Military Review

From "Navarin" to "Borodino"

65



In the 90s. XIX century The Russian Empire began the construction of an ocean armored fleet. The main leaders of the country's military leadership were still considered England and Germany, but it was already beginning to carefully look at the rapid growth of the Japanese fleet. During this period, the progress of marine technology and weapons was impressive - the artillery firepower grew, the booking was constantly improved and, accordingly, the displacement and the size of squadron battleships grew. Under these conditions, it was necessary to decide which ships the Russian Imperial Fleet needed to protect the interests of the country, how they would be armed and how they were protected.

NEW GENERATION BRONENOSE

After the construction of a number of "low-standing" battleships in the Naval Ministry decided to build a really powerful armored ship. The design began in January of 1888. It was based on the project of the Emperor Alexander II, but later the designers, creating the ship, began to focus on the German battleship Wörth. The design was completed in April 1889, but the manager of the Marine Ministry, I.A. Shestakov continued to make changes to the draft. Now the ideal was considered the English "Trafalgar". In July, 1889 was built on the “Galerny Island”. The official bookmark took place on 19 on May 1890. The new ship was named the Navarin.

The launch of 8 took place on October 1891 of the city. But during the construction, the “editing” of the project continued. As a result, they installed four 35-caliber 305-mm guns on it, which proved themselves well on the Black Sea armadillos. It was decided to abandon the foremast. The designers have placed four chimneys on the Na-Varina. Completion was delayed for four years due to the delay in the supply of weapons, armor, ship systems and mechanisms. In winter, the work was hindered by severe frosts. Only in October, 1893 was transferred to Kronstadt for the completion of work. 10 November 1895, though without the towers of the main caliber Navarin, went to sea for testing. They were accompanied by finishing work, the elimination of marriage and the installation of weapons. The fifth Baltic battleship entered service in June 1896 g. He was sent to the Mediterranean Sea, and then to the Far East. 16 March 1898. He arrived in Port Arthur and became the flagship of the Pacific Squadron.

Squadron battleship "Navarin" in the "Victorian" color. Four chimneys and lack of foremast gave the ship a rather unusual look.


Squadron battleship "Sisoi the Great" in white "Mediterranean" color. These two ships became the basis for further work on the design of Russian battleships.


The “Emperor Alexander II” was also originally taken as the basis for the design of the sixth Baltic battleship, but its size quickly grew. When designing, they again looked back at Trafalgar. As a result, the battleship of the new generation was designed. These works began in 1890, and continued until January, 1891. Construction began in July, 1891, in the shed of the New Admiralty. The official bookmark took place on 7 on May 1892 in the presence of Emperor Alexander III. The ship was called "Sisoy the Great." But the rework and improvement of the project continued. This was reflected in the pace of construction, which caused many difficulties. But he was the first Russian battleship to receive an 40-caliber 305-mm gun. 20 May 1894. He was launched in the presence of Alexander III. The completion of “Sisoi the Great” was delayed for another two years, only in October of 1896, he began official trials. Not completing them, in November 1896, the battleship was sent to the Mediterranean Sea. The international position required the presence of significant forces of the Russian fleet.

The first voyage of Sisoi revealed numerous defects and defects. 15 March 1897, a training artillery firing took place near the island of Crete, and when fired from the left stern 305-mm gun in the tower, an explosion occurred. The roof of the tower by the force of the explosion was thrown on the nasal bridge. 16 people died, 6 were fatally injured, 9 injured. Repair, repair and elimination of defects was carried out in Toulon. The works lasted until December 1897. After that, the “Sisoy the Great” was hastily sent to the Far East, where the situation worsened. 16 March 1898. He arrived in Port Arthur with Navarin.

The presence of two new Russian battleships allowed us to protect the interests of our country in the Pacific without a fight. Thanks to the “battleship diplomacy”, the Russian Empire gained the right to rent the fortress of Port Arthur. Both battleships took an active part in suppressing a boxing uprising in China in 1900. They were in the roadstead of the Taku fortress, and their amphibious companies fought ashore. The military command decided to repair and upgrade the battleships. In the Far East, the Russian fleet had several bases, but none of them could provide full repair and modernization of ships.

Then in St. Petersburg decided to work in the Baltic. 12 December 1901 g. "Navarin" and "Sisoy the Great", together with "Emperor Nicholas I", the cruisers "Vladimir Monomakh", "Dmitry Donskoy", "Admiral Nakhimov" and "Admiral Kornilov" left Port Arthur. These veteran ships formed the basis of the Pacific squadron, their crews were the most experienced. The combat potential of the squadron had to be restored almost from scratch. This significantly weakened our naval forces in the Far East.

"Sevastopol", "Poltava" and "Petropavlovsk" in the East Basin of Port Arthur, 1902. These three battleships of the same type made up the core of the Pacific Squadron


MAIN CALIBR OF RUSSIAN BATTLESHIPS

In October, the 1891 at the Obukhov plant began designing a new 40-caliber 305-mm gun. It was an instrument of a new generation; it was created under the charges of smokeless powder, did not have trunnions and for the first time a piston lock was used on it. They provided a high initial velocity of the projectile, greater firing range and better bro-impenetrability. They had a higher rate of fire. The length of the barrel 12,2 m, the weight of the gun with the shutter 42,8 t. The first gun of this type was tested in March 1895, the serial construction led Obukhov plant. From 1895 to 1906, it was these guns that became the main weapon of the Russian squadron battleships installed on ships of the Poltava and Borodino, Retviza, Tsesarevich and Black Sea battleships. This weapon made them one of the strongest ships in the world. On Navarin, four 305-mm guns were complemented with 8-X152-mm, 4-X75-mm and 14-X37-mm guns. 6х152-mm, 4х75-mm, 12-X47-mm and 14-X37-mm guns were placed on Sisoe Veliky. For battleships of the “Poltava” type, designers for medium caliber (8х152-mm) provided for the first time two-turrets, they were supplemented with 4х152-mm, 12-X47-mm and 28-X37-mm guns. Retvizan, in addition to 4x305-mm, received 12x152-mm, 20х75-mm, 24х47-mm and 6х37-mm guns. At Tsesarevich, the average caliber (12х152-mm) was placed in the towers, it was supplemented by 20х75-mm, 20х47-mm and 8-X37-mm guns. On the battleships of the Borodino type, an average caliber (12х152-mm) was also placed in the towers. Armament also supplemented 20x75-mm 20x47-mm, 2x37-mm guns and 8 machine guns.

However, in 1891-1892. The development of a new 45-caliber 254-mm gun began. She was conceived as one for ships, coastal batteries and ground forces. This unification has led to numerous shortcomings of the new instrument. The length of the gun 11.4 m, piston lock weighed 400 kg. The weight of the gun with the lock ranged from 22.5 t to 27,6 t. Construction of the guns was carried out by the Obukhov plant. Despite the shortcomings, it was decided to install it on the battleships of the Peresvet type and the battleships of the coastal defense. This decision weakened the Russian fleet. Confusion in artillery battleship systems began again, which complicated the supply of ammunition to the fleet.

SERIAL CONSTRUCTION IN THE PETERSBURG VERFIANS

In 1890, a new shipbuilding program was adopted. As a prototype for new armored ships, the designers used the “Emperor Nicholas I” project. But the management again made significant changes to the project, they took into account the latest achievements of technical progress. The ship grew in size, for the first time the main and medium caliber guns were placed in the towers. A number of ideas were borrowed from the construction of Sisoi the Great (reservations, etc.). It was decided to lay a series of three ships in the fall of 1891. Work began on their construction at two St. Petersburg factories. The official laying took place on 7 in May 1892 on the New Admiralty was laid down by the Poltava, on the Galerny Island the battleships Petropavlovsk and Sevastopol. The launching of the Poltava took place on October 25 1894, after three days they launched Petropavlovsk. "Sevastopol" went on the water 20 in May 1895. The completion of the ships was delayed for several years due to various reasons. The first to test out was Petropavlovsk (October 1897), the Second (September 1898) Poltava, and the third in October 1898 Sevastopol. At that time, the situation in the Far East sharply deteriorated again, and the naval leadership tried to send the battleships to the Pacific Ocean as soon as possible. Petropavlovsk (March 1900) came first in Port Arthur. Poltava and Sevastopol (March 1901) followed it. These armadillos formed the basis of the Pacific squadron.

Peresvet in Toulon, November 1901. The battleships of this project were an unsuccessful compromise: they differed from the squadron battleships with weak armament and armor, and for cruisers they had too low a speed


Corps "Borodino" on the Neva after the descent. St. Petersburg, 26 August 1901



In 1894, the leadership of the Marine Ministry decided to build a series of "light battleships." It was decided to weaken their armament and booking, but due to this increase the speed and range of navigation, improve seaworthiness. It was planned that they would act both on enemy communications, and together with the squadron. In the documents they were often called "armadillos-cruisers". It was decided to build two battleships one at the Baltic Plant (Peresvet) and one at the New Admiralty (Oslyabya). Their construction began in the autumn of 1895. The question of replacing 254-mm with 305-mm guns was discussed several times, but in this case the readiness of ships was disrupted. The official laying of the battleships took place on November 9 1895. On May 7, 1898 was launched, Peresvet was launched, and on October 27, Oslyabyu. The construction, equipping and arming of ships began, but the deadlines were still disrupted. The Peresvet was put to the test in October 1899. At the same time, the military leadership decided to build a third ship of this type, the Victory. The question was even considered of the fourth battleship, but the decision was not made. The construction of Victory began in May at 1898 at the Baltic Shipyard. Her official bookmark took place on 9 February 1899. 17 May 1900, the ship was launched, and in October 1901, "Victory" was put to the test. “Oslyabya” was under construction for the longest time and entered the tests only in 1902, but then later various corrections and additions continued. The rest of the battleships had already arrived in the Far East, and Oslyabya had not yet left the Mark-Zovoi Puddle. Peresvet arrived in Port Arthur in April 1902. Victory took part in the coronation celebrations of the English King Edward VII in May 1902. In July 1902 she participated in a parade on Revel's raid in honor of the visit of the German squadron. She came to the Pacific Ocean only in June 1903. And Oslyabya was still in the Baltic. Only in July, 1903, he went to the Far East with the cruiser "Bayan". But in Gibraltar, the battleship struck an underwater rock and damaged the hull. He was docked in Spices for repairs. After the damage was repaired, the long-suffering ship became part of Rear Admiral A.A. Virenius, who slowly followed to the Far East.


305-mm and 152-mm guns on the armadillos of the "Borodino" type were placed in two-gun towers


Disadvantages "armadillos-cruisers" caused a lot of complaints. They were eliminated in the third series of the Baltic battleships. She became the biggest of all history Russian Imperial Navy - planned to build five ships. The project "Tsesarevich" was taken as a basis. It was processed by shipbuilder D.V. Starlings The series was planned to be built at three St. Petersburg factories. In May, 1899 began work on the construction of the first ship of the series at the New Admiralty. His official bookmark took place on 11 on May 1900 in the presence of Emperor Nicholas II. The ship was named "Borodino". 26 August 1901. The lead ship went into the water. In October, 1899 on the Galerny Island took up the second ship, which was given the name Eagle. It was launched on July 6. 1902. The construction of the battleships proceeded rhythmically, all the questions that were raised were resolved fairly quickly. The construction of ships began - the most difficult stage for domestic factories. It stretched for several years and by the beginning of 1904, these works were still ongoing. Only the beginning of the war with Japan accelerated the completion. At the Baltic Shipyard, as the largest and most modern Russian enterprise, it was decided to build three series ships. The first of these was the "Emperor Alexander III", the official laying of which was held on 11 in May 1900. 21 in July 1901. It was launched in the presence of Emperor Nicholas II. In October, the battleship 1903 came to tests in the Gulf of Finland. The assembly of the second ship began immediately after the descent of the previous one. This organization of work has reduced the slipway to 14 months. The official bookmark of “Prince Suvorov” was 26 August 1901, and already 12 September 1902, he was launched. In pace of completion, he overtook both Borodino and Eagle. After the descent of the second ship, the construction of the third, the Glory, began immediately. It was officially laid on 19 in October 1902, and it was launched on 16 in August 1903. But after the start of the war, the building froze, and it went into service only in 1905. Construction of a series of Borodino-type battleships factories were able to build squadron battleships on their own, but time was already lost.

The squadron battleship Borodino after entry into service. The battleships of this project formed the basis of the second Pacific squadron


The squadron battleship "Emperor Alexander III" - the only ship of the type "Borodino", which passed the full test program


WE'RE GETTING HELP US

Making sure that domestic shipyards are not always able to build such huge and complex warships like squadron battleships within the agreed timeframe, the military leaders decided to place part of their orders abroad. The military leadership believed that this would allow the program to be executed on time and achieve superiority over the Japanese fleet. Meanwhile, the country's military leadership has adopted a program “for the needs of the Far East.” In a short time it was planned to build a large number of battleships, cruisers and destroyers. Overseas factories were supposed to help the Russian Empire maintain parity. Unfortunately, these expectations were met only in one of two cases. One of the first orders was an order placed at the American shipyard of Charles Henry Crump in Philadelphia. The overseas industrialist received a contract for the construction of a cruiser and a squadron battleship with a total value of $ 6,5 million. The Retvizan battleship project was developed based on Peresvet and Prince Potyomkin-Tavrichesky drawings. Work on the construction of the ship began in the fall of 1898 g. The official bookmark passed 17 July 1899 g. Advanced American technology significantly reduced the pace of construction. Already 10 October 1899 g. "Retvizan" launched on the water. The battleship came out in August 1901. 30 April 1902, he left America and crossed the Atlantic Ocean. In the Baltic, he managed to take part in a parade on the Revel roadstead in honor of the visit of the German squadron. In Port Arthur, the newest battleship arrived in April 1903. Retvizan was considered the best battleship of the Pacific Squadron.

The second order for the construction of a squadron battleship was received by the French shipyard "Forge and Chantier" in Toulon. The amount of the contract for its construction exceeded 30 million francs. The project was based on the French battleship Zhorehibieri, which the designer Antoine-Jean Ambal Lagan “fitted” to the requirements of the customer. The official bookmark of the “Tsesarevich” was held on 26 in July of 1899. Initially, construction proceeded at a fairly rapid pace, but often the work was interrupted due to urgent matters on other orders. The hull was launched on 10 in February of 1901. But during the construction numerous problems arose and, like at the Russian shipyards, it stretched for several years. Only in November 1903, the “Tsarevich” arrived in Port Arthur. This experience has shown that the order of warships at foreign shipyards is not always justified, and domestic factories could cope with their construction much faster.

Retvizan Corps before launching, Philadelphia, October 9 1900


Retvizan is the strongest battleship of the first Pacific squadron. Philadelphia, 1901


BONNOANTS IN THE FIRE OF THE "SMALL VICTORY OF WAR"

At the end of 1903 and the beginning of 1904, the Russian military leadership, who incorrectly assessed the situation in the Far East, did not take urgent measures to hastily reinforce the Pacific squadron. It counted on the fact that our naval forces are sufficient to ensure the supremacy of the sea, and Japan would not risk a conflict. But negotiations on controversial issues were interrupted, and the Japanese leadership gathered to resolve them by force. At that time, a detachment under the command of Rear Admiral A.A. was on the way to the Far East. Virenius. It consisted of the battleship Oslabya, 3 cruisers, 7 destroyers and 4 destroyer. With their arrival at Port Arthur, our forces would get a finished look: 8 battleships, 11 cruisers of the 1 rank, 7 cruisers of the 2 rank, 7 canlodos, 2 minelayer, 2 mine cruisers, 29 destroyers, destroyers They were based in Port Arthur and Vladivostok. But with the outbreak of hostilities in St. Petersburg, it was decided to return the ships of the Virenius detachment to the Baltic, and not to attempt to break through to Port Arthur or Vladivostok. The Japanese, in turn, were able to successfully transfer from the Mediterranean to the Far East two new armored cruisers, which greatly strengthened their fleet. In January-March, the Russian leadership did not take any real measures to speed up work on the completion of the Borodino-type battleships. Everything changed only after the death of "Petropavlovsk". But time was lost.

The case of the "Tsarevich" before launching. Toulon, 10 February 1901


"Tsesarevich" - the flagship of the first Pacific squadron


The war against the Land of the Rising Sun began on the night of January 27 1904, when several detachments of Japanese destroyers attacked Russian ships that were on the outer roads of Port Arthur. Their torpedoes hit the strongest ships of the squadron battleships Retvizan and Tsesarevich. They received serious damage, but did not die, thanks to the heroic actions of rescue parties. January 27 morning they met on the coastal shallows at the entrance to the fortress. In this form, the damaged battleships took part in the first battle with the Japanese fleet, which approached Port Arthur. Our weakened squadron was helped by fire by the coastal batteries of the fortress, and the exchange of fire ended in a draw. In the course of the battle, Petropavlovsk, Pobeda and Poltava suffered minor damage. After the end of the battle, the squadron gathered on the inner raid of the fortress and began to “lick their wounds”, only the Retvisan remained on the shallows. It was necessary to urgently repair the damage to the battleships, but there was no large dock in Port Arthur, it was just being built. Russian engineers found a way to repair the ships used caissons. The Japanese did not sit on their hands and on the night of February 11 decided to destroy Retvizan. To do this, they used firefighters. But our sailors repelled their attack and sank five ships. The battleship did not receive damage, it began to be unloaded quickly in order to remove it from the bank. This was accomplished only on February 24 on the day of the arrival in the fortress of Vice Admiral SO Makarov, who was appointed the new squadron commander.

Towing one of the Caesarevich caissons, East Port-Arthur Basin, February 1904. Caisson is a wooden rectangle that allowed to partially dry the underwater part of the ship's hull and carry out repairs. This "artur's improvisation" during the war allowed to repair the "Tsarevich", "Retvizan", "Victory" and "Sevastopol"


Maxim's machine guns from the "Cesarevich" are taken to the coastal fortifications, May 1905.


Under Makarov, the squadron began active operations on the 35 days of its command, the squadron went to sea six times, the ships made evolutions and maneuvers, and the coast reconnaissance was started. In the campaigns of the squadron Makarov raises his flag on the "Petropavlovsk". Correction of damaged ships accelerated, work began on Retvisan and Tsesarevich. 8 and 9 March, the Japanese fleet tried to fire at Port Arthur, but the Pobeda and Retvisan fires prevented him. March 13 during maneuvers "Peresvet" hit the stern of the "Sevastopol" and bent the blade of the right propeller, which had to be repaired with the help of a diving bell. March 31, the flagship battleship Petropavlovsk explodes on the outer raid of Port Arthur on Japanese mines. On it were killed: the commander of the squadron, 30 officers of the ship and staff officers, 652 lower ranks and the battle painter V.Vereschagin. It was a real disaster, she demoralized the Russian sailors. The situation was aggravated by the detonation of the Victory mine, which took 550 tons of water, but returned safely to the fortress. She began to repair, for this was again applied to the caisson. At the same time, work continued on the "Cesarevich" and "Retvisan", the damage to the "Sevastopol" was corrected. After the death of Makarov, the squadron again ceased to go to sea and began to barrels in Port Arthur.

The Japanese took advantage of the lull and landed their troops at Bitszyo. Thus, they cut off Port Arthur from Manchuria and blocked it. Soon the Japanese units began preparations for the assault. The amphibious companies of sailors took an active part in repelling the attacks. From the ships of the squadron hastily brought all the machine guns and landing guns. Armadillos said goodbye to part of their artillery, which began to install on arthurskih positions. By June 1 the squadron ships lost: 19х152-mm, 23х75-mm, 7х47-mm, 46х37-mm, all machine guns and 8 searchlights. Then the governor ordered to prepare the squadron for a breakthrough to Vladivostok, and these guns began to hastily return to the squadron ships. By 9 June, all repair work on Victory, Tsesarevich and Retvizane was completed. The ships took on board coal, ammunition, water and food. On the morning of June 10, the entire squadron began to leave the fortress. But because of the trawling her exit was delayed. In the sea, she was met by the Japanese fleet and the squadron commander Rear Admiral V.К. Witgeft refused to fight. He decided to abandon the breakthrough and return to Port Arthur. Thus, a real opportunity was missed to go to Vladivostok and begin active operations. On the way back, “Sevastopol” hit a mine, but was able to return to the fortress.

"Tsarevich" in Qingdao, August 1904 g. Chimney damage is clearly visible. Foreground is the average 152-mm tower


Damaged "Sevastopol", December 1904


While with the help of a caisson they corrected the damage of the “Sevastopol”, the squadron ships began to be attracted to the support of the Russian troops. “Poltava” and “Retvizan” went out to the sea several times. The Japanese brought the siege weapons and from 25 July began daily shelling of Port Arthur. There were several hits in the "Tsesarevich" and "Retvizan." Rear Admiral V.K. Witgefta was wounded by a shell fragment. On July 25, the work at Sevastopol was over, and the squadron began to prepare for a breakthrough again. Early in the morning of July 28, the ships left Port Arthur. In 12.15, the general battle began, which was called the battle in the Yellow Sea. For several hours the opponents fired at each other, there were hits, but not a single ship sank. The outcome of the battle decided two hits. In 17.20, a Japanese shell hit the lower part of the foremast of the Cesarevich and showered the bridge of the battleship with fragments. Wit-geft was killed, and the squadron lost command. In 18.05 projectile hit the lower bridge, its fragments fell into the conning tower. The battleship lost control, failed, described two circulations, and cut through the formation of the Russian squadron. Our ships lost their command, broke the line, and became a bunch. The Japanese covered them with fire. The situation was saved by the commander of the battleship Retvizan, captain 1, rank E.N. Schensnovich, who sent his ship in the direction of the Japanese. The enemy focused fire on him, the rest of the squadron ships got a breather, rebuilt and turned to Port Arthur. In this battle, Retvizan, Sevastopol and Poltava suffered the most. The damaged Tsesarevich and a number of other ships left for neutral ports, where they were interned and disarmed.

Returning to the fortress, the battleships began to repair the damage. By early September, they were eliminated, but at the meeting of the flagships they decided not to make new attempts to break through, but to strengthen the defense of the fortress with guns and seamen. 10 August "Sevastopol" went to Tahe Bay to bombard the Japanese positions. On the way back, he again hit a mine, but was able to return to Port Arthur under its own power. This was the last outing of the battleship of the Arthur squadron at sea. 19 September the Japanese conducted the first bombardment of the fortress from 280-mm siege mortars. Each such weapon weighed 23 t, it fired a projectile at 200 kg at 7 km. These shelling became daily and it was they who destroyed the Russian squadron. The first victim of the “little ones from Osaka” was “Poltava”. She was shot on November 22. After a strong fire, the ship sat on the ground in the West Basin of the fortress. November 23 killed "Retvizan", November 24 - "Victory" and "Relight." Only "Sevastopol" survived and in the evening of November 25 left the fortress to the White Wolf Bay. He continued shelling the Japanese positions. He was attacked by Japanese destroyers, destroyers and mine boats for several nights in succession, but to no avail. Battleship defended anti-torpedo nets and booms. Only 3 December they managed to damage the battleship torpedoes. He had to put astern on the ground, but he continued to fire. The last shooting of the main caliber he spent December 19. December 20 "Sevastopol" was flooded on the outer roadstead of Port Arthur. The fortress was surrendered to the Japanese.

The flagship of the second Pacific squadron - squadron battleship "Prince Suvorov" under the flag of Rear Admiral ZP Rozhestvensky


By this time, on the way to Port Arthur was the second Pacific squadron under the command of Rear Admiral Z.P. Christmas. The basis of its combat power was the four newest squadron battleships of the Borodino type. For the sake of their hasty completion and speedy commissioning, it was necessary to freeze work on the fifth ship of the series. By the middle of the summer of 1904, all work on them, in general, was completed. Only the readiness of the Eagle, which on May 8 lay on the ground in Kronstadt, was lagging behind. Armadillos began to pass tests and make their first trips along the Marquise Puddle. Due to the rush of wartime, the testing program of the latest armadillos was reduced. Their crews passed only a short course of combat training and began to prepare for the campaign. On August 1, the squadron commander raised his flag on the flagship battleship “Prince Suvorov”. It included 7 squadron battleships, 6 cruisers, 8 destroyers and transports. On September 26, an imperial review was held at Revel’s raid. October 2, the squadron began an unprecedented campaign in the Far East. They had to go 18000 miles, overcome three oceans and six seas without Russian bases and coal stations along the route. Armadillos of the Borodino type received baptism of fire in the so-called Gull incident. On the night of October 9, Russian ships fired at English fishermen in the North Sea, who were mistaken for Japanese destroyers. One trawler was sunk, five damaged. Five battleships went around Africa, the rest passed through the Suez Canal. On December 16, the squadron assembled in Madagascar. During her stay in Nusib, a number of warships joined her. But the morale of the squadron sailors was undermined the news about the death of the squadron, the surrender of Port Arthur and Bloody Sunday. March 3, the squadron left the island and headed to the shores of Indochina. Here, on April 24, ships of Rear Admiral N.I. Nebogatova. Now it was a significant force: 8 squadrons of battleships, 3 coastal battleships, 9 cruisers, 5 auxiliary cruisers, 9 destroyers and a large number of transports. But the ships were overloaded and worn out by a difficult passage. On the 224th day of the campaign, the second squadron of the Pacific Ocean entered the Korea Strait.

In 2.45 14 in May 1905, the Japanese auxiliary cruiser discovered the Russian squadron in the Korean Strait and immediately informed the command. From that moment on, the battle became inevitable. It began on 13.49 with a shot from Prince Suvorov. A fierce firefight began, both sides focused their fire on the flagships. The Japanese broke down under cover, and the Russian ships did not maneuver. Already after 10 minutes after the start of the Oslyabya cannonade, it received significant damage. Large holes were formed in the nose, a strong lurch appeared on the port side, fires began. In 14.40 the ship failed. In 14.50, Oslabya ​​rolled over onto the port side and sank. Part of his crew was saved by destroyers. At the same time, the battleship "Prince Suvorov" went out of order. The steering was interrupted on him, he had a roll on the port side, numerous fires raged on the superstructure. But he continued to fire on the enemy. In 15.20, Japanese destroyers attacked him, but they were driven away. Next, the squadron led the course NO23 "Emperor Alexander III." The Japanese concentrated on him all the power of their fire, and in 15.30 the burning battleship failed with a roll to the left side. Soon he extinguished the fires and returned to the convoy headed by Borodino. Now he experienced the full power of the Japanese fire, but soon the battle was interrupted due to fog. In 16.45, "Prince Suvorov" again attacked the enemy destroyers, one torpedo hit the port side. In 17.30, the squadron destroyer “Violent” approached the burning battleship. He managed, despite the strong excitement, to take down the wounded commander and also the 22 man. There were still sailors on the huge burning armadillo, but they decided to do their duty to the end.

The squadron battleship Oslyabya and armadillos of the type Borodino. Photo taken in the parking lot during the transition to the Far East


In 18.20, the fight resumed. The Japanese focused their fire on Borodino. In 18.30, “Emperor Alexander III” emerged from the column, which turned over in 20 minutes and sank. On the water in the place of the death of the battleship left a few dozen sailors. They tried to save the cruiser "Emerald", but he was driven off by fire the enemy. Not a single person escaped from the crew of the Emperor Alexander III. He became a mass grave for 29 officers and 838 lower ranks. The Russian squadron was still led by Borodino. On it raged several fires, he lost the mainmast. In 19.12, one of the last volleys of the battleship Fuji was covered and received a fatal hit. 305-mm shell hit the area of ​​the first tower of medium caliber. The hit caused the detonation of ammunition and the battleship sank instantly. Of his crew, only 1 people escaped. At Borodino, the officer 34 and the lower rank 831 died. At this time, the Japanese destroyers attacked the Prince Suvorov. The flaming flagship fired from the last 75-mm gun, but several torpedoes hit it. So died the flagship of the second Pacific squadron. Of the remaining sailors on it, no one escaped. Killed 38 officers and 887 lower ranks.


The squadron battleships Navarin and Sisoy the Great during the imperial parade on Revel's raid, October 1904. Veteran ships also became part of the Second Pacific Squadron


In the daytime battle, the Russian squadron suffered defeat; the battleships Oslyabya, Imperator Alexander III, Borodino, Prince Suvorov and the auxiliary cruiser were sunk, many ships suffered significant damage. The Japanese have not lost a single ship. Now the Russian squadron was to withstand the attacks of numerous destroyers and destroyers. The squadron continued to follow the course NO23, led by the “Emperor Nicholas I”. Late and damaged ships were the first to become victims of mine attacks. One of them was the "Navarin". In the daytime battle, he received several hits: the battleship sat with his nose and had a roll on the port side, one of the pipes was knocked down, the speed dropped sharply. Around 22.00 a torpedo hit the stern of the Nava-rina. The roll rose sharply, speed dropped to 4 nodes. Around 2 hours of the night a few more torpedoes hit the battleship, it rolled over and sank. There are many sailors left on the water, but because of the darkness no one saved them. Killed 27 officers and 673 lower ranks. Only the sailor's 3 was saved. “Sisoy the Great” suffered a large fire on the day before it, there was a big fire, there was a significant lurch to the port side, the stroke dropped to 12 nodes. He lagged behind the squadron and independently repelled the attacks of the destroyers. A torpedo hit the 23.15 stern. The ship ceased to be controlled, there was a strong roll on the starboard side. Sailors brought a plaster under the hole, but the water kept coming. The commander directed the battleship to the island of Tsushima. Here the Japanese ships caught up with him and raised a signal for surrender on the Sisoe Veliky. The Japanese visited the ship, but he was already lurching. Around 10 of the morning the battleship rolled over and sank.

At around 10 in the morning hours on May 15, the remains of the Russian squadron were surrounded by the main forces of the Japanese fleet. In 10.15, they opened fire on Russian ships. Under these conditions, Rear Admiral N.I. Nebogatov ordered the descent of the St. Andrew flags. The battleships Orel, Emperor Nicholas I, and two battleships of coastal defense surrendered to the Japanese. 2396 man was taken prisoner. It was this episode that became the symbol of the defeat of the Russian fleet at Tsushima.
Author:
Articles from this series:
The beginning of the era of steam and armor
"Peter the Great" and others
From "Navarin" to "Borodino"
Black Sea armadillos: from "Popovok" to "Potemkin"
65 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Yoshkin Kot
    Yoshkin Kot 23 September 2013 09: 27 New
    21
    Thank you good article, I am proud of my ancestors who fought on these ships, no matter what, and shame on those who thought, "the worse, the better" because they are traitors to the Russian People
  2. Flying Dutchman
    Flying Dutchman 23 September 2013 09: 55 New
    14
    I fell ill with these ships after reading the novel "Tsushima" by Novikov-Surf in my distant childhood. For a long time I could not believe in such a defeat.
    1. revnagan
      revnagan 23 September 2013 12: 29 New
      10
      Quote: Flying Dutchman
      I fell ill with these ships after reading the novel "Tsushima" by Novikov-Surf in my distant childhood. For a long time I could not believe in such a defeat.

      Yes, it was almost physically painful for such an outcome of the battle. And the insult is still gnawing. Eternal memory of the Russian sailors who died in Tsushima. The shame of defeat is entirely on the conscience of the then leadership of the country. "Donkey ears" is the symbol of this leadership, rightly Novikov-Surf says. As for the people who died in battle, "the dead have no shame."
      1. nikcris
        nikcris 23 September 2013 19: 28 New
        +1
        "The shame of defeat is entirely on the conscience of the then leadership of the country."

        WHAT, the Emperor led a convoy?
        And the defense of Port Arthur was run by white-collar workers? And gained glory? You look at the map of Russia in 1904. It is not very different from the map of Semyon Dezhnev.
        Then and trash about trash !!!
        1. Albert1988
          Albert1988 23 September 2013 20: 55 New
          +3
          By "leadership" here one must understand, I think, not so much the tsar, but his entourage, which did not at all understand the political situation in the Far East - the well-known powers did not like the strengthening of Russia in this region, and in any case they would gladly support Japan, also extremely underestimated Japan itself, which led to such sad consequences sad
          1. Pilat2009
            Pilat2009 23 September 2013 21: 21 New
            +6
            Quote: Albert1988
            Under "leadership" here it is necessary to understand, I think, not so much the king, how much his entourage

            His uncle, the Admiral-General, weighed his mistress with so many jewelry that would be enough not only to complete the "Glory" but also for a couple of cruisers.
            The analogy with Vasilyeva suggests itself.
            Question: if the head of state is not in the know, is he at least incompetent?
            1. Albert1988
              Albert1988 23 September 2013 21: 48 New
              +2
              Quote: Pilat2009
              Question: if the head of state is not in the know, is he at least incompetent?

              Of course, it’s incompetent, Nikolai might have been a good man and father, but as a king, he was absolutely no, in the previous comment I meant that far from it was he who made the main decisions in this war.
              It should also be noted the "peacekeeping" policy of Nikolai, which was expressed in the absence not only of preparation for a real war, but also in the absence of a sufficient number of shooting and other training of the crews of the Russian fleet, and the ships were new, they had to be mastered, and that's what happened what we have (
              1. revnagan
                revnagan 23 September 2013 22: 40 New
                +2
                Quote: Albert1988
                Also worth noting is the "peacekeeping" policy of Nikolai

                It’s a good policy to pay Yap 400 million yen (approx. 400 million silver rubles) for a concession in relation to the Kwantung Peninsula. At that time, the construction of an armored battleship cost about 10 million. A royal gift, nothing to say!
        2. revnagan
          revnagan 23 September 2013 22: 36 New
          0
          Quote: nikcris
          WHAT, the Emperor led a convoy? And the defense of Port Arthur was run by white-collar workers?

          And you. Before scumbagging, read the letter of Stepan Osipovich Makarov to the Main Naval Headquarters and Tyrtov’s resolution on this letter. And, by the way, of course, the tsar did not command the fleet. There was such a great prince Aleksei Aleksandrovich, the tsar’s brother. He commanded the Russian fleet. And the governor Alekseev? And Kuropatkin7 Do these names say anything to you?
          1. Pilat2009
            Pilat2009 24 September 2013 00: 02 New
            0
            Quote: revnagan
            And the governor Alekseev?

            Alekseev is not exactly the one to blame. If, on a direct order for a breakthrough, gentlemen, the admirals invent reasons not to go talking about something ....
  3. Russ69
    Russ69 23 September 2013 10: 04 New
    +4
    Yes, the tragedy of Tsushima greatly affected the entire war with the Japanese.
  4. shurup
    shurup 23 September 2013 10: 20 New
    +4
    The death of Makarov and Witgeft, whom I consider to be the hero of that war, untied the hands of the Japanese.
    In the absence of Nebogatov, the last detachment would not have surrendered.
    1. Yarik
      Yarik 24 September 2013 17: 45 New
      0
      Regarding the surrender ... There was practically nothing to fight there, and there was no one. "Eagle" there (being not yet beaten, in cm.) Was of combat value, and the rest ... And Makarov S.O., by the way, he was a freak too ... "armless ship" is one thing.
      1. Pilat2009
        Pilat2009 24 September 2013 23: 49 New
        0
        Quote: Yarik
        "Eagle" there (being not yet beaten, in cm.) Was of military value

        He just had no idea. And after the war, his team was acquitted.
  5. kapitan281271
    kapitan281271 23 September 2013 10: 21 New
    17
    There is no shame. This is a heroic page of our history, sometimes sometimes the greatest courage and heroism do not lead to victory. Well, and so, there was no victory. There was courage and heroism, and the absence of victory does not cancel these concepts, and accordingly we cannot, and we are obliged to be proud of it. In general, for me the epic of Port Arthur ended in complete victory and the descent of the Japanese flag after a brilliant landing operation on August 23, 1945. All the s *** of the world in the Washington regional committee and in the foggy albion should know and remember the Russians always return even after forty years, but they will come and their eyes will be pulled.
    1. nikcris
      nikcris 23 September 2013 19: 40 New
      +1
      A landing force by the Pacific Fleet in 1945 is incomprehensible to me. There were people in our time ... (c)
      And Kvantuntsev torn just like the last suckers. They (captive slaves) for a long time built roads for us with other bathhouses and kindergartens ...
      1. Witch
        Witch 25 September 2013 15: 29 New
        0
        By belittling the enemy, you downplay the significance of our victory.
        Yapy far from suckers, since almost 2,5 years drove ov ...
    2. mongoose
      mongoose April 12 2014 18: 56 New
      -1
      the loss of the fleet was not yet a defeat in that war, the trans-seaborne earned at the very least, the war was lost because of the "socialists" who unleashed terror against their own people and industry, who staged a "revolution" in 1905 with Japanese money
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. The comment was deleted.
    5. Pyctam
      Pyctam 23 January 2019 16: 17 New
      0
      "... the Russians always come back even after forty years, but they will come ..." more precisely, it was in Otto von Bismarck, "do not hope that once you cheat you will be able to use the Russians, because when you make a commitment the Russians will one day inevitably come and ask and then all your promises will not be worth the paper on which they are written "it seems so if my memory serves me (Battle of the Iron Chancellors, V. Pikul)
  6. Taoist
    Taoist 23 September 2013 13: 38 New
    16
    In general, the Russo-Japanese War is a unique phenomenon in history. The impression is that someone deliberately "rules of probability" to prevent Russia from winning. Here is the death of Makarov (given the fact that he only transferred the flag to Petropavlovsk on that fatal day), here are unique, two consecutive shells in the bridge of the Russian flagship - after Togo gave the order to retreat. And an unexploded Russian shell in Mikasa's bridge ...
    And there are a lot of such "coincidences". Almost all "probabilities" during that war turned for some reason in favor of the Japanese.
    1. Motors1991
      Motors1991 23 September 2013 14: 17 New
      +3
      Rock avenged the Japanese after the war, two months after the end of hostilities, Mikasa exploded, then several more large ships, but unfortunately it was after the war.
    2. Raptor75
      Raptor75 23 September 2013 19: 41 New
      +5
      A similar impression. On land the same thing. Crazy shell - and the soul of defense of General Kondratenko was gone ...
    3. Albert1988
      Albert1988 23 September 2013 21: 05 New
      +4
      In fact, if you go through the literature, then instead of "probabilities" you will see a lot of small fatal details like problems with fuses in Russian shells (hence unexploded shells in Japanese ships), new ships poorly mastered by crews, mixing old and new ships in one squadron , and the total unpreparedness of Russia for thiswar as a whole. Well, in the case of Makarov and Witgeft - yes, here some kind of evil fate worked, alas, anything can happen in war (
  7. SAM0SA
    SAM0SA 23 September 2013 13: 49 New
    +4
    Good article. Also after reading "Tsushima" I could not believe it ... And the boats are really - beauty.
    1. Voodoo
      Voodoo 23 September 2013 18: 06 New
      +2
      Not the word "beauty" ... Simple charm! In addition, unlike the Japanese battleships on our Borodino type, the artillery was located in the towers much more successfully: 2x305 mm guns and 8x152 mm guns could conduct forward fire. Therefore, with the skillful maneuvering of even 4 battleships of the same type of the 2nd Pacific Squadron, they could do a lot of business ... But alas, the mediocrity and cowardice of the squadron command "won" ... All these handsome men went in turn to the bottom, without showing their true combat potential.
      1. Drummer
        Drummer 23 September 2013 18: 23 New
        +2
        The advantage is controversial, because the benefits of accommodation (better crew protection, a larger firing sector) are compensated for by shortcomings (cramped conditions, low practical rate of fire, unreliability of tower mechanisms).
  8. reality
    reality 23 September 2013 14: 39 New
    +6
    the coat of arms of Russia on the nose, in color photography, is the most magnificent that I have seen.
    1. Somad
      Somad 23 September 2013 21: 54 New
      +1
      ... You can see right away - THE RUSSIAN IMPERIAL MILITARY NAVY !!!
  9. berimor
    berimor 23 September 2013 15: 19 New
    +3
    And how quickly these giants of that time were built, huh! Not like today for 10 years or more!
  10. Dimon-chik-79
    Dimon-chik-79 23 September 2013 16: 01 New
    +4
    To the insulting stupidly killed so many people and ships!
    Such power ... but in St. Petersburg they made a decision!
    A lot of fatal fateful decisions that left their mark on the entire subsequent history of the country
    1. nikcris
      nikcris 23 September 2013 19: 47 New
      +1
      "There are a lot of fatal fateful decisions that left their mark on the entire further history of the country"


      Allow, allow! What are these solutions? I'm all - attention !!!
      Is this, permissible, constant kicks to the ass in the thirties? Is that a whistle in the ass about the Covenant? Are these Japanese prisoners for several years without a world war so far? Let them choke and wrap around. sik !!!
  11. RUSS
    RUSS 23 September 2013 16: 21 New
    +4
    Quote: reality
    the coat of arms of Russia on the nose, in color photography, is the most magnificent that I have seen.

    It would be nice to revive the tradition of installing on board but the coat of arms of Russia or the emblem of the Russian Navy.
    1. UVB
      UVB 23 September 2013 18: 18 New
      +2
      According to the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation, the state emblem is established on the stern of ships of the 1st and 2nd rank of the Russian Navy. Although, of course, the coat of arms on modern ships is very modest, it cannot be compared with the imperial fleet. It's a pity...
      1. Witch
        Witch 25 September 2013 15: 31 New
        +1
        Keyword aft ....
  12. slacker
    slacker 23 September 2013 16: 35 New
    +4
    Unfortunately, in the 20th century the Russian fleet failed to prove itself in naval battles. The heroism of the sailors was. This is undeniable. But there were no strategic naval victories over the fleets of the opponents of Russia.
  13. RUSS
    RUSS 23 September 2013 16: 57 New
    +2
    Quote: Loafer
    Unfortunately, in the 20th century the Russian fleet failed to prove itself in naval battles. The heroism of the sailors was. This is undeniable. But there were no strategic naval victories over the fleets of the opponents of Russia.

    All the strategic victories we had were on land, but on the sea, the same Japanese were blown away after the defeat of the Kwantung army in Manchuria, well, the bombing of the Amers led to the complete defeat of the Japanese, and all the sea fuss in the Pacific Ocean does not have anything strategic plan.
    The tasks of the fleet over the past 100 years have changed, there will be no more sea battles, etc., now the supremacy of air, air defense and space, in simple terms.
  14. nikcris
    nikcris 23 September 2013 17: 07 New
    +2
    Quote: Loafer
    Unfortunately, in the 20th century the Russian fleet failed to prove itself in naval battles. The heroism of the sailors was. This is undeniable. But there were no strategic naval victories over the fleets of the opponents of Russia.

    Yes, but there were no strategic opponents after the Japanese either. And is that bad?
  15. Cristall
    Cristall 23 September 2013 17: 59 New
    +2
    As if I re-read Stepanov's Port Artur ...
    the evil rock of that war ... in my opinion we were lucky only once - 2 armadillos were sunk by mines, weakening Togo before the battle near Shatung. And then in return under the Shatung, the Tsesarevich’s circulation gave reason to think that the flagship was returning to Arthur.
    Evil rock ... Makarov, Kondratenko + chief architect and defense engineer, Witgeft, although Essen remained, but he was only a captain.
    except mine, well, no luck anywhere, well, at least a little ... The same Sevastopol was lucky somewhere just frankly, but here it’s like evil rock ... maybe in truth - the land is not Russian .. it didn’t help ...
    The Russo-Japanese war is a lesson ... it's very good rock ... like Franco-Prussian.
    By the way, it seems so - all ships built at overseas shipyards were more tenacious than domestic ones.
    Retwisan withstood the collision of hits, only 11 days of the dead were killed. and then rastlivaya in the harbor. Tsesarevich also survived, no matter what ... Stepan would have better raised his flag on it .. or remained as he was on Askold or Novik. He and Kondratenko - the loss of 2 people led the Russian army and navy to a loss of morale.
    By the way, the novel indicates that Lieutenant Burakov is the fastest destroyer of the RYAV. 36 knots. Interesting case.
    1. Raptor75
      Raptor75 23 September 2013 19: 44 New
      0
      Quote: Cristall
      It would be better if Stepan raised his flag on it.

      IMHO, wherever he lifted it, the outcome was one. You cannot escape fate.
      1. Cristall
        Cristall 24 September 2013 21: 31 New
        +1
        Fate is what we do ourselves.
        I do not believe in fate. By force of will you force yourself to change the decision and voila - everything became different.
        According to the novel Port Arthur - Stepan Osipovich remained behind the prince. And he regretted right away - he did not like the slowness of Sevastopol. He got used to Novik with 25 knots, to Askold from 20, to Bayan with 20 knots .. and here the galosh is slow.
        I don’t understand why Sevastopol was the flagship when Retvisan and Tsesarevich were the best Russian armored ships
        1. saturn.mmm
          saturn.mmm 25 September 2013 10: 12 New
          0
          Quote: Cristall
          Fate is what we do ourselves.
          I do not believe in fate. By force of will you force yourself to change the decision and voila - everything became different.

          I agree. More like a systemic crisis.
  16. mithridate
    mithridate 23 September 2013 18: 02 New
    0
    serious ships, serious heroic people
  17. Walking
    Walking 23 September 2013 18: 27 New
    +2
    "Port Arthur" and "Tsushima" are favorite childhood books.
    1. nikcris
      nikcris 23 September 2013 18: 55 New
      -5
      "Tsushima" - order. Unfortunately talented. Today it is white tape. pt !!!
      1. Alex
        Alex 28 January 2014 19: 19 New
        +1
        Quote: nikcris
        "Tsushima" - order
        As far as I know, no. In the afterword to one of the Tsushima editions, I read that Novikov began writing the first sketches of the novel (then still untitled) in December 1905. In two years the manuscript was ready. I tried to publish it, but in the conditions of reaction after the revolution it was withdrawn. I started writing the second version, now I was in no hurry and paid more attention to describing everyday moments. But then the second revolution arrived and, remembering the sad history of the first manuscript, I left it to my brother for safekeeping. After the Civil War he came to pick up the novel, but he could not remember where he hid it so securely. And only when Novikov finished the third remark, the brother accidentally found the second option in one of the old hives. So from these two was born the one that was published. So, how many orders (or rather, editions) of the post-revolutionary period are there, it is difficult to say. As, incidentally, the truth of this story is also on the conscience of the publisher - it looks too fantastic.
  18. nikcris
    nikcris 23 September 2013 18: 50 New
    +2
    The battleships left - the battleships came. We hardly ever had to fight seriously. And thank God. Vaughn, "Paris Commune" shot their trunks with roses, thrashing at the infantry. And the vile is the one who declares that battleships were not needed because of the lack of digestible targets. There were no targets because of the battleship and cruisers. Restraining factor, aboutPtyle ...
    PS And what did Tirpitz do the whole war? The team ate meat with ersatzkofe and burned what Germany already had just barely enough. And finished in Honduran
  19. nikcris
    nikcris 23 September 2013 20: 08 New
    -2
    Quote: nikcris
    "Tsushima" - order. Unfortunately talented. Today it is white tape. pt !!!

    I was minus here - apparently it's nice to pass off wishful thinking for "effective". I usually pass by, but here I could not resist - minus ones, do you seriously think that "Peter the First" and Tsushima "were simultaneously written in" rassharu "? In these two, fairly fundamental works, do not you find anything in common? Given that the first one wrote Count, and the second - rrrRevolutionary, worthy of hard labor. Think for yourself today - an illiterate sailor calls for the overthrow of everything and everyone, and after 35 years he writes refinement ...
    Sick ...
    1. mongoose
      mongoose April 12 2014 19: 01 New
      -3
      there are many, there is little to defend the point of view, but always minus please
  20. mirror
    mirror 23 September 2013 21: 18 New
    +1
    Somewhere unlucky, somewhere problems with tactics. But what a power! How many armadillos, cruisers were built, what a fleet was! In those days, there were no steeper battleship squadrons in the world of ships. And Russia was not in the back rows. It is a pity that today ships of the 1st rank go to the fleets per unit, and with the second rank it is also not a lot.
  21. CARBON
    CARBON 23 September 2013 21: 33 New
    +2
    Good battleships. They fought heroically, almost all of them were killed in action. For this, they were created. Damage was inflicted to the best of the ability to use them. I read "Tsushima" many times, read it for the first time in the 5th grade. "Tsushima" is a historical novel, nothing more and nothing less, if we discard political propaganda, very useful. For me then and now, this is a monument to a Russian sailor to whom the "path" will not overgrow.
  22. Per se.
    Per se. 23 September 2013 23: 31 New
    +1
    When choosing the basic type of battleship for the new shipbuilding program, the Russian Naval Ministry was forced to decide whether to rely on a domestic project, or use a foreign one. There was an option to use the well-balanced design of the battleship "Prince Potemkin-Tavrichesky" and the version of "Peresvet" with 305 mm artillery. Of the foreign options, the "Retvizan" by the American Ch. Crump was of interest. However, for reasons that would now, obviously, be called "kickback" or "cut", an unexpectedly appeared project of the French company "Forges and Chantier" was approved overnight. Without disputes and judgments, without competition, by the decision of the Grand Duke, the general-admiral, the type of the Russian squadron battleship was determined. So from the French battleship Joregiberri, taken as a basis for A. Lagan's project, the Tsarevich was ordered in France, and in Russia, on its basis, a series of battleships of the Borodino type. This project was criticized by S.O. Makarov, noting the poor stability, which to a large extent exacerbated the construction overload of the repeatedly redesigned project, coal overload before the Battle of Tsushima, which played a fatal role. In fact, by ordering the French high-board Mistrals, with the project being reshaped to worsen the metacentric height, we somehow repeat history. In the photo "Zhoregiberri", which became a model for the base type of the Russian squadron battleship.
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      Andrei from Chelyabinsk 24 September 2013 07: 07 New
      +3
      Quote: Per se.
      There was an option to use the well-balanced design of the battleship "Prince Potemkin-Tavrichesky"

      Good, fit battleship, but not seaworthy + low speed
      Quote: Per se.
      and the "Peresvet" variant with 305 mm artillery.

      A good ship from "Peresvet" still would not work. Weak armor, disgusting car.
      Quote: Per se.
      Of the foreign options, the "Retvizan" by the American Ch. Crump was of interest.

      With Crump, everything is ambiguous. He's still a crook. I guess our 100 times regretted contacting him at all. Although "Retvizan" was good, and probably better than "Tsarevich"
      Quote: Per se.
      that project was criticized by S.O. Makarov, noting the poor stability, which to a large extent was aggravated by the construction overload, a project that was repeatedly redrawn, coal overload before the Tsushima battle, which played its fateful role.

      Yes there was no such special overload. In the photographs of the same "Eagle" after the battle, the armored belt protruding from the water is clearly visible.
      And about the "fatal role" - again, a common myth. How did Suvorov die? The already helpless ship was sunk by torpedoes. "Borodino", judging by the available data, died from the explosion of the cellars (more precisely, the cellar of the 152-mm tower). The eagle did not die at all, although it took a lot of hits. And only "Alexander III", perhaps, can be recorded as perished from loss of stability. But in this case, the big question is - if the battery of 75-mm guns were not so low on the battleships - would he die or not?
      1. Per se.
        Per se. 24 September 2013 08: 26 New
        +3
        According to the project "Prince Potemkin-Tavrichesky", indeed, it should be noted that it is clearly not an oceanic range (as, in fact, the projects "Tsesarevich", "Borodino"), but not bad seaworthiness. It is difficult to argue about Peresvet, but this project would be more interesting as a purely armored cruiser, or even a forerunner of a linear one. The personality of Crump, of course, is ambiguous, but I would not call him a crook, he is a typical representative of an enterprising capitalist, who, nevertheless, offered Russia to quickly build two squadron battleships and two armored cruisers. The battleship "Retvizan" could become a base type, and, with the finalization of the project, become a more reasonable choice for the Russian fleet. About the absence of problems with overloading the "Borodino" project, I do not agree with you, Andrey, this is a fact reflected in the technical literature on this topic. Three of the four battleships of this type were killed in a rollover battle, the "Eagle" had an improved design for leveling the bank, which gave it additional chances, as well as the end of the active phase of the battle. Of course, we must admit that under such a hail of high-explosive shells, and the passivity of Admiral Rozhestvensky, other types of battleships would hardly have survived. What happened, what happened, no matter how bitter it is to realize, having an overall superiority in battleships in Tsushima, and in the fleet as a whole, we lost. The coward Stoessel surrendered Port Arthur, the Second Squadron did not manage to connect with the First Pacific, and Rozhestvensky, could be a good port administrator, but was a mediocre naval commander, far from the talent of Admiral Makarov.
        1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
          Andrei from Chelyabinsk 24 September 2013 09: 56 New
          +3
          Quote: Per se.
          but not bad seaworthiness.

          Look at the side height. Nose - 2 interdeck space, feed - one. At Tsesarevich-Borodino, the side had approximately 3 interdeck in the bow and two in the stern. At retvisan approximately 2,5 in the bow and stern.
          Quote: Per se.
          The battleship "Retvizan" could become a base type, and, with the finalization of the project, become a more reasonable choice for the Russian fleet.

          Yes it could be.
          Quote: Per se.
          About the absence of problems with overloading the "Borodino" project, I do not agree with you, Andrey, this is a fact reflected in the technical literature on this topic.

          Construction overload was a fact. But about coal overload - it seems like a myth.
          Quote: Per se.
          Three of the four battleships of this type died in a rollover battle,

          "Bismarck" also died, capsizing. Did this mean that it had poor stability? :)
          You will understand that the same "Suvorov" clearly received more than any other battleship of all times and peoples. And he went to the bottom only when he was shot with torpedoes. He suffered such damage that no constructive protection could tolerate. "Borodino" turned over after a strong explosion. And the explosion occurred after hitting the area of ​​the 152-mm turret. When a ship's ammunition load takes off into the air, no stability will save it, this is obvious.
          Quote: Per se.
          Of course, we must admit that under such a hail of high-explosive shells, and the passivity of Admiral Rozhestvensky, other types of armadillos would hardly have survived.

          Honestly, I don’t see too much of what Rozhdestvensky could do before he received wounds incompatible with the leadership of the battle.
          It is often said that he should have collapsed the front line against the Japanese at the time of Togo’s loop ... but this is fantasy, Rozhestvensky simply did not have time to do this, even if the EDB developed passport speed.
          1. Per se.
            Per se. 24 September 2013 11: 02 New
            +2
            Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
            "Bismarck" also died, capsizing.
            The difference is, Andrei, that the Bismarck was not actually sunk by the British, but, having spent all the ammunition, was sunk by its crew. The Germans opened the kingstones, hammered the valves with sledgehammers, the wounded battleship sank aft forward and lay down on the starboard side, nevertheless, the Bismarck lay on the ground on an almost even keel. Admiral Togo concentrated the fire of the Japanese squadron on the flagship, bending around the head of the column of Russian ships, I also said that with such a shelling, even the best ship had little chance of surviving. However, Admiral Makarov had previously experimented in the experimental pool with a model of the Borodino-class battleships, even then speaking out about their lack of stability and predisposition to capsizing ships. Of course, it's not just Rozhdestvensky, it was a crisis of the system itself. Nicholas II, having received news of the fall of Port Arthur and the death of the First Squadron, did not make any adjustments to the original plan, and Rozhestvensky himself moved the squadron to Vladivostok by the shortest and most dangerous route, through the Tsushima Strait. The old ships went in the same wake column with the new battleships, there was no battle plan, as such, except for the general course to Vladivostok. Now one can only fantasize what S.O. Makarov or another, more proactive commander could do in his place. The mediocrity of the tsar and the command, nevertheless, does not diminish the courage of our sailors, who practically went around the world, and took battle with a well-equipped, technically prepared and rested enemy in foreign waters.
            1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
              Andrei from Chelyabinsk 24 September 2013 12: 15 New
              +3
              Quote: Per se.
              The difference is, Andrei, that the Bismarck was not actually sunk by the British, but, having spent all the ammunition, was sunk by its crew.

              But Müllenheim-Rechberg categorically disagrees with you, he claims that the battleship was sinking even before the Kingstones were discovered. And since, unlike us, he was personally at the Bismarck, his words are quite trustworthy.
              But if you are not convinced by "Bismarck" - his brother "Tirpitz" actually turned over too :)
              Quote: Per se.
              nevertheless, on the ground, "Bismarck" lay on an almost flat keel

              So he spun, while he sank, all the towers of the main caliber fell out
              Quote: Per se.
              However, Admiral Makarov had previously experimented in the experimental pool with a model of the Borodino-class battleships, even then speaking out about their lack of stability and predisposition to capsizing ships.

              Theoretically - it is certainly so, because a ship with a littered side is inferior to buoyancy to the usual one. But nevertheless, in my opinion, Borodino-type EDBs showed very good stability indicators.
              Quote: Per se.
              while Rozhestvensky himself moved the squadron to Vladivostok in the shortest and most dangerous way, through the Tsushima Strait.

              Right. But I would not say that walking the Sangar Strait or Laperusa was obviously better.
              Quote: Per se.
              Old ships marched in the same wake column with new armadillos

              And what was the point of separating them? The newest battleships did not have an advantage in speed (Borodino's problems with the machine began already on 14 nodes)
              Quote: Per se.
              Now we can only fantasize what S.O. Makarov or another, more proactive commander could do in his place.

              It's right.
              1. Per se.
                Per se. 24 September 2013 13: 42 New
                +1
                Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
                he claims that the battleship was drowning even before the kingstones opened.
                There is no contradiction here, after the battle with the British squadron "Bismarck" was badly damaged, when the battleship's guns fell silent, the approaching British ships fired at the "Bismarck", like in a shooting range. After the withdrawal of the British battleships, which ran out of fuel, the Dorsetshire cruiser approached and fired two torpedoes into the Bismarck's starboard side, then another on the port side, but the flaming battleship kept afloat only after the survivors opened the Kingston , the battleship actually began to submerge. The fact that the Tirpitz turned over, so, Andrei, and it is not surprising if the damaged ship was bombed by 32 Lancaster, and he received three Tallboy bombs, each about five tons in weight, plus two fell in the immediate vicinity. Here and the round battleship "float" Popov would have turned over. I agree that the speed of our ships dropped, but it still differed for different groups of ships, the main thing, besides speed, was the factor of maneuver, the factor of the range of new and old guns. Two or three detachments, formed taking into account these factors, would have provided better conditions for battle, especially since our column was so stretched that the tail could not shoot over the head and could not successfully maneuver.
      2. Alexandra
        Alexandra 24 May 2018 18: 30 New
        0
        Yes there was no such special overload. In the photographs of the same "Eagle" after the battle, the armored belt protruding from the water is clearly visible.


        Upper belt.

        "When the Eagle was brought to Maizuru, it had a draft of 27.5 feet with the bow and aft of 29.3 feet. Obviously, during the battle, the ship received some water, but since part of the ammunition and coal was consumed during the battle, having accepted the draft of the ship in battle equal to 28.5–29 ft, we will not make a big mistake. It is very likely that the load of the remaining ships of this type was approximately the same. Although this value is noticeably higher than the nominal design draft, it is not excessively high for ships in full load (in the completed form) and corresponds to a displacement of just over 15000 tons with a metacentric height of 2.5 feet (about 0.75 m). The indicated metacentric height is completely inadequate to the actual height of the armor protection with an average draft of 28.5–29 feet. With such a draft of 7.5 ", the belt will be 12-18" ( 30–46 cm) below the actual water line in the midsection, and the upper edge 6 "of the upper belt is only 3.5–4 feet (1–1.2 m) above the water level in a calm sea."

        if the battery of 75-mm guns weren’t so low on the battleships, would he die or not?


        It is clear that the ports of the 75 mm battery located next to the waterline (along with a circulation roll and a tendency to significant rolls when other heeling moments occur, in particular during Tsushima "fire water" in the rooms) were one of the main "Achilles heels" of the project.

        If the battleships of the Borodino type were designed on the basis of the Retvisan, and not the Tsesarevich, while retaining all the positive features of the Retvisan, including fire fighting (metal furniture, asbestos shields instead of corks), there would be no large-scale fires , nor the incapacitation of almost all large and medium-caliber artillery, nor the dramatic decrease in stability, which could lead to rollover on circulation.

        “The Suvorov, Alexander, and Borodino died at about 7 p.m., having survived the terrifying concentrated fire of twelve enemy ships during the entire daytime battle on May 14, which lasted more than five hours. At the time of their death, these ships had already lost their combat offensive power and represented only floating skeletons embraced by continuous fires, devoid of almost all artillery, used up ammunition and with the destroyed freeboard above the waist armor. They lost the ability to deliver sensitive blows to the enemy and turned into low-sided monitors with a surface armored board 5 feet high. They were threatened with a roll over during roll, accompanied by the immersion of the main belt armor. "(C) Kostenko
  23. SIT
    SIT 23 September 2013 23: 31 New
    0
    The Japans might not have started a war if they had not seen the complete gouging of the Russian command. In a clearly threatened period, the best armored cruisers of the squadron of Rurik, Russia, Gromoboy stand in Vladivostok, the newest cruiser of the 1st rank Varyag with only one gunboat stands in Chemulpo, there is no protection from the external raid of the base - Japanese destroyers shoot like in exercises. If the whole squadron had been fisted even in Vladik, at least in Port Arthur, and the OVR service had been established, Admiral Togo would have thought a hundred times before engaging in such a dubious matter as a squadron battle with the 1st Pacific squadron in full force.
    1. Pilat2009
      Pilat2009 24 September 2013 00: 21 New
      +1
      Quote: SIT
      at least in Vladik, at least in Port Arthur,

      Vladik is a freezing port. In January, you won’t swim there especially and the communications are far away. The dock was not there.
      These three cruisers benefited more than the entire squadron when they roamed the rear and distracted the floor of the Japanese squadron.
    2. nikcris
      nikcris 24 September 2013 00: 49 New
      -1
      The cruiser Varyag was an unfinished American rattle. Therefore, I could not disperse the destroyers. Therefore, having lifted it, they sawed it up like Soviet carriers of the Yak-38
      1. Witch
        Witch 25 September 2013 15: 39 New
        +1
        Quote: nikcris
        Therefore, lifting it, sawed like Soviet carriers Yak-38

        This is when it was sawn? At 24? And until the 17th, at the very least, he served in the Japanese Imperial Navy ...
    3. Motors1991
      Motors1991 24 September 2013 14: 57 New
      +1
      I will express my point of view on that war. The main reason for the defeat is the passivity of the Russians, both at sea and on land. The Japanese ALWAYS went into battle at the sight of Russian ships and vice versa the imperial fleet regularly refused to fight and hid in Arthur. Maybe Makarov something and did, in any case, he was the most initiative, but why did they load sea mines in Petrapavlovsk? He himself couldn’t put them, stupidity is utter. Most likely, when they were detonated by a mine, they detonated, because other Russian ships They were blown up by mines and none of them died. Further, in my opinion, Peresvet, and even better Victory (this is the fastest battleship) was better to keep in Vladivostok as the leader of the cruisers, in which case the Vladivostok detachment received combat stability against the Japanese cruisers and Rurik would not have died then. Moreover, the Japanese would have to single out one or two battleships against Vladivostok, i.e. in this case they would have to split up their already not very large forces. But the Russian teams It didn’t do this, and in the very first battle the Vladivostok people were seriously defeated, after which at the decisive moment during the Tsushima battle they didn’t even put their nose out of the base. My opinion is that the war was lost only because the Japanese imposed their will and their scenario on us. wars. And then there were accidents that played in favor of those who wanted to win more. As Napoleon used to say: God is on the side of strong battalions, But we did not want to be strong.
      1. Cristall
        Cristall 24 September 2013 21: 49 New
        0
        maybe they took on board 50 minutes so that there was a version about the explosion timer and versions of enemy agents.
        But rushed to be healthy. They took the ship and the ambitions of the Russian fleet to action.
        I agree - passivity. Failure to fulfill the initial plan of the General Staff - supremacy at sea. They wrote off the reason for the losses of the Varangian, Korean, Boyarin and Sevastopol. Well, repairs of damaged battleships.
        At first, it was banned due to repairs, then due to losses and then "due to the falling superiority" of the Japanese armored squadron.
        Until the Imperial decree came - the squadron pickled only the sky - smoking it.
        The only success is mines. And what - they did not take advantage of the loss and shock of the Japanese, their panic Did not come out at all (more precisely, they left but many hours later) to attack!
        If it weren’t for Nicholas, everyone would have died in Arthur, there would be no Shatung! There would be no surviving internment vessels!
        In general, the 1st Pacific Squadron itself could decide the outcome of the naval war. It's my opinion. She was prepared for this and the composition was decent. Another thing is that the geniuses of the war did not appear (those that were evil rock took immediately) among the highest authorities.
        Some mediocrity without a pointer from Peter.
        The Japanese base, cadis Sasebo and Nagasaki .. and the trade routes from Yokohama ... ehh there would be a cruising squad ... well, damn it, the British and Americans were afraid ...
        as the hero of the novel said - We are actually fighting the triumvirate of Japan-USA-England and drown English ships if smuggling-the Russian people will thank you.
  24. nikcris
    nikcris 24 September 2013 00: 44 New
    +2
    Quote: revnagan
    Quote: nikcris
    WHAT, the Emperor led a convoy? And the defense of Port Arthur was run by white-collar workers?

    And you. Before scumbagging, read the letter of Stepan Osipovich Makarov to the Main Naval Headquarters and Tyrtov’s resolution on this letter. And, by the way, of course, the tsar did not command the fleet. There was such a great prince Aleksei Aleksandrovich, the tsar’s brother. He commanded the Russian fleet. And the governor Alekseev? And Kuropatkin7 Do these names say anything to you?

    They say. The fleet died without lowering the Flag. And the famous cruiser "Aurora" flew to Malaysia (?)
    PS Why is there a song about "Varyag", but about a squadron - slops. Aren't they in similar situations? Did the squadron lower flags and courageously surrender to captivity in such circumstances in which the Europeans pooped cheerfully in front of each other? And the rudeness of Novikov-Surf about the "stupidity" of taking the place of the leader in the ranks by another "whipping boy" is on his conscience - he, the sailor, knew FSE, FSE saw ...
    Ugh!
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      Andrei from Chelyabinsk 24 September 2013 10: 23 New
      +2
      Quote: nikcris
      And the famous cruiser "Aurora" flew to Malaysia (?)

      The cruiser did not flee, but interned, because received great damage in battle and could not go to Vladivostok
      Quote: nikcris
      PS Why is there a song about "Varyag", but about a squadron - slops.

      Probably because the Varangian came out alone against the 6 cruisers, and did not allow them to drown either to defeat, and the squadron of Rozhestvensky had an approximately equal number of troops (12 armored ships against the 12 Japanese) but was destroyed and the rest surrendered?
      Quote: nikcris
      Did flags drop on the squadron and surrendered courageously

      As always, it was this way and that. The sailors "Suvorov", "Alexander III", "Borodino", "Oslyabi", "Navarina", "Sisoi the Great", "Admiral Ushakov" did not turn off the combat course and died with honor - for all time! Yes, and the cruisers ("Oleg" with "Aurora") managed to whip with almost all 15 Japanese cruisers ... But there was also Nebogatov.
      Quote: nikcris
      And the rudeness of Novikov-Priboy

      The creativity of this bachelor in general is very far from reality
    2. Alex
      Alex 28 January 2014 19: 55 New
      +1
      Quote: nikcris
      Why is the song about "Varyag"
      Yes, because he was alone (okay, two: "you forget about the Koreyets", as Rudnev said in the film of the same name) against the squadron (I will not use the obligatory word "whole" - and that's enough to do it). And at the same time he did not die in battle, but left him.

      In the Tsushima battle there was an approximate parity in power and a stunning defeat. The heroism and dedication of the sailors and officers of combat units only aggravates the feeling of depression and pain in pain after this vivid demonstration of the incompetence of senior management.
  25. RomanN
    RomanN 25 September 2013 15: 33 New
    +2
    In addition to Rozhdestvensky’s passivity, our unexploded ordnance played a role: several dozen different calibers hit the mikasu, and only two 12-inch ones exploded (it’s not said about the medium caliber in their museum that the ekosuka had), a 12d shell hit the gunpowder cellar, only the fuse having damaged the packing of the fragments with shrapnel. 16 different-caliber shells (12 and 6 inches) were hit by the willows in Tsushima and not one exploded, and some of them flew right through. The artillery of Navarino Ushakov Senyavin and Aprilksin was inferior in range to even 8 inch armored artillery of the armored , so their participation in the battle was in no way. The Vladivostok cruisers joined the 2nd Pacific. the squadron but Gromoboy was blown up by a mine and had to return.
  26. Ulysses
    Ulysses 25 September 2013 17: 10 New
    +1
    Is retvisan the best ??
    The best in the Port Arthur squadron was the ancient "Sevastopol" under the command of the best combat commander at that time, N.O. Essen.
    You will find about his further destiny in "Google".
  27. Ulysses
    Ulysses 25 September 2013 17: 22 New
    0
    A couple of people were saved from "Alexander" during Tsushima. (Out of six hundred crew)
    The "Guard" did not escape.
  28. unknown
    unknown 28 September 2013 20: 04 New
    +2
    Japanese ships had a building overload no less than domestic.
    And by design they did not represent anything revolutionary.
    The Turks during the Dardanelles operation, without any problems, dealt with standard British armadillos.
    And this type of armored cruiser is essentially weak and slow-moving (actual speed is from 14 to 17 knots) no one repeated the battleship.
    It has already been written about shimosa that it was 1,45 times inferior to pyroxylin in terms of explosiveness.
    In addition, a part, or perhaps a large one, of shells for the second esradra was made in Germany.
    The range of the real battle was completely acceptable for the guns of the so-called obsolete Russian ships. Well, the British did not have such fire control devices. They have not yet created it.
    The real speed of Japanese ships was no higher than that of Russians.
    Real operational, due to the technical condition of the ships, and not achieved once on re-facilitated for testing, so as not to pay a fine, or, conversely, to demand a premium.
    Yes, and the real rate of fire of the Russians was higher. Already during the WWI, the Japanese began to abandon the heavy six-inch caliber and switched to a 140mm caliber with a lighter projectile.
    The Japanese did not show any special military art in Tsushima.
    The Russians dragged along with the speed of an artillery shield in training firing.
    Completely gave the initiative to the enemy.
    The result is a complete defeat.
  29. Alex
    Alex 28 January 2014 20: 22 New
    +3
    I also respect dreadnought battleships, but I just love battleships. There is something attractive in these masses of harmony of steel and steam. And he also fell in love after Novikov-Surf's Tsushima. These were later the films "Cruiser" Varyag "" "," Ships storm the bastions "and" Admiral Ushakov ". Even if they sin against historical truth, patriotism (without the prefix "hurray -") and loyalty to the Motherland have brought up strong. And for those who criticize "this battalion" - first write at least one story, story, essay (I am silent about the novel, most likely my gut is thin), and so that people - from boys to pensioners - read - then we will talk about historical truthfulness, millimeters of armor and calibers, speed knots and course angles ... Criticizing the net, especially in relation to the dead, is not a tricky business.
  30. Ognjen26
    Ognjen26 8 March 2018 21: 56 New
    0
    On the Navarino there were actually 35-gauge 12-inch guns, and it is mentioned in the "main caliber of the Russian fleet" section, where we are talking about a 12-inch gun of the Obukhov plant with a barrel length of 40 calibers. A typo, however!
    P.S. The decision to build a series of battleships on the project "Crown Prince" raises many questions. After all, “Retvisan” was much closer in architecture to Russian battleships. And even the real Borodino series could have been built earlier. But alas ... First, for a long time they discussed corrections to the Tsesarevich project, then they dragged it on with the order, as well as with the repair of old ships. And as a result - the total unpreparedness of the fleet for war. Without reserves, without stocks of barrels and machine tools, without a repair base in the Far East ... It seems that the fleet in the war with Japan could not get victory.