed, to the military cemetery in Trent, some were buried in separate graves right on the slopes.

12 May 1917, an avalanche struck the southern camp, then 30 Russian prisoners of war and 6 Austrian soldiers guarding them died. Despite the tragic incidents, Russian prisoners of war had to work further: the entire 1916 year and until the beginning of October 1917, construction work was carried out, as well as the maintenance of the road in difficult climatic conditions of the high mountains.

RUSSIAN CHAPEL

On the initiative and voluntary decision of Russian prisoners of war, in memory of the dead comrades by the road, on the site where the hospital hut stood (at the current 8 turn of the road to Vršić) and was located one of the burial places of those killed under the avalanche of their comrades, an Orthodox Holy -Vladimir chapel with two Russian dome bulbs. A single group photograph of 1916 or 1917 was preserved, in which Russian prisoners of war and their Austrian guards gathered at the chapel. In 1937, the 68 remains of Russian prisoners of war from the soldiers' cemetery in Kranjska Gora were reburied in a mass grave at the Russian chapel, and then the builder Josip Slavec put a stone obelisk with the inscription “To the Sons of Russia” at the grave. The remains of Russian prisoners of war, found during the reconstruction of the Vršić road, were buried there. Thus, the chapel became a monument to all Russian prisoners of war who died during the construction of the road in 1915 – 1917.

The total number of victims is estimated at about one thousand. After the end of the First World War, part of the Russian soldiers did not want to return to the Russia devastated by the revolution and the Civil War and remained in Yugoslavia. With their participation and thanks to the efforts of the local community of Kranjska Gora, which in 1912 – 1936 was run by Mayor Iosif Laftijar, the last refuge of the dead Slavic brothers became the subject of constant care. And starting from 1921, Russian White-Immigrants from all over Yugoslavia, together with their families, began to gather annually in Kranjska Gora and make foot pilgrimages along the “Russian road”. Church ceremonies were held near the chapel, which were usually timed to the day of St. Vladimir, on the last Sunday of July. The chapel became for them a symbol of abandoned Russia.

This tradition continues today: the descendants of Russian emigrants are indispensable participants in annual ceremonies. Anyuta Bubnova-Shkoberne, a professor at the Law Faculty of Ljubljana University, recalls how she was still an 8-year-old girl in 1952 with her father, a well-known Yugoslav engineer-seismologist Sergei Bubnov, and his grandfather, rear-admiral of Russia fleet Alexander Bubnov (1883–1963) began participating in the annual pilgrimages to the Russian Chapel. The service was first conducted by priests of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia from Belgrade and Zagreb, and in the 1970s and 1980s themselves were descendants of Russian emigrants with the participation of local Catholic priests. In the early 1990s, thanks to the efforts of the first Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Russia to Slovenia (1994–1997) Alexei Nikiforov, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Slovenia to the Russian Federation (1993–1996) Sasha Gerzhin and Permanent Representative of the Republic of Slovenia to the UN European Office (1992 –1997) Anton Bebler, members of the Slovenia-Russia society, officials from Russia and Slovenia, representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church began to take part in the Day of Remembrance of Russian Soldiers. In 2006, in connection with the 90th anniversary of the tragedy at the Vrsic Pass, the Russian chapel was fundamentally restored, and the section of the road from Kranjska Gora to the Vrsic Pass received the official name “Russian”.

DEAD SHADOWS ARE NOT IMMUT

At the 2013 ceremony of the year, as in the previous two decades, members of the Russian delegation gave correct speeches about Russian-Slovenian friendship, thanked the Slovenian side for contributing to the perpetuation of the memory of compatriots, expressed hope that the 100 anniversary of the Vrshicha tragedy should be commemorated Interstate Summit. Only here, nothing was said about specific steps to perpetuate this very memory, and nothing seems to be done except protocol events. For many years, Slovenian local historians have been trying to restore the names of Russian soldiers who died while building the road, but the doors of the state-run Vienna archives remain closed for them (the 100-year ban may be lifted just before the anniversary). To open them already now is possible only with the efforts of statesmen who make protocol trips to the picturesque burial places of compatriots.

Apparently, the Russian side highly appreciates the contribution of the community and administration of Kranjska Gora to preserving the memory of the Russian victims of the First World War 1914 – 1918. This can be confirmed by the fact that during the celebrations the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Russia in the Republic of Slovenia Doku Zavgayev conveyed to the mayor of the alpine town Jura Zherjava gratitude of the President of the Russian Federation “For his great contribution to the perpetuation of the memory of Soviet soldiers who died fighting against fascism in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia "(INFORMATION: on the territory of Slovenia there are more than 50 tombs of Soviet soldiers and prisoners of war who participated in the partisan movement in 1941 – 1945 years, but none of them are present in the territory of the municipality of Kranj Ska Gora). Are we still ashamed of the victims of the “imperialist” war, or is it unworthy of our gratitude to preserve precisely their memory?

Only in Austrian captivity was 917 thousand Russian prisoners of war, of whom more than 27 thousand found the last refuge in a foreign land (including about 10 thousand in Slovenia), the vast majority of their graves are nameless. The best memory of them is not the planned construction in Russia of the pompous monument “To the Unknown Soldier of the First World War”, but the appearance of their restored names on the obelisks. Anniversary celebrations on the occasion of the 100 anniversary of the First World War will be heard, and she risks remaining “unknown”, as the names of hundreds of thousands of Russian soldiers who fell on the battlefield and in captivity remain unknown.
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  1. 0255
    0255 24 September 2013 10: 43 New
    +5
    It is bad that we do not know about the First World War. There is little information about her even now.
    1. Gomunkul
      Gomunkul 24 September 2013 11: 10 New
      +6
      It’s bad that we don’t know about the First World War
      I agree. Worse, we generally do not know our story well! hi
    2. Avenger711
      Avenger711 24 September 2013 12: 36 New
      +2
      I am afraid that there will not be many pleasant things for national self-awareness. The heroism of individual fighters is completely blocked by the total lack of everything and everything to one rifle for three.
      1. 0255
        0255 24 September 2013 14: 10 New
        +1
        I am afraid that there will not be many pleasant things for national self-awareness. The heroism of individual fighters is completely blocked by the total lack of everything and everything to one rifle for three.

        at the beginning of the Second World War, they also issued one rifle for several people, there were almost no machine guns, there were few KV and T-34 tanks, the I-15 and I-16 fighters could not fight on equal terms with the Messers. And nevertheless, the USSR won. So how the WW1 could have ended without the revolutions of 1917 is unknown
        1. Doctorleg
          Doctorleg 24 September 2013 16: 29 New
          +5
          How it would end is understandable. The victory of the Entente. Only faster. Well, Russia would have raped something. And Poland would remain Russian with Finland.
        2. OffenroR
          OffenroR 24 September 2013 19: 57 New
          +1
          Quote: 0255
          I am afraid that there will not be many pleasant things for national self-awareness. The heroism of individual fighters is completely blocked by the total lack of everything and everything to one rifle for three.

          at the beginning of the Second World War, they also issued one rifle for several people, there were almost no machine guns, there were few KV and T-34 tanks, the I-15 and I-16 fighters could not fight on equal terms with the Messers. And nevertheless, the USSR won. So how the WW1 could have ended without the revolutions of 1917 is unknown

          Again .... "KV and T-34 were few" ..... 11000 units of equipment in the western direction .... Bt-shki and T-26 could easily cope with T-1 and T-2 and even with T-3 ... and the T-4 was no more than 850 (while in the Red Army there are more than 1400 T-34s) ... The Germans were not such squishies as they are presented in the films (they behave like prisoners there, and that's all) In one battle, in 13 minutes of carnage after the battle on the KV-1, 132 hits were counted .... this proves that Russian tanks were too tough for many German guns .... but it also proves the high training and extensive experience of German shooters. PS The Russian Imperial Army was thrown back far from its borders ... by some part of the German troops ... if in the east they would have undertaken an offensive that was in the west in 1918 (they made a gap of 50 km, despite the fact that the numerical superiority was was not on their side) ... the Germans would have reached Moscow ... It's strange ... why the Germans fought so fiercely in a foreign land?
          1. Dovmont
            Dovmont 24 September 2013 21: 02 New
            +2
            Quote: OffenroR
            The Russian Imperial Army was driven back far from its borders ... by some part of the German troops ...

            Not so far she was thrown back from her borders. Moreover, Russia also fought on 2 fronts (in Transcaucasia) It was thanks to the Russian army that Austria-Hungary was on the verge of collapse by the 17th year.
            1. OffenroR
              OffenroR 25 September 2013 18: 11 New
              +2
              Quote: Dovmont
              Quote: OffenroR
              The Russian Imperial Army was driven back far from its borders ... by some part of the German troops ...

              Not so far she was thrown back from her borders. Moreover, Russia also fought on 2 fronts (in Transcaucasia) It was thanks to the Russian army that Austria-Hungary was on the verge of collapse by the 17th year.

              I will not argue, it is a fact that the Russian army gave the brains of Austria-Venria as it should ... But .... who served in this army ?? The Austrians there were only about 12-15 percent ..... the rest are Hungarians, Croats, Czechs, Slovaks, Romanians .... with the exception of Hungarians, all the other fig fighters. Especially Romanians and Czechs ... But unfortunately this did not work with the German army ....
            2. jasper
              jasper 26 September 2013 18: 17 New
              0
              and in the 2nd Reich, famine had begun by that time, RIA was just enough to stand on their own positions, so that in 18 in Versailles to be at the winners table. Few people remember that the same Kerensky was the same leftist as Lenin, the SSR, and it was he who legalized the decree of the St. Petersburg Council on the abolition of unity of command in the army
          2. Trapperxnumx
            Trapperxnumx 25 September 2013 09: 12 New
            0
            Quote: OffenroR
            PS The Russian Imperial Army was driven back far from its borders ... by some part of the German troops .... if they would launch an offensive in the east like in the west of 1918 (they made a breach in 50 km, while the numerical superiority was was not on their side) ... the Germans would have reached Moscow ... It is strange .... why did the Germans fight so fiercely on a foreign land?

            An illustrative example of anti-Russian agitation. I can't rate your post otherwise. As a result, one gets the impression that "some small part of the German troops, who were simply bored of sitting in the trenches, decided to walk in the direction of Minsk, the cowardly Russians immediately ran away."
            So, 1915, in the West. the front was calm, which made it possible for Germany and AB to transfer troops to the East. front and launch an offensive. From the troops transferred from France, Germany formed the 11th Army in Poland. What is the result of this offensive? A whole year of fighting, the systematic retreat of the Russian troops, Minsk and Riga remained with us. I will repeat all this - with complete inaction on the part of the so-called. "allies". In December, the Russian army launched a counteroffensive against AB.
            At the same time, do not forget that the attacker always has the advantage of the "first strike" - he himself chooses where, when and with what forces. The Germans took advantage of this, gathering superior forces in the infantry and simply crushing forces in the artillery in important areas. Even experiencing a supply crisis, the Russian Imperial Army did not flee, launched counter-attacks (a counterattack in the Pshasnysh area, led to the withdrawal of the Germans to the pre-war border of East Prussia) and retreated in perfect order according to the developed plans. So there is no need to "la-la", they would not have reached Moscow, even if they could not take Minsk and Riga with, I repeat, the complete inaction of Zap. front.
            1. Doctorleg
              Doctorleg 25 September 2013 12: 10 New
              0
              This is an old myth about the inaction of the Western Front. There were several attacks with huge losses of hundreds of thousands of people. Another thing is that all these offensives did not lead to anything - the front remained in its place. In addition, the French spring offensive is considered the first coordinated offensive to divert the Germans from Russia (sort of like an offensive under Artois).
              And in general - if ours are inactive - it’s right, you don’t need to shed blood for the West. If the West stands, then they leave on our shoulders. what However, the war was general, everyone started it himself (we all stood up for Serbia, not France) and the losses were equal (not to mention that we had less relative losses)
              1. OffenroR
                OffenroR 27 September 2013 11: 58 New
                +1
                So it is .. for example, the Battle of the Somme ... The Entente organized a major offensive against the Germans ..... so what? The losses of the Germans ranged from 300000 to 450000 thousand. The losses of the British and French were 720000 thousand: the result was only 5 km deep, 50 km along the front. Was it worth it? Another thing is the Germans ... 1918 ... "broken and demoralized" they are in conditions of complete superiority of the enemy in numbers, they guided a nix and broke through the Entente's defenses 50 km in depth and 120 km along the front (all these "km" are continuous trenches and firing points + the Entente had 6000 tanks, the Germans had 20 (and they did not use them)) The "defeat" of the Kaiser's Army is just fine words .... The Germans signed a peace treaty (and not surrender) because of the difficult situation in the rear ... the people already began to die of hunger. + more than 20 fresh American divisions, about 17000 each ( in French it barely reached 9000) did not leave them a chance to win.
            2. OffenroR
              OffenroR 25 September 2013 18: 17 New
              +2
              Not something of Atnirussian ... I at least not Russian myself, but I respect Russian for their qualities ... And what is the result of this counter-offensive of the Russian Army? The losses amounted to 1 million people ... if not more ... and even with that the army was able to organize to retreat ... without panic. If the French were in such a situation, they would have drapped to Spain))
          3. jasper
            jasper 26 September 2013 18: 14 New
            0
            not tanks are at war, units and formations are at war
      2. Trapperxnumx
        Trapperxnumx 24 September 2013 16: 57 New
        +5
        Quote: Avenger711
        I am afraid that there will not be many pleasant things for national self-awareness. The heroism of individual fighters is completely blocked by the total lack of everything and everything to one rifle for three.

        You probably wanted to say the heroism of several MILLION fighters? I personally have nothing to be ashamed of that war, the Russian army honestly fulfilled its duty, maybe sometimes it incurred a little more losses than the enemy, and that only on the German front. I am ashamed not for the war and not for the soldiers, ashamed for our intelligentsia, for the sake of some mythical illusions that betrayed their country and plunged it into the chaos of the Civil War. It was only thanks to them that it became possible for Mr. Bronstein to come to power and his quote:
        “... We must turn Russia into a desert inhabited by white Negroes, to whom we will give such a tyranny that has never been dreamed of by the most terrible despots of the East. The only difference is that this tyranny will not be on the right, but on the left, and not white, but red, for we will shed such streams of blood before which all human losses of capitalist wars shudder and turn pale. ”
        Leon Trotsky (Bronstein)
        1. Heccrbq .2
          Heccrbq .2 24 September 2013 20: 34 New
          0
          Read "Memories of War" and "Vanka Company" you will learn a lot. Everything is on the net
    3. jasper
      jasper 26 September 2013 18: 14 New
      0
      Second World War, Betrayed by the Bolshevik coup!
      it’s as if in 1944, the uninhabited Trotskyists staged a coup, and then Vlasov would come to power on Hitler’s money
  2. South
    South 24 September 2013 11: 00 New
    +2
    And worst of all - that there is absolutely no interest in her. Even there are almost no comments here - no one has read ...
    1. Standard Oil
      Standard Oil 24 September 2013 11: 14 New
      +5
      Everything is very simple, after 91 years, so much shit was poured on the head of simple ice that it would last for several generations, and how did the First World War end? Shame and the same bunch of shit on your head, plus the hoas in the country and all the charms of the civil war, who wants to remember this? The outcome of the First World completely overturned everything that was done by people for the sake of victory. In short, people do not want to read a book with a bad ending.
      1. Gato
        Gato 24 September 2013 11: 37 New
        +2
        Quote: Standard Oil
        It's very simple, after 91 years, so much shit was poured on the head of simple ice that it’s enough for several generations,

        And not only this.
        A detailed analysis and analysis of the events of the 1st MV was also inconvenient for Soviet historians. Otherwise, it would have turned out that Russia emerged from the war through the fault of the Bolsheviks, when practically no one had any doubts about the victory of the Entente. Moreover, Russia could no longer be especially active, spilling blood for the Western allies, but simply passively hold the Western Front.
        Well, roughly speaking, it is as if the USSR had concluded a separate peace with Germany in 1944 and would have given it its part of Poland, the Baltic states and Ukraine.
        1. dmb
          dmb 24 September 2013 12: 36 New
          +4
          I wonder why this detailed analysis was inconvenient for Soviet historians? The Soviet government gave its assessment of the "imperialist" war, and what would Soviet historians dig up, what would make it "patriotic"? With Napoleon and Hitler, it is clear, here doubts about the name of the war, if any, arise, then only Rezun and Solonin. But what were the goals of this war? It began with the East Prussian operation, i.e. from the entry of our troops into foreign territory. Well, that's half the trouble. For military reasons, it can and is correct. But in whose interests? It seems to me that the Ryazan and Tambov peasants, as well as the metal workers of the Obukhov and Tagil factories, did not need either the Bosphorus with the Dardanelles or Poland much. It is generally ridiculous to consider the latter as primordially Russian lands. As a consequence of this disinterest and the lack of understandable for the people of the goals of the war, and led to the revolution. However, all that has been said does not at all detract from the heroism of our people shown in this war.
          1. Gomunkul
            Gomunkul 24 September 2013 15: 14 New
            +1
            I wonder why this detailed analysis was inconvenient for Soviet historians.
            In my opinion, it smacked of outright betrayal of the interests of his country. That is why this war was declared imperialistic and forgotten. It’s annoying that the cunning Anglo-Saxons always used a trump card (Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits) to involve Russia in any war that was beneficial to them.
            hi
        2. Avenger711
          Avenger711 24 September 2013 12: 44 New
          +1
          So you already write about what you have no idea. In 1918, the German army continued to tear the Entente, and the ending was very sudden. But in hindsight, everyone is strong, and the Bolsheviks later condemned the way out of the war, but in 1917/18 the objective possibility of waging a war was already absent. The army itself saw it in a coffin, and over the months of the interim government’s sitting it became uncontrollable.

          The USSR was the main participant in the war; in WWI, France was mainly dragging it. The collapse of everything in conditions when only 30% of the enemy’s forces were against Russia only emphasized the catastrophic state of affairs.
          1. Gomunkul
            Gomunkul 24 September 2013 15: 21 New
            +3
            in WWI France was mainly dragging
            Here I do not agree with you, if France could pull everything out on itself, then the involvement of Russia in the Allied allies would not be. Here was precisely the idea to shift the whole burden of the war to Russia. hi
            1. Doctorleg
              Doctorleg 24 September 2013 16: 44 New
              0
              Well, probably everyone is happy to shift. And if 30% fought against us, then everything is fair. Each 30% (the US entered the war later)
          2. Trapperxnumx
            Trapperxnumx 24 September 2013 17: 03 New
            0
            Quote: Avenger711
            in WWI, France was mainly dragging. The collapse of everything in conditions when only 30% of the enemy’s forces were against Russia only emphasized the catastrophic state of affairs.

            Have Austria-Hungary and Turkey been counted? They had no other fronts. Well, in the 15 year, the Italian still, against which probably also 70% of AB troops fought?
          3. Nagaibak
            Nagaibak 24 September 2013 18: 59 New
            +1
            Avenger711 "The USSR was the main participant in the War, in WWI it was mainly France that was dragging. The collapse of all in conditions when only 30% of the enemy forces were against Russia only underlines the catastrophic state of affairs."
            As it is, everything with your numbers is not ale ... In your opinion, 30%, in your opinion, includes, apart from German troops, also Austria-Vegria, Turkey. And the French fought only with Germany, and they have 70%? Or did the numbers change during the war?
          4. jasper
            jasper 26 September 2013 18: 19 New
            0
            But did the agents of the German General Staff themselves create the conditions and destroy the Russian Army? laying it out?
        3. 4952915
          4952915 24 September 2013 19: 04 New
          0
          Absolutely not. The Bolsheviks have nothing to do with it. The collapse of the army was carried out by the liberals in general and A.F. Kerensky in particular. The Bolsheviks got the army, which was already half scattered. (by the way, one of the reasons for the Brest Peace is that the army has already disbanded itself). From the beginning of 1916, the army of Ingushetia no longer "acted" - Brusilov, on his own initiative, defeated the Austrians and that was all. The Germans threw almost all their troops to the West, ours did not climb on the rampage, and stood there. By the way, the famous "overcoming the shell hunger" is caused by this - there were practically no battles. The Russian army did not hold the front, but simply stood on the front line in front of many times smaller German troops. IMHO, rightly not rock the boat - even for the Anglo-French there was not enough blood to shed, little, perhaps, defeat in 1914.
          So your comparison with the USSR in 1944 is incorrect.
          1. jasper
            jasper 26 September 2013 18: 21 New
            0
            that is, you say that the Petrograd Council in which the Bolsheviks were sitting was not the initiator of the abolition of unity of command in the army ???? how is Trotsky ....?
  3. Gato
    Gato 24 September 2013 11: 11 New
    +4
    The only deviation from the general rule is the Brusilovsky breakthrough (1916), mentioned in Soviet historiography.

    And this is only because the outstanding Russian general A.A. Brusilov served in the Red Army. Alexey Alekseevich died in 1926 and is buried with all military honors. Around the same time, the publication of the Soviet military encyclopedia (1929) was being prepared, where the mention of the Brusilovsky breakthrough simply could not help but get into.
    Since A.A. Brusilov could not get under repression in any way, articles on him remained in further editions of the SVE and could not be ignored by historians.
    1. jasper
      jasper 26 September 2013 18: 24 New
      0
      would you read his memories of how he bonded the Bolsheviks laughing
  4. Avenger711
    Avenger711 24 September 2013 12: 45 New
    -2
    You would say about the domestic soldiers then, I would see how they shot you. Russia in fact lost it in the lightest of conditions.
  5. Rusi dolaze
    Rusi dolaze 24 September 2013 14: 26 New
    0
    So that's where Zavgaev stumbled! We will know.
  6. 020205
    020205 24 September 2013 14: 56 New
    +4
    we lost this war because of the revolution, just like the Russo-Japanese war because of the 1905 revolution, we lost because of internal traitors, as Churchill said Russia had a terrible fate holding victory in her hands she missed it
  7. Dimon-chik-79
    Dimon-chik-79 24 September 2013 16: 07 New
    +2
    Special thanks to England and especially to Nicholas 2 for the destruction of Russia and the extermination of its population at the beginning of the twentieth century in the Russian-Japanese, 1 world (still rather "imperialist"), which eventually grew into a civil war in our country. Why did the Russian Empire need to get involved in these European showdowns again ?! This adventure of Nicholas 2 for Russia turned out to be a mega disaster! Don't go into this European cauldron!
    Every time Russia opens the "Petrovskaya" window, it blows our country wildly (they have not cleared their throat from the 90s). Trade, please, but not more, it is fraught
    1. Doctorleg
      Doctorleg 24 September 2013 17: 43 New
      0
      The reason for Russia's entry into the war was an ultimatum, and then the attack of Austria-Hungary on Serbia. And only then Germany declared war on Russia as an ally of Austria
      1. creak
        creak 24 September 2013 18: 46 New
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        Russ69.

        I could recommend a serious study by N.N. Golovin dedicated to the history of WWI. Golovin, who began his service as a cornet and finished it as a lieutenant general, is the author of the book: "Russia in the First World War", the publishing house "Veche" 2006, containing rich factual material ... And N.E. Golovin himself is a rather interesting person about whom Little is known of us, though I don’t know where to look for it in electronic form - maybe on Militteter ...
    2. jasper
      jasper 26 September 2013 18: 25 New
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      Ie German agents Bolsheviks are not necessary?
  8. Russ69
    Russ69 24 September 2013 17: 34 New
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    I honestly have not seen a single normal book completely devoted to the 1st World War. All the individual pieces, as it comes across.
    Maybe someone will advise ..?
    1. creak
      creak 24 September 2013 18: 55 New
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      See above - Ranger.
    2. 4952915
      4952915 24 September 2013 19: 09 New
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      In my opinion, last year I read Professor Utkin - "The First World War" - quite a good work. free and without registration for a royallieb.
  9. 020205
    020205 24 September 2013 18: 18 New
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    Quote: Dimon-chik-79
    Special thanks to England and especially to Nicholas 2 for the destruction of Russia and the extermination of its population at the beginning of the twentieth century in the Russian-Japanese, 1 world (still rather "imperialist"), which eventually grew into a civil war in our country. Why did the Russian Empire need to get involved in these European showdowns again ?! This adventure of Nicholas 2 for Russia turned out to be a mega disaster! Don't go into this European cauldron!
    Every time Russia opens the "Petrovskaya" window, it blows our country wildly (they have not cleared their throat from the 90s). Trade, please, but not more, it is fraught

    I would say a special thank you to Germany, whose money was used to finance the whole revolution, just as the 1905 revolution was financed by Japanese money, there is nothing to blame for Nikolai, he was held hostage to the then bourgeoisie and intelligentsia who wanted to live in a Western manner without a monarchy, unless that because he showed excessive philanthropy and did not erase the then revolucionists and their families in the dust of the camp ...
  10. yastr
    yastr 25 September 2013 13: 31 New
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    There is a good cycle of documentaries "The Great and Forgotten" (about 18 episodes), where the prerequisites and the course of hostilities are considered. I recommend to those interested.