In 1926, the submarine cruiser project was launched. The first was the submarine type "D" - "Decembrist." However, this project was not accepted due to the low surface speed of the course - 15 nodes. The next project of submarine cruisers in this class of steel series submarine type "P" series IV - "Truth". The surface speed was brought to 20 nodes, but the dive time increased, and underwater maneuverability deteriorated.
"Decembrist" in Belomorkanal. Transition to the Northern Fleet, 1933 year
Submarine P-3 in Leningrad. 1940 year
The concept of a cruising boat was finally formed in 1930 — 1932. According to the operational-tactical mission, presented in 1934, the new submarine had to:
- to attack the forces of the assault force and the warships of the enemy when operating alone, in groups or together with surface ships;
- act in remote areas on communications;
- carry positional and intelligence services;
- conduct sabotage operations;
- be able to attack torpedo weapons and put up minefields.
To perform these operations, strong artillery weapons (2 guns of 102 caliber mm), 8 torpedo tubes, 12000 miles sailing range and 45 autonomy for 24 days at surface speed up to 12 nodes were provided.
In 1935, M.A. Rudnitsky, head of the submarine shipbuilding department at NIVK, offered his own version of this submarine “KR” (“Cruiser Rudnitsky”). In his designs, Rudnitsky based on the experience of creating the Pravda submarine, taking into account the prospects for developing new powerful and lightweight diesel engines from the Russian Diesel plant. 15 April 1935 of the year the proposed project was approved by the workshop and it was included in the 1936 program of the year.
25 January 1936 of the year approved the conceptual design of the XE-9 cruiser squadron of the XIV series (later the submarine received the designation “K” - cruising, and the nickname “Katyusha”). MA Rudnitsky was appointed the chief designer of this type of submarines. The technical project under his leadership was developed at TsKBS-2 (later TsKB-18). Design engineers Bykov N.M., Goryachev PG, Novozhilov V.V., Segal V.F. took part in the development of the project. et al. To select the most rational form and dimensions of the hull, more than 20 submarine cruiser models were tested in the experimental pool.
The initial TTZ provided for the presence of an aircraft on a cruising submarine. It was believed that this would enhance the self-defense of the submarine and expand the area of observation of the ships of the enemy. Such a plane 1934 was built by IV Chetverikov. under the cipher CPF (special boat). SPL is a free-bearing monoplane with a 100-strong motor. The console parts of the stabilizer and the wings with floats are folding. When folded, the aircraft fit into a cylinder hangar with a length of 7450 mm and a diameter of 2500 mm. However, in the future they refused to use the aircraft.
December 27 1936 of the year at the Leningrad plant - Admiralty, Baltic, "Sudomeh" - the first 3 type "K" submarines were laid. M.A.Rudnitsky was also appointed as the main builder at the plant number XXUMX Admiralteisky.
Initially, in accordance with the approved 26 June 1936 of the USSR SNK 10-summer shipbuilding program, it was supposed to build 62 Katyushas: 6 for the Baltic Fleet, 4 for the Black Sea, 17 for the Northern Military Flotilla and 35 for the Pacific. However, in reality, 12 submarines were laid - 6 for the Pacific Fleet and 3 for the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and the Federation Council.
At an early stage of construction, significant problems arose. When compiling the weight load, it turned out that the center of gravity of diesel engines (each 130 t) is actually placed one meter higher. Metacentric height became significantly less than specification. For a number of sections revealed a construction overload. All this is the result of haste, in which the laying of submarines actually coincided with the approval of those. project.
To save the already partially built ships, they reduced the thickness of the superstructure's plating and logging fences, removed the gun shields and eased a number of structures in the upper part of the boat. To compensate for the overload it was necessary to reduce the thickness of the light body. Metacentric height remained at the level of 300 mm, but strong and long-lasting banks remained.
In 1937, they feared that the project might be less successful than type “P”. In this regard, further bookmarks suspended until the completion of tests of the leading ships.
Initially, the Admiralteysky plant was to pass the first three units at the end of the 1938 of the year, the next five - in the 1939 of the year and the remaining - until the end of the 1940 of the year. However, the deadlines in connection with the tightening of manufacturing "stuffing" for submarines, primarily the power plant, were thwarted.
In the manufacture of durable hull submarine cruisers used the traditional method of riveting, although the management of factories, having trained cadres of welders and welding experience, offered to perform them all-welded. This proposal was not approved by the UVMS, citing the complexity of processing the drawings and the possibility of disrupting the deadlines. However, the K-type submarines welded a lightweight hull, superstructure and foundations for auxiliary and main mechanisms. The combination of welded and riveted structures required from those. Bureau of factories to carefully work out the components and parts.
During the tests, the lead ships managed to develop a given speed of travel. The mistakes made at the design stage were also revealed, but their consequences did not look so significant. The surprise was not the mediocre seaworthiness of the submarines. The sharp contours of the bow of the submarine cruisers cut the wave, which did not allow the submarine of the type "K" to realize its surface speed in the waves above 3-4 points. In addition, abundant portions of water got into the central post through the open manhole hatch. Despite the identified deficiencies, the commission considered that the indicated deficiencies would be eliminated with the help of the new “wide” design of the nose section, which in 1940 was equipped with “K-3”, which was released for testing.
Submarine "K-3" before the Baltic War
Due to the absence of mines, they were not able to test the mine device only in December 1940 - January 1941. At the same time used mines collected in naval workshops piece by piece. The device, despite the comments, was put into service, but with the proviso that in June-September 1941, control tests will be carried out using commercially manufactured mines. These plans were thwarted, which partly explains the numerous problems with the device revealed during the war years.
Considering that all “childhood diseases” could be eliminated over time, the admissions committee rated the Katyushas as a whole very high.
By the beginning of the war, the submarines K-189, K-194, K-1, K-2, K-3 and K-21 were handed over to plants No. 22 and No. 23 in the Northern Fleet. In the 1942-1943 years, the K-51, K-52, K-53, K-56 submarines entered the Baltic Sea and took part in hostilities in this theater at the end of 1944 - early 1945 . 25 December X-NUMX of the year K-1944 entered into service, but it did not take part in the battles. Unfinished K-55 after the end of the war was dismantled for metal. The cost of building the lead ship was equal to 54 million, in a series it was reduced to 23 million rubles.
The design of the submarine is double-hull. The robust case had a cylindrical shape with a diameter of 5,7 m. The assembly was carried out with the help of riveting. Steel structures 18 - 22 mm thick were used. The solid cabin of the submarine was located above compartment No. 3 and was a horizontal cylinder (diameter 2,3 m) with spherical end bulkheads. It contained the main command post. It could also be used as a lock chamber. The bulkheads between the 1-2, 2-3, 5-6 bays are spherical. The bulkhead between the 3-4 compartments is flat. All these bulkheads were designed for pressure 10 kgf / cm2. Bulkheads between compartments 4-5, 6-7 are flat, but are designed for pressure 2 kgf / cm2. End bulkheads - cast, spherical. In the manufacture of lightweight boat hull used 6-mm steel sheets connected by welding.
The hull of the submarine type "K" was divided into seven compartments in which were:
1. Nasal torpedo compartment, used for placing 6 torpedo tubes, 10 spare torpedoes on racks, sailors' living quarters;
2. Battery, living quarters of officers, mess-room;
3. Central post;
4. Battery, cabin-company foremen, cockpit;
5. Main diesel engines;
6. Auxiliary diesel, main electric motors, sailors' living quarters;
7. Aft torpedo compartment (2 torpedo tubes placed horizontally), sailors' living quarters.
The compartments №№ 1, 3, 6 and 7, were the shelter compartments, which were equipped with emergency mainblowdown posts.
The submarine had 14 ballast tanks. No. 3, 4, 7, 8 and 9 served to store fuel. The total maximum fuel supply was 243 tons. The tank number 14 was located inside the robust hull under the central post and was mine-ballast (on K-51 - K-56 submarines, this tank was converted into a fuel tank). Kingston and ventilation valves were controlled by pneumatic actuators remotely. Tanks number number 2, 12, 13 equipped with scuppers instead of Kingston. Manhole covers were opened by electric drives.
One of the Baltic "Katyusha" at the bridge of Lieutenant Schmidt. Leningrad, September 1941
Submarines of the “K” type were equipped with two main diesel engines of the 9DKR type surface power (power of each 4200 hp at 400 rpm, developed by Leningrad Russian Diesel Plant), auxiliary diesel generator (38K8 diesel generator and ПХ84 / 42 generator) and two electric motors of type ПГ11 (power of each 1200 hp at 235 rpm). The type “C” rechargeable batteries were divided into 4 groups (parallel connection between them) according to 60 elements located in the holds of compartments No. 2 and 4.
Nasal horizontal handlebars - folding. Horizontal rudders in the folded state were placed along the side of the superstructure. The drainage means consisted of one centrifugal pump M-125 and three bilge piston pumps TP-18 (one trimming pump). Two high-pressure compressors (capacity of each 15 l / min) were used to replenish compressed air. There was a depth stabilizer without a stroke. For provisional tanks for the first time in the domestic submarine shipbuilding used refrigerated freon installation. For replenishing drinking water, there were two elektroobressors (capacity of each 40 l / h).
As mentioned earlier, the speed of submarines of type "K" was largely dependent on the state of the sea. According to the NMS, 20 nodes were reached with waves less than 3 points, with 4 points it was already 18 nodes, with 5 - 11 nodes, with 6 - 9 nodes, with 7 points - 6 nodes. With waves more than 8 points, the movement against the waves under the main diesel engines became impossible, and it was necessary to switch to the auxiliary diesel engine, providing a speed of no more than 4 knots. In addition, significant rolls were observed - up to 35 degrees with a wave of 7 points and up to 55 in a storm.
The submarine cruisers “K” were equipped with two large-aperture periscopes, also adapted for taking photographs. Optical length was 8,5 m, stroke - 4 m. Submarine radio stations were able to provide stable radio communication even at long distances. The main means of obtaining information from the database was the long-wave Dozor receiver, and the transmitter was a short-wave Skat. The Okun transmitter was actually a backup.
The submarine type "K" crew consisted of 10 officers, 20 foremen and 37 privates. On the XIV series submarine cruisers, the best living conditions were provided: cabins were equipped for officers, each foreman and private had a separate bed. The foremen got their mess room. For the first time on the Soviet submarines appeared showers and electric.
Cruiser squadron of the XIV series had powerful torpedo, artillery and mine armament.
The main weapon of the submarine "Katyusha", like other submarines, were torpedoes. In total, the submarine had six torpedo tubes in the bow located three in two rows and two in the stern. Two more stern torpedo tubes were located in the superstructure, although most of the control mechanisms were inside. All steel tubular, pneumatic torpedo tubes had a caliber of 533,4 mm and ensured the launch of torpedoes from a depth of less than 15 m. The boats were equipped with electric “automatic torpedo firing boxes”, which allowed launching from the conning tower with an 2 interval of seconds, however, due to the unreliability of them, used. In 1944, a TAS-L calculating device was created, which made it possible to determine the course and speed of the target for calculating the shooting parameters. However, significant dimensions did not allow to install the device in the boat without removing the solid cutting. In this regard, TAS-L was installed at the end of 1944 of the year only on K-21.
Staff ammunition boats - 24 torpedoes. In the first compartment, 10 spare torpedoes were stored on racks; under 4 lower torpedo tubes, they could be stored in canisters, but in practice they were never loaded, thus the ammunition load was 20 torpedoes. In addition, in the cold season, the water in the torpedo tubes in the superstructure froze, so in the Northern and Baltic fleets in winter these devices were not charged. Recharge time of the nose devices is 50 minutes, torpedo acceptance time is 5 hours. During the Second World War the 53-38, 53-38X and 53-39 torpedoes were used on K-type submarines.
The Katyusha submarine artillery armament: two B-24PL guns of 100 caliber mm sample 1938 of the year and two semi-automatic 21-K guns of 45 mm caliber 1933 model of the year. The ammunition of each 100-mm gun was 200 cartridges (according to some information, the data guns were modernized and their ammunition was 400 shots). Ammunition 45-mm guns - on 600 shots, the angle of elevation to 85 degrees. Part of the ammunition was stored in the fencing of the cabin in special sealed fenders. 100-mm guns were installed on turntables, which had a bulwark on three sides. To increase the firing angles of the aft 21-K in the boards, folding panels were made, which during the war were replaced by permanent cutouts with false boards. Anti-aircraft armament was enhanced by two external machine guns "Maxim" caliber 7,62 mm.
In contrast to the mine layer “Leninets” on the XIV series submarines, the director and the EP-36 mines were located in a special mine-ballast tank, and not in the feeding tubes. The device of the mine-ballast tank allowed to penetrate into it from the inside of a solid hull through the hatch. The mine device itself has been tested on the Trout submarine. When staging, mines were moved by electric winch on rails and dropped under the hull through two hatches, made in a light casing of the tank. The lever lever brought to the control post dropping min.
The submarine "K-3" was the only one of the entire series that was equipped with pneumatic net-saws "Krab-3". A total of eight devices were installed: 4 in the stem, 2 in the center plane on the upper deck and 2 on the horizontal wheels. The work of network operators did not cause any complaints, however, they did not find use in combat conditions.
Submarine "K-3". October 20 1942. Photo by S. Shimansky
Since, even at the early stages of design, several shortcomings of Katyusha were identified, several attempts were made to develop and modernize the project. The first attempt to develop submarines of type "K" was made in 1937 year. Under the direction of B. A. Malinin, work began at TsKB-18 on the XIV-bis series - the 41 project or the EC type. It differed from the basic project in the installation of the 6000 hp diesel engines created at that time. each and return to the placement of the CPF seaplane hangar. One of the reasons for the official refusal was the inadmissibility of reducing the underwater speed and increasing the displacement.
In January, 1940, by order of NG Kuznetsov, the new People's Commissar of the USSR Navy, returned to the development of an improved project designated as “KU” or “Cruising Improved”. The works were commissioned by TsKB-18 under the guidance of Z.A. Deribin. The main changes of KU are: the introduction of an all-welded body and the installation of 10 DKR engines (power of each 6000 hp). At the same time, the underwater displacement should have increased by 80 tons, and the surface displacement by 50 — 60 tons. Surface speed should increase to 24 nodes, and autonomy to 60 days. Sketch project "KU" was planned to be completed in 1941, and those. project in 1942 year. The laying of the first two boats on the new project was also planned for 1942 year. However, these plans were thwarted by the outbreak of the Second World War and submarines of the “K” type did not receive further development.
None of the Katyusha submarines took part in the Soviet-Finnish war, even though K-1 and K-2 were introduced during it. Submarines of type "K" series XIV served in the Northern and Baltic fleets.
During the war years, the Katyushas of the Northern Fleet exhibited 399 mines, and carried out 26 torpedo attacks, during which 89 torpedoes were launched.
Laid on December 27 1936 of the year. Launching 28 on April 1938. Construction completed December 16 1939. Made the transition to the Northern Fleet from Leningrad in June - August 1940. On the mines of the submarine, the transports Ingvar Nielsen, Kong Nirg, Robert Bornhofen, Kurtzsee were blown up by the total tonnage 12000 brt, the guard ships Ubir and Cherusker, and the tanker Kongsdal (XRrr) was damaged. In September, 9959 went missing.
Laid on December 27 1936 of the year. Launching 28 on April 1938. Construction completed December 16 1939. Made the transition to the Northern Fleet from Leningrad in June - August 1940. 10 September 1941 near the island of Vardø produced mines on which the Akka transport (2646 brt) was blown up. During one of their military campaigns, they destroyed the transport with artillery fire and, on return, saluted the artillery salvo, which became a tradition in the Northern Fleet. In September, 1942 went missing.
Laid on December 27 1936 of the year. Launching 31 July 1938 of the year. Construction completed on November 27 1940. 3 December 1941 in the Bustansund K-3 strait attacked the Altkirch (4713 brt) transport and three PLO ships. As a result of a torpedo attack, the transport was damaged. However, the enemy discovered the submarine and began a fierce bombing. Sinking submarine hit the underwater rock. The depth charge breaks damaged the double-breasted tanks. The fuel rising to the surface unmasked the submarine, therefore the division commander captain 2 of the rank M.I. Hajiyev. decided to surface and impose an artillery battle. As a result, the ship PLO "Förer" ("UJ-1708"), "Mecklenburg" ("UJ-1403") received serious damage. "UJ-1416" out of the fight and disappeared. In March, the 1943 of the year went missing.
Laid on December 10 1937 of the year. Launching 16 August 1939 of the year. Construction completed on November 30 1940. 5 July 1942, the submarine K-21 attacked the German squadron. As a result of the attack, the Tirpitz battleship was damaged by stern torpedoes, and one escort destroyer was sunk. In October 1942, the submarine cruiser K-21, was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. The enemy lost the Bessheim transport (1174 brt) and the PLO “UJ-1110” vehicle due to the detonation of mines delivered by the submarine. Transport "Rigel" (3828 brt) received damage. In the spring 1944 of the year was the overhaul, which ended after the war. September 11 The 1954 of the year is decommissioned. In 1983, it was repaired and installed as a memorial in Severomorsk.
Laid 5 January 1938 of the year. Launching 4 November 1938 of the year. Construction completed 15 July 1940 of the year. In the fall of 1941, the K-22 went on a combat expedition, in which the boat, transport, and oil barge were sunk. In the same campaign, another patrol ship and two vehicles were destroyed. In December, 1941 of the year placed mine banks in a surface position in the Rol'wessund Strait (the transport of “Steinbek” 2185 brt died here). Then the ship "Weidingen" (200 brt) was destroyed by artillery. 19 January 1942 g. Mimona transport (1147 brt) was damaged by a torpedo volley. The patrol ship was destroyed with artillery. While under attack by the enemy, the K-22 submarine was able to destroy the Vaaland steamer (106 brt), after which she left for the open sea. The submarine K-22 became the Guard. In February, the 1943 of the year went missing.
Laid 5 February 1938 of the year. Launching 28 on April 1939. Construction completed 25 September 1940. The Asunzion (4626 brt), Birk (3664 brt), Fleetback (1930 brt) and the Altenland trap ship died on the submarine mines. 12 May 1942, sunk by depth charges.
The Baltic Fleet
During the war years, the Baltic K-type submarines carried out 36 torpedo attacks, during which they launched 94 torpedoes.
Laid 28 February 1938 of the year. Launching 30 July 1939 of the year. Construction completed on November 17 1943. The first military campaign in the Kohlberg region took place on November 23. 1944. 28 January 1945 r. Danish coal mine "Viborg" (2028 brt) was sunk near the lighthouse of Rügenwald. December 29 1955 was retired.
Laid 28 February 1938 of the year. Launching 5 July 1939 of the year. Construction completed 11 October 1942 of the year. She was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. December 29 1955 was retired.
Laid 30 May 1938 of the year. Launching 1 September 1939 of the year. Construction completed 31 July 1943 of the year. September 11 The 1954 of the year is decommissioned.
Laid on 30 April 1937. Launching 3 March 1941 of the year. Not completed, scrapped.
Laid on 29 April 1937. Launching 7 February 1941 of the year. Construction completed December 25 1944. September 11 The 1954 of the year is decommissioned.
Laid on October 17 1937 of the year. Launching 29 December 1940 of the year. Construction completed 29 October 1942, 10 October 1957, sank during nuclear testing.
The submarine "K-56"
In total, the XIV series X-series submarines counted 37 submerged ships (total displacement 82597 brt) and 20 auxiliary and combat ships, the 4 combat ships and 8 ships (35126 brt) of the enemy were damaged.
Submarines of this type destroyed:
- torpedoes 4 auxiliary vessel, 5 warships and 16 transports (43195 brt);
- 5 warships and 12 ships were killed on mines (33997 brt);
- sunk by artillery 3 auxiliary vessel, 3 battleships and 9 transports (5405 brt).
After the war, 6 K-type submarines remained in the Soviet Navy and were assembled in the Northern Fleet in 1948. In 1949, they were reclassified into large submarines and the K-21, -51, -52, -53, -55 and -56 received the B-4 -BNXX indexes, respectively. Significant modernization of these submarines was not carried out, since by that time large submarines of the 9 project, which had higher characteristics, began to enter service. In 611 — 1954, K-type submarines were removed from service. B-1956 (K-9) was transferred to the category of experience. The remaining five were converted into floating charging stations, and in 56 — 1956 - into training ones.
surface - 1710 tons;
scuba - 2200 tons;
Length - 97 m;
Width - 7,8 m;
Draft - 4,04 m;
Reserve buoyancy - 41,4%;
underwater - 10 nodes;
surface - 22 node;
2 diesel 9DKR51 / 55 power 1200 l. with. each;
diesel generator 38K8 rated power - 800 hp;
2 electric motor ПГ11 with power 1200 hp each;
battery type "C", 240 elements, 4 group;
Surface swimming range - 15000 miles;
Maximum immersion depth - 100 m;
Immersion depth - 80 m;
Autonomy - 50 days.
10 torpedo tubes (6 bow, 2 fodder, 2 in the superstructure, 24 torpedo ammunition);
2 guns B-24PL caliber 100 mm (ammunition 400 shells);
2 guns 21-K caliber 45 mm (ammunition 1100 shells);
Mining unit MBC (ammunition 20 min);
Crew - 67 man.
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