Military Review

The concept of an automated battle management system

54
The concept of an automated battle management system



Historical overview

During the last 30 years in the USSR, the United States and Russia, several automated control systems for combat operations of the Ground Forces (ACCS) were created - Maneuver, GCCS-A, ATCCS, FBCB2, ESU TZ and Andromeda-D. They had a different scope of implementation of the command and control functions, but they coincided in the general approach to automation.

These systems were created in the image and likeness of the organizational and management structure of the Land Forces. Being from a technical point of view, hardware and software systems, automated systems multiplied the shortcomings of the organizational and management structure:
- lack of horizontal communication between units of different types of troops;
- vulnerability of the entire system in case of failure of the upper level;
- reduced speed of information passing between departments of the same level, forced to communicate with each other through the upper level.

The development of systems was also carried out in a hierarchical sequence - first the functional composition of the upper level was implemented, then the middle level, and only then the lower level, with the priority of completeness of the implementation of functions determined in the same sequence. As a result, automated control systems were built according to the same type of centro-oriented scheme:
- center of automated control of the upper level;
- mid-level automated control centers;
- centers of automated control of the lower level.

As can be seen from the diagram, the fire control systems (LMS) were not included in the ASUV tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, self-propelled artillery, air defense / missile defense systems.

The development of ACCS was carried out when the development of the basics of command and control was lagging behind - communications. The creation of a multitude of multi-level automated control centers resulted in intensive information exchange between them, which significantly increased the need for bandwidth of communication channels. The situation was aggravated by the mobile nature of the lower level centers, which required a fundamentally new solution in the field of radio communications.

Initially it was clear that the information exchange will consist not only and not so much of voice communication, but will include data transmission, as well as graphic images and streaming video. Formats of digital, textual, graphic, and video information must be compatible with the onboard control systems of numerous types of weapons and tool reconnaissance. In this case, the method of information exchange in a combat situation must withstand the failure of part of transit nodes and communication channels. These circumstances imposed strict requirements for the unification of information exchange rules, which were not fully implemented in any ACCS.

This was due to improper goal-setting at the stage of developing concepts, setting goals and determining priorities for creating systems. Since the automated control centers were to be located at the level of the headquarters of military units, units and subunits, the goals and objectives were chosen based on the staff requirements for the ACCS functions:
- situational awareness of the operational-tactical situation;
- integrated planning of combat operations;
- simulation of combat operations before they start.

The acceleration of the decision-making process at the staff level had too little impact on reducing the response time to the changing operational and tactical situation of the entire military unit, unit or subunit.

Choosing the purpose of automatic control system

The purpose of creating an automated system should be to reduce the period of time between the moment of detection of the enemy and the moment of his destruction.

The ASCS should become an instrument for coordinating the actions of all combatants. The source of information should be reconnaissance complexes, information receivers - specialized automated control systems of the air defense / anti-missile defense systems and the control systems of combat vehicles / infantry.

The interaction of combatants must take place on a bilateral basis, "advanced unit - fire support unit" in real time (to the best include, including intelligence units). The main type of interaction is the transmission of the coordinates and the type of the target through the communication channel and the response fire effect on the target.



Responsibility for assigning targets according to their priority lies with the commander of the advanced unit, the responsibility for choosing the type and quantity of ammunition for their defeat is the commander of the support unit. The exception to this rule is the use as a fire support of the regular forces of an advanced unit, which are apart from the battle formations, or an unmanned / crewless combat vehicle, the weapon operator of which is actually the commander of the advanced unit.

In this regard, the automatic control system should be based on a terminal-oriented scheme:
- the full functionality of the automated command and control system should be implemented at the level of infantry terminals and the OMS of combat vehicles;
- the upstream automated control centers should use the capabilities of infantry terminals and the SLA of combat vehicles (separation level centers) or downstream centers (platoon level, company level, battalion level centers, etc.).

The ACCS structure takes the form of a set of local centers with coinciding functionality but limited competence. At the same time, in the informational sense, the automated command and control centers are an equal participant in the hostilities, along with the terminals of infantrymen and the JMA of combat vehicles. The exception to this rule arises only at the stage of planning combat operations, when all subordinate centers operate under the control of higher centers.

Setting tasks ACS

communication


Despite the fact that the communication system should not be part of the automated control system, the development project of the latter should be coordinated with the development of a new communication system with high bandwidth and high fault tolerance.

In the military sphere, the main method of transmitting information is the HF and VHF radio communications. An increase in radio transmission capacity is achieved by switching to higher frequencies than those that are already used. The decimeter range of radio waves is used for cellular telephony. Therefore, for automatic control systems, you will need to use a centimeter radio wave with a frequency from 3 to 30 GHz (microwave communication). Radio waves of this range propagate within the direct line of sight, but are distinguished by strong attenuation when passing through vertical obstacles such as walls of buildings and tree trunks. To circumvent them, microwave communication repeaters must be placed in the air aboard a UAV. In order to minimize the darkened zones, the maximum angle of inclination of the radiation to the surface of the earth should not exceed 45 degrees.



To maintain a constant radio contact in the microwave communication network, it is required to abandon the existing trunk scheme “one base station - multiple subscriber radio transmitters” and go to the zonal scheme “multiple host stations - multiple subscriber radio transmitters”. Node stations - repeaters should be placed at the vertices of a topological network with triangular cells (cells). Each hub station must provide the following functions:
- channel switching at the request of subscribers;
- retransmission of signals between subscriber radio transmitters;
- retransmission of signals between network zones;
- retransmission of signals from / to stationary subscriber radio transmitters serving as gateways to the wired communication system;
- retransmission of signals from / to the satellite communication system.

Depending on the class of the UAV, the height of the nodal stations above the ground will be from 6 to 12 km. At the maximum angle of inclination of the radiation, the radius of the bond service will be in the same range of values. In order to overlap the service areas, the distance between the hubs should be halved, with each station being equipped with six emitters (by the number of zones converging in one top of the topological network) operating in different frequency bands of the same band. Thus, high fault tolerance of the network is achieved by sevenfold redundancy of nodal stations.

Additional degree of fault tolerance of microwave communications is provided by dislocating UAV repeaters only over their territory, covering network nodes using short-range ground-based air defense / anti-missile systems and using direct satellite communications of the same frequency range when conducting combat operations in the rear of the enemy. The air-based hubs do not cancel the use of short-range ground repeaters intended for use in the conduct of hostilities inside the premises with radiotight ceilings.

Noise immunity is achieved by using coding technology of communication channels in a broadband bandwidth in accordance with the CDMA standard, which differs in noise-like signal spectrum, support of dedicated data / voice channels or combining several channels for streaming video. The signals reflected from natural obstacles are summed with the main signal using multi-channel antennas of the UAV-repeater, which increases the noise immunity of the system. Communication with each subscriber is supported by at least two beams, allowing the subscriber to transfer between different nodes and zones of the network without loss of communication. The use of highly targeted radiation makes it possible to accurately determine the location of network subscribers.

Information protocols and formats

In the microwave communication system is proposed to use the network protocol IP. This protocol provides guaranteed delivery of information messages, consisting of separate packets, on any of the possible routes that pass through network nodes and connect two or more subscribers. Communication is interrupted only in case of failure of all network nodes. Information is transmitted in digital form.

Routers that control the composition of the network using the OSPF dynamic routing protocol should be used as switches at microwave nodes. The protocol supports automatic reconfiguration of zones, nodes and channels in case of failure of a part of routers.

In order to ensure the joint transmission of data, voice and video streaming, it is proposed to use MPLS technology based on the assignment of unified tags to information packets, regardless of the specialized protocol supporting the transfer of information of a certain type. Tags address information through the through channel and allow you to prioritize the transmission of various messages.

Specialized protocols are standard solutions tested on the Internet:
- TCP data transfer protocol;
- Voice over IP protocol;
- RTP streaming video transmission protocol.

It is proposed to use HTTP with the MIME extension as the data transfer protocol at the application level. Information formats include HTML (text), JPEG (stills), MID / MIF (map data), MP3 (sound) and MPEG (video).

Functional composition of automatic control systems

In addition to the main functions - ensuring situational awareness of the operational-tactical situation, integrated planning of combat operations and their simulation - the automated command and control system should provide additional functions:
- monitoring the interaction of advanced units with fire support units by monitoring the content of information exchange between them;
- correction of this interaction through the redistribution of fire support units;
- management of intelligence units not assigned to advanced units;
- management of fire support units not assigned to advanced units;
- interaction with fire support forces that are part of a higher military unit, unit or compound by transferring coordinates and types of targets.

Situational awareness should be provided by compiling information from the infantry of the advanced units, fire support units and intelligence units, as well as from upper-level ACCS. Summarized data on the operational-tactical situation is automatically distributed in the automated control system of a lower and higher level. The data received from the upper level ACCS is distributed to the lower level with a lesser degree of detail.

The planning of combat operations is carried out in the course of an iterative exchange of draft plans prepared in the lower, middle and upper level ACCSs with the adoption of a final decision at the middle level.

Simulation of combat actions based on data on operational-tactical situation should be made on an ongoing basis in real time with the issuance, at the request of projects, of short, medium and long-term plans for decision-making by the command of a subunit, unit or formation.

ACCS structure

The structure of the automated command and control system is formed by infantry terminals, control systems for combat vehicles and automated centers. Each level of ground forces control has its own automated control centers. The management levels of the headquarters organization have the main and reserve / spare centers. Only one of these centers provides automated management, while the others serve as information replication centers.

Reservation of automated control centers is carried out according to the following scheme:
- when the main center is out of operation, one of the reserve centers performs its duties;
- when the last spare top level center is out of order, its duties are performed by the first lower level center (right up to the infantry terminal);
- upon disposal of the first center of the lower level, the duties of the center of the upper level are performed by the second center of the lower level, etc.

The infantry terminals and automated control centers at the subunit level are equipped with wearable equipment, the parts level centers with portable equipment, the combat vehicle control systems and the connection level centers with portable equipment. Wearable hardware is made in the form of a single module connected to an external antenna. Portable equipment consists of several modules, the dimensions of which provide for the center to be deployed on board a combat vehicle. The carrying equipment consists of several modules mounted in a metal container with an integrated air cooling system.

Terminals automated process control systems and control systems for combat vehicles

The infantry terminal is designed for individual equipment of privates, sergeants, officers and generals of the Land Forces. The terminal performs the functions of a subscriber microwave transceiver, computing and navigation devices, as well as an SMS weapons.

The terminal is made in the form of a pocket communicator with a sealed metal case, inside which are a processor, RAM, read-only memory, battery, radio modem, ports for connecting external antenna and information display device, wired communication line input and power supply connector. In addition, the communicator contains a receiver of the global satellite positioning system and a block of autonomous inertial positioning system.

The communicator is equipped with an external antenna in one of two options:
- omnidirectional whip antenna;
- a narrowly focused phased antenna array (HEADLAMP), forming a tracking radio beam in the direction of the microwave radio zone station or the satellite communications system orbit.

Whip antenna is installed directly into the port of the communicator and is designed for wireless communication inside the shielded room. Complete with a pin antenna and a low-power on-board microwave repeater, the communicator provides distributed work for the commanders of divisions and headquarters operators located at mobile command posts on board command and staff machines, helicopters and airplanes.



The HEADLIGHT is made in the form of a dome shell formed by a flexible printed circuit board, on the front side of which there are radiating elements, on the reverse side - a shielding metal coating. The dome shell is embedded inside the polymer helmet of an infantryman and is connected to the communicator using a coaxial cable. The HEADLIGHT is designed for mobile radio communications with automated control centers, other communicators and SMS of combat vehicles.



The tracking beam of the phased array allows an antenna to reduce the radiation power by an order of magnitude, to eliminate the radio-visibility of the transmitters and to provide for microwave repeaters the possibility of spatial selection of radio-rays and sources of interference created by the enemy using EW tools.

The information display device consists of projection glasses, ear speakers / microphones that transmit sound through the bone tissue of the skull, and a fiber optic cable connecting the communicator port with projection glasses. The port contains radiating and receiving optical matrices, as well as optoelectronic modulators. Projection glasses consist of a frame, protective lenses, prismatic projectors, external and internal lenses. Ear speakers / microphones contain optoacoustic vibrators. The image is transmitted in three ranges of the optical spectrum - visible from the matrix to the projectors, infrared from the matrix to the internal lenses and back, as well as thermal from the external lenses to the matrix. Sound is transmitted in the form of modulated optical radiation between modulators and vibrators.



The thermal image of the terrain, taken by external lenses and processed by the processor, is converted into the visible and projected on the inner surface of the protective lenses, including those with magnification. At the same time, the thermal image is combined with a digital topographic map stored in the permanent storage device to determine the coordinates and the distance to the targets. Tactical marks, reticle, virtual buttons, cursor, etc. are projected on the surface of the protective lenses. Infrared radiation, reflected from the pupils of the eyes, serves to position the cursor in the field of view of the glasses. The communicator is controlled by voice commands and hand gestures.

The communicator serves as the MSA of a portable weapon - assault and sniper rifles, machine guns, rocket and automatic grenade launchers. A weapon is aimed at a target by combining the line of sight of the sights with a virtual projection of this line, calculated by the processor, taking into account the coordinates, range and speed of the target.

The MSA of a combat vehicle consists of onboard surveillance devices, communications, computing and navigation equipment and PAR. Crew members are connected to the OMS via an internal wire line through unified communicators. Helmet projection visors are used in combination with ear speakers / microphones as information display devices. Outside the combat vehicle, a wireless microwave link is maintained using dome headlamps built into the crews' helmets.

Hardware-software ACS

Information Security


Information security in communication channels should be provided using symmetric encryption using private keys, which are regularly replaced with new ones using asymmetric encryption using public keys.

Computer processors must have unique identification numbers that are taken into account when encrypting information in communication channels and allow you to block outgoing messages in case equipment falls into the hands of an adversary. Blocking outgoing messages does not exclude the analysis of their content by the electronic intelligence service.

Communicators must maintain a monitoring mode for their location (by direction finding of radiation) and the physical state of carriers of communicators (by controlling breathing with the help of vibrating microphones). If the communicator enters the enemy’s territory or if the carrier of the communicator loses consciousness, outgoing messages are also blocked.

Hardware

Computer hardware must be produced on the domestic element base using certified imported components.

In order to minimize power consumption and heat dissipation of hardware, it must use multi-core processors and solid-state devices for permanent storage of information.

To protect against the effects of high-power electromagnetic pulses, the electronic equipment and external power supplies are placed in sealed metal enclosures with conductive cooling. In the antenna inputs are mounted fuses in the form of avalanche-span diodes. Radio frequency and power supply cables are shielded with metal braid. Wired communication lines are made of optical fiber.

Software

Computer software must be developed in accordance with data transfer protocols and information presentation formats that meet international standards.

System software, including embedded input / output system, operating system, file system and database management system, should consist only of domestic software products in order to prevent unauthorized access to information, intercept control and disable computer hardware and weapons.

Application software may contain both domestic and imported components, subject to the supply of the latter with open source code and a description of the flowcharts of the algorithms used.
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  1. Nukem999
    Nukem999 21 September 2013 08: 11 New
    +3
    ....................
    1. MG42
      MG42 21 September 2013 08: 20 New
      +6
      I watched the video .. >> it looks more like a counter-terrorist operation than a war, it all comes down to the use of drones and high-precision weapons + satellite data, the operator only needs to press the buttons, and how the system will work in real counteraction against air defense and aviation of a serious enemy, and those goals will not be static either .. hi What if EMP?
      1. Drummer
        Drummer 21 September 2013 10: 10 New
        +5
        It depends on what ends faster: the air defense and the air force of a serious enemy or strike UAV frivolous. As for EMP, who do you think will suffer more from it: the one who has robots on Mars for 10 years, or the one who has the largest satellite constellation in the Pacific Ocean?
        1. MG42
          MG42 21 September 2013 14: 47 New
          +4
          Quote: Drummer
          It depends on what ends faster: the air defense and the air force of a serious enemy or strike UAVs that are not serious.

          The main thing is that the batteries do not drain from computer warriors at the most inopportune moment ..
          1. Geisenberg
            Geisenberg 22 September 2013 13: 23 New
            -3
            Quote: MG42
            Quote: Drummer
            It depends on what ends faster: the air defense and the air force of a serious enemy or strike UAVs that are not serious.

            The main thing is that the batteries do not drain from computer warriors at the most inopportune moment ..


            Hydrogen fuel cells are likely. In extreme cases, chemical batteries with uranium. They do not care, they will not suffer on the island ...
        2. rolik
          rolik 21 September 2013 22: 05 New
          +1
          Quote: Drummer
          who has the most satellite constellation in the Pacific?

          The guys from NATO conducted a small experiment with the participation of their super electronically filled missiles and other electronically filled military equipment. The explosion of an EMP bomb produced in the 90s completely leaked all the microcircuits that are in the rigging of all NATO's ideal weapons. All they had to do was say Amen to the money spent on all this bunch of pieces of iron.
        3. Geisenberg
          Geisenberg 22 September 2013 13: 28 New
          +1
          Quote: Drummer
          It depends on what ends faster: the air defense and the air force of a serious enemy or strike UAV frivolous. As for EMP, who do you think will suffer more from it: the one who has robots on Mars for 10 years, or the one who has the largest satellite constellation in the Pacific Ocean?


          Properly stated. It is not clear why they are minus. Air defense is cheaper and faster, naturally the Air Force will end faster. Only the Air Force will go when the tomahawks run out, and there are a lot of them indecent. To the second question, I note that those with more fine electronics and fewer people in the control process will suffer from EMR. In any case, if the invasion begins with the massive use of robotic weapons, satellites will begin to shoot down in the first place.
      2. Geisenberg
        Geisenberg 22 September 2013 13: 20 New
        +1
        Quote: MG42
        I watched the video .. >> it looks more like a counter-terrorist operation than a war, it all comes down to the use of drones and high-precision weapons + satellite data, the operator only needs to press the buttons, and how the system will work in real counteraction against air defense and aviation of a serious enemy, and those goals will not be static either .. hi


        And you hi

        This is just an American understanding of not only war but the world order. Sitting in the bunker, the snitch presses the buttons, and at the other end of the world bombs fall and cruise missiles fly. There was such a song with the words "injected by robots - a happy person", and that's what they strive for.

        What if EMP?


        And what is the source ?? And then maybe a shock wave will be enough? laughing
        1. MG42
          MG42 23 September 2013 14: 44 New
          +2
          Quote: Geisenberg
          What if EMP?

          And what is the source ?? And then maybe a shock wave will be enough?

          EMP is not only the damaging factor of a nuclear explosion, but EMP can be created without it .. >>

          An EMP weapon can be created both in the form of stationary and mobile electronic complexes of directional radiation, and in the form of electromagnetic ammunition (EMB) delivered to a target using artillery shells, mines, guided missiles, air bombs, etc.
          It is possible to develop compact models of EMR weapons for sabotage and terrorist purposes.

          The EMB is based on methods for converting the chemical energy of an explosion, combustion, and direct current electric energy into
          high power electromagnetic field. The solution to the problem of creating EMI ammunition is associated primarily with the presence of compact radiation sources that could be located in the compartments of the warhead of guided missiles, as well as in artillery shells.
          The most compact energy sources for EMB today are spiral explosive magnetic generators (VMGs), or generators with explosive compression of the magnetic field, having the best specific energy density by mass (100 kJ / kg) and volume (10 kJ / cm3), as well as explosive magnetodynamic generators (VMDG). Explosive energy is converted into explosive materials in a VMG into magnetic field energy with an efficiency of up to 10%, and with an optimal choice of VMG parameters, even up to 20%. This type of device is capable of generating pulses of energy of tens of megajoules and a duration of up to 100 μs. Peak radiation power can reach 10 TW.

          Thus, electromagnetic munitions potentially have a significantly larger radius of damage to RES than traditional ones, however, to achieve their maximum effectiveness, it is necessary to remove the munition as close as possible to the targets using high-precision guidance systems.


          http://www.electronics.ru/issue/2002/5/11/
      3. The comment was deleted.
  2. Rash
    Rash 21 September 2013 08: 38 New
    +1
    Hehe. Each AFAR foot soldier on his head, video Glasses, a bit too much will not be? The cost of such a complex will draw several tens of lemons. I suggest the infantryman’s ASUV terminal to equip only special forces and reconnaissance.
    1. aksakal
      aksakal 21 September 2013 12: 32 New
      +3
      Quote: Rash
      Hehe. Each AFAR foot soldier on his head, video Glasses, a bit too much will not be? The cost of such a complex will draw several tens of lemons. I suggest the infantryman’s ASUV terminal to equip only special forces and reconnaissance.

      has someone decided that safety is an inexpensive pleasure? And then - a few dozen lemons - this is when piece by piece and manually, this is when R&D has just been completed and in order to recoup it, R&D lays the costs in the price of the finished product. When these products are few, then the price is absurd for AFAR for each infantryman. And when there is a large series, when there are still civilian versions of AFAR (of course, truncated) - then the price will be several tens of thousands, which has gone nowhere. If desired, you can achieve a lower price.
      1. cdrt
        cdrt 21 September 2013 13: 44 New
        +7
        We got the arguments of the form - security is expensive
        Usually this is demagogy and the substitution of concepts by members of the Corporation (security forces, defense industry workers).
        Even 50 years ago, a reasonable criterion was put forward - Cost-effectiveness.
        It is clear that he was never welcomed in our military-industrial complex, because members of the Corporation also make decisions on expenses.
        And the criterion is reasonable and useful.
        By the way, one of the conclusions from its use - if some device increases the efficiency of the system weaker than increases its cost - this device DO NOT NEED to be purchased.

        The same goes for this article - everything can be done much cheaper by using commercial components (by the way, the Americans are actively pursuing such a program), especially since civil information and communication technologies (ICT) have been developing much faster than the military over the past 20-30 years.
        So here - headlamp in a helmet - and why?
        On a civilian’s basis, this was decided a lot easier (as an example of a key element of the tactical Internet — a Yandex map in combination with users' burial grounds) - the military-industrial complex simply lagged behind technologically, and most importantly mentally, compared with the leaders of even the Russian ICT industry (despite the fact that it is quite backward in terms of world standards).
    2. cdrt
      cdrt 21 September 2013 13: 36 New
      -3
      Article - fantasies about a person who has read popular military sites.
      The result is a dream of a super-sophisticated tactical internet.
      And then, Maneuver, ATCCS are systems of a slightly different level - as it was missed.
      The result is a combination of all the latest articles by the author on communications and ACMS, without thinking about something new - such youthful dreams are bigger than their neighbor, so that everyone with the gates is laughing
      The author of the goal before ASUV set as a reduction in the cycle saw-struck.
      Which is true only for the RUKovskoy part of the ACS command and control.
      Usually, besides RUK goals, tactical awareness, sustainable flexible adaptive communication, there are others:
      speed of decision making by commanders of all participants in combined arms combat
      automation of maneuver calculation by forces and means
      intelligence processing automation
      automation of MTO control, etc.
      Actually, the Maneuver was imprisoned for this, and ATCCS. And moreover, without this, the tactical Internet will give much less RUKOV elements of ASUV.
    3. avdkrd
      avdkrd 21 September 2013 23: 16 New
      0
      if really released in million lots, then the cost of the kit will be no more than the retail price for a top-end tablet. Not the fact that this concept is currently viable technology development. Perhaps this whole super-system is quite simply brought into an idle state, or at least it is cheaper to counteract it than to try to make an analogue. The price is still affected by such a moment as the profit of the manufacturer. Unfortunately, we are currently repeating the deadlock path of ASP and the company, the path that lies at the heart of imperialism and the foreign policy of ASP. Putting the entire Russian military-industrial complex on a commercial basis will lead there too - war is beneficial. Moreover, it is beneficial only to corporations, it is not favorable for taxpayers and it is not favorable for the state, but where there is a lot of money walking, lobbying for arms purchases first takes place, then lobbying for wars, as weapons must be spent and purchased again.
  3. chunga-changa
    chunga-changa 21 September 2013 11: 11 New
    +1
    Right thing, sorry for our brakes.
  4. gregor6549
    gregor6549 21 September 2013 14: 55 New
    +4
    The article is very, very superficial, this time.
    The author managed in the article to mix in a pile everything that could be mixed is two
    And the three authors are clearly logged in an attempt to indicate exactly what and how ACSM should do.
    It would be more understandable if the author, having indicated which ACSMs were developed in different countries, give a comparative assessment, point out the advantages and disadvantages of each system and share views on how these advantages and disadvantages could be taken into account in the development of the next generation of domestic ACMSs taking into account the current situation in the Russian defense industry.

    In general, the article is a big minus.
    1. Andreas
      21 September 2013 16: 02 New
      +4
      The article is a concept of the system, and not an analysis of the previous or TK for the development of a new one. The portal topwar.ru has a lot of review and analytical articles about ACS “Maneuver”, ESU TK, “Andromeda-D” and FBCB2.

      The main drawback of the existing ASUV is indicated in the article - centralism.

      Unlike them, the new system should be built as 100 percent distributed, based on network communications and personal communicators of infantrymen / LMS of combat vehicles. The presence of automated control centers is also desirable, but not necessary - no one has canceled staff structures with their employees equipped with the same communicators.

      The clock frequency of the processor of a modern communicator (smartphone) exceeds 1 GHz, the number of processor cores is 4, the amount of RAM is several gigabytes, the amount of ROM is hundreds of gigabytes. Over the next three years, they plan to bring these indicators to 10 GHz, 32 cores, 100 gigabytes and 1 terabyte.

      And such communicators as part of the ground forces will be up to a million or more. Why also create automated control centers (one center - one artillery shell)?
      1. gregor6549
        gregor6549 21 September 2013 17: 45 New
        +1
        Quote: Andreas
        The main drawback of the existing ASUV is indicated in the article - centralism


        I do not agree. Already in the Maneuver system, the creation of which began at the beginning of the 70, various levels of decentralization of control were envisaged, up to transferring control to the lower levels of the system and using control methods applied when there was no mention of any automation of command and control. Modern ACCS battlefields are no exception, as everyone understands that with modern electronic warfare systems, centralization of management is more an exception to the rule than the rule. Everything else, including gigabytes, terabytes, clock frequencies, phased arrays, etc., comes from the evil one and acts only on those who boom in this. There is no sense in the computational power of this processor if communication with other processors has gone down.
        1. Andreas
          21 September 2013 18: 32 New
          +3
          In order to use manual control methods when a centralized automatic control system fails, it is necessary to train the military at the same time in two control methods - automated and manual, which is an unsolvable task.

          In the process of trial operation of the ACS “Maneuver” this task was all the more unsolved, since all the military had many years of manual control experience and used the ACS in purely demonstration mode. The same thing happens with all the other known ASUVs, for which centralization is not just the rule, but the only way to function at least somehow.

          In the case of a decentralized automatic control system, the presence of a powerful personal computer with a radio modem for each infantryman makes him, as well as the squad and platoon where he enters, completely independent of the operability of network communications.

          Two-way communication "communicator-communicator" within the line of sight can be destroyed only by disabling the penultimate infantryman. In this case, the communicator of the squad / platoon commander or the person replacing him automatically becomes the center of the automated control of the unit.

          And it is very problematic to destroy the network connection with sevenfold reservation of zone stations (it is much easier to destroy enemy firepower, which will try to do it).
          1. scientist
            scientist 22 September 2013 11: 58 New
            0
            There is one more, in my opinion, significant merit of the ASUV, which is usually silent. This is the possibility of a significant dispersal of forces and assets in the conflict area, with high coordination of goals and objectives, and most importantly, ASUV significantly reduces the risks of "friendly" fire. This is especially important during anti-terrorist operations, when a threat arises suddenly in any area, and you need to act instantly.
            At the same time, I completely disagree with the fact that the main method of radio communication should be through broadband UHF channels at direct line of sight, especially through UAV repeaters, etc.
            I think here again the project of unreasonable substantial increase in the cost of automated control systems is swinging, forgetting that its main advantage is the compactness of the transmission of packet information, which should contain only a few bits with the coordinates and type of target, its own coordinates and a couple of bits of service information about those state of military and military equipment fuel supplies and ammunition. According to expert estimates, the total amount of information in ACS transmitted from one point should not exceed 1 Kbit, in fact, even this is a lot. (for example, the requirements for the channel width of an air defense control system for a company’s and battalion unit is only 8 kbps for transmitting information about 300 targets with an update rate of 10 sec !, but since there are no such small standard modems, they usually write 64 kbps) you need to focus on the HF band as the main communication method for which neither distance nor mountains are significant. In addition, it is very problematic to detect packet data transmission in HF, it is almost impossible to crush, and the overall dimensions of the batteries and radiation power are much lower than in VHF radio stations.
            1. Andreas
              22 September 2013 13: 39 New
              +1
              1. Your estimate of the amount of data on the coordinates and type of one target transmitted in one message from the battlefield is correct.

              But the final addressee of such messages should not be the automated control center of the infantry company / battalion (the center has no weapons), but the fire support unit of the company / battalion, and self-propelled.

              This means that data with coordinates and type of target must at least download the same trunk radio base station twice. Plus, broadcast information about the tactical situation, which should be disseminated at all levels of the ASUV (after receiving and processing grass-roots information). Plus streaming video from dozens of UAVs in the combat zone of a company / battalion.

              As a result, the trunked HF connection will be bent under the load of bulk information.

              2. The second main difference between microwave network communication and HF trunk communication is that the latter is operational while the only base station is alive. One hit on her and no connection.

              In contrast to HF trunk communication, one hexagonal cell of microwave network communication (up to 12 km in diameter) is supported by seven base stations that completely overlap each other's service areas (sevenfold redundancy).
              1. scientist
                scientist 22 September 2013 15: 49 New
                +1
                I have little experience in operating military communications. But the accepted standards for such trunk communication of Tetra and APCO-25 are usually used in police and other services such as the Ministry of Emergencies, security, ambulance. In the army, trunk communication, even in the microwave, was never used. The reason is obvious, low interference immunity and high vulnerability. Attempts to adapt mobile communications for the army have also not yet become widespread. Only military standard WCDMA, but so far only prototypes for special forces.
                Now the accepted standard for military communications is the creation of networks with a master station. The master station is a kind of router, keeping in memory the entire network and synchronizing its work, including in the frequency hopping mode. This station can be any, it is not necessary that the commander. When it fails, any other, covering the maximum number of subscribers, takes over the functions of the master station. Data transmission is carried out on the principle of sent and forgotten. It is not even necessary to be in the reception area of ​​the subscriber, it is enough that other radio stations with which there is communication have access to this subscriber. Thus, information is transmitted along the optimal route, possibly even through several intermediary stations, and it is not at all necessary that this will necessarily be a master station. Such a solution significantly reduces bandwidth requirements, and the communication organization scheme corresponds to the network-centric architecture of an automated communication system and so far this is the best technical solution made in hardware and adopted.
                Probably the best solutions can be proposed as R&D, but this requires serious research and investment.
                1. Andreas
                  22 September 2013 17: 50 New
                  0
                  Trunk communication is a generic term that means multilateral communication of subscriber radio stations through one base radio station.

                  TETRA is one of the standards for trunk communication (such as GSM as one of the standards for cellular communications).

                  What you describe as an army master station is precisely the base station of a trunk communication of any standard. Several reserve base stations are introduced into the set of subscriber stations, which in turn enter into force after the failure of previous stations.

                  There is only one unsolved problem of trunk communication - to cover a large zone, the base station should be located in the center of this zone. Therefore, any vertical obstacle screens a direct signal between the base and subscriber stations. The closer to the border of the zone, the lower the height of such a vertical obstacle.

                  When using cellular communications, several base stations are not located in the center of the coverage area, but along its borders. Therefore, if a vertical obstruction shields the subscriber station from one base station, the communication automatically switches to the opposite base station.

                  In addition, cellular communication with the placement of base stations in the nodes of the topological network allows more optimal use of the allocated frequency band (organize more communication channels).
  5. knn54
    knn54 21 September 2013 17: 38 New
    +2
    Communication equipment as well as security equipment is outdated, almost analog and cannot be FULLY integrated into the system. The satellite constellation of the GLONASS system has not reached full strength, again there are no digital maps of the area, better to keep silent about weather forecasters. Military equipment ONLY 4 and 5 generations can be integrated into the system. Plus "chipization" of ammunition, 100% automation of all systems ... Again, pictures and layouts.
  6. Andreas
    21 September 2013 17: 58 New
    +3
    Quote: cdrt
    in addition to RUK goals, tactical awareness, sustainable flexible adaptive communications, there are others:
    speed of decision making by commanders of all participants in combined arms combat
    automation of maneuver calculation by forces and means
    intelligence processing automation
    automation of MTO control

    These are already solved tasks as part of the software of any automated control system. All together is called the simulation of hostilities and is reflected in the proposed concept.

    But the hardware base of the well-known ASUV still looks childish and demonstrates its performance only until the first use of EMR.
    The pyramidal structure of the ASUV (that "Maneuver", that "Andromeda-D") is generally beyond the reasonable - an artillery / rocket strike on the top and the fighters will need to remember what flags and paper cards are.
  7. scientist
    scientist 21 September 2013 21: 57 New
    0
    The article very poorly matches its title "concept". Similar views on the development of ACS were considered for another 10 years. For example, in Kazakhstan, more than 5 billion tons (about $ 3 million) were spent on various ACSM paper projects over the course of 200 years; you must agree that more than one state in the world has not yet spent such money on paper projects. And the result is still "0". Because the main trouble of all such projects, including in Russia and other countries, that with good PR, budget money can be laundered very well on them. After all, there are still no normal criteria for financial evaluation of the cost of software products.
    And the technological disaster of modern automation is that it is designed in isolation from life, in the absence of unified military IT, without taking into account the need to continuously build up functional and information capabilities.
    There are key things in any information system: the operating system, database and GIS. This is especially important for ACS, which assumes a "seamless" data transfer, a single and unambiguous understanding of the situation. That's when normal modern OS, DB, GIS will be developed and certified, then on the basis of these basic technologies you can develop any military applications, build what topology of command you like, and then you can connect any connection for various types and types of troops, tasks to be solved channelization and the desired user interface.
    In place of the author, I would conceptually divide into 3 types of tasks to be solved in the ACS system: design and analytical planning tasks, troop and support command tasks, and weapon control tasks.
    In fact, in the troops where automation has been operating for a long time and several generations of computer technology have already changed (these are PKO and anti-aircraft defense), such a separation has long happened naturally. But for SV there is a significant danger of mixing only one pile, and these are completely different time cycles and different responsibilities of ACS users.
  8. Volkhov
    Volkhov 22 September 2013 05: 59 New
    +1
    More recently, the Syrians disconnected civilian networks, searched for networks of militants, and thwarted an attack on Damascus with artillery. If everyone has terminals permanently on the network, then the passive direction finder and batteries on the optical communication cable will be enough for the enemy.
    Judging by the defeat of the fleet from May to September, the military has something with its head and a phased cap is unlikely to help.
    1. Andreas
      22 September 2013 13: 45 New
      0
      It is assumed that the radio signal from the infantryman’s communicator will come in the form of a narrow beam only towards the calling base station, while at the rear.

      This is achieved by using a phased antenna of the infantry communicator, an inertial positioning system mounted in the communicator, and software that continuously calculates the position of the communicator relative to the area of ​​the base station.
      1. Volkhov
        Volkhov 23 September 2013 01: 24 New
        0
        This cap on KShM is probably appropriate, but on the infantryman - no way, you will drive him crazy with radiation running through the skull. A person must feel the situation, hair is used for reception and transmission, and you offer him a whirlwind in your head.
        The helmet should be plastic with good audibility for search or metal with the effect of a waveguide like the ancients for attack.
        The real thing is replacing the coil (flexible) antennas with fractal ones (it’s bad to run through the forest), I made a P-80 from a piece of cable in the 392s - it doesn’t stick out and the connection is good, the bayonet was made with a knife in half an hour.
        It’s not accidentally written above about the fleet that something rational needs to be automated, first you would have to figure out the goals and meaning of the actions, and so the strengthening of the dope is brewing ...
        1. Andreas
          23 September 2013 08: 41 New
          0
          It is proposed that the headlamp be installed in the helmet with “fur” (radiating elements) outward, and metallized on the reverse side with 100% shielding from radiation.

          All ACS functions are already implemented at the top level (with the exception of automatic target designation). It remains only to change the ACCS concept regarding the rejection of centralization and implement them at the lower level.
          1. scientist
            scientist 23 September 2013 10: 00 New
            0
            FAR, as I said, is a very expensive pleasure. And the fact that in the article and advertising all this looks compact on a printed circuit board. Do not believe it! This is a common practice of the DRPA agency, which receives money from the US government for any fantastic projects. And even with a very large series, the PAR will not become cheaper.
            To make it clear, I will try to briefly explain the principle of operation of the PAR. In this case, it is correct to use AFAR-active PAR.
            Each such emitter, of which there are about a hundred in the picture, must have its own receiver, which ends with a high-speed ADC (now the cost of such compact receivers and serial ADCs is $ 100-200 each)
            Then everything should go to a very powerful diagram-forming computer, which should receive information from each ADC, expand each signal in a Fourier series, filter out the desired spectrum, then arrange the necessary phase coefficients, which the other computer must first calculate, then do the inverse transformation to end summarize all the signals. All this needs to be done in real time. The modern technological level allows this to be done only if each high-speed processor is assigned to each ADC. I think the quantity and price has become clear, this is not $ 10 thousand, but hundreds. The second computer should monitor changes in the signal to generate the necessary coefficients for the phases of the first computer. And only the 3rd computer will directly process the information and issue it to the desired interfaces. The requirements for this computer are significantly lower than for the first one and probably now it can even be a good tablet. In the meantime, the level of technology allows you to create diagram-forming computers only in the form of server racks, I doubt that they can even fit in the BMP. Even in the S-400, such a computer for diagram-education is a big stand, but there is not an AFAR, but a flying headlamp, which is much simpler.
            It's about on the fingers, without cumbersome math. And now evaluate what it will cost even in ten years and whether it makes sense to fence a garden now.
            1. Andreas
              23 September 2013 11: 24 New
              0
              The power of the headlamp of the radar is several orders of magnitude higher than the power of the headlamp of the communicator (less than 1 watt). Therefore, radars require expensive solutions.

              In three years, each household smartphone worth no more than $ 100 will be equipped with a 32-core processor (chip).

              For military purposes, it is now quite realistic to make a 64-core chip (in which one core will be in one emitter) and place it on a flexible printed circuit board of the domed HEADLIGHT.

              The clock frequency of each core is 1 GHz, i.e. comparable to the frequency of radio emission in the centimeter range. But there are also NVidia GPUs with 1024 cores, specialized in working with three-dimensional control objects such as the PHAR.

              The Elbrus VK 27.05 multiprocessor computer (16 processor cores) of the S-400 complex did not even stand near these solutions.
          2. Volkhov
            Volkhov 23 September 2013 15: 35 New
            0
            Metallization does not provide 100% shielding - eddy currents are induced in the metal layer that transmit induction - the cap will still be an analogue of the helmet for "telepathy" on the basis of the encephalograph, only unsystematic. After all, the beam formed by the antenna has 2 ends and the back one will run through the skull even through the screen.
            Microwave hair is crawling, even with separate devices, and then on the head ...
            It is clear that in reality the device will not have a system on drones either - the Iranians have been planting them for a long time, and such a system will most likely deploy troops, which in principle is useful, but unrealistic for the collapse of Zionism.
            1. Andreas
              23 September 2013 16: 13 New
              0
              1. So far, not a single eddy current induced in the metal of the protective housings of electronic equipment after the test detonations of EMR devices has been able to hit electronics (which is much more sensitive than the human brain). But the EMP power reaches tens of kW compared to tenths of a watt of a directional radio signal.

              In addition, a GSM household cell phone with an unshielded antenna irradiates the human brain with a direct 1-watt radio signal and nothing.

              2. The radio beam formed by the PAR, has exactly two ends - one at the level of the emitters of the antenna array, the other is aimed at the radiation receiver (UAV repeater).

              The same end does not have a third end by definition. In order for the third (together with the fourth) end to appear, it is necessary to specially remake the antenna array and form an additional radio beam of the opposite direction.

              3. Over the past years, thousands of US UAV flights have been carried out in the skies over Iran. Only in the course of several of them the code was hacked and control of aircraft was intercepted - the efficiency is less than one percent.
              1. scientist
                scientist 23 September 2013 17: 00 New
                0
                1. In the microwave theory there is the concept of “near zone” and “far zone” so the headlamp on the head will be safe only if the total capacity of the emitters does not exceed the power of a cell phone.
                2. Obviously, the range of radiation in size between the emitters is 1/4 long; it is approximately 7-10 GHz. This means that the ox will be expanded by surface with a penetration depth of 5-10 millimeters, just either it stimulates hair growth and brain functions very well, or burns with an overdose.
                3.
                Quote: Andreas
                The power of the headlamp of the radar is several orders of magnitude higher than the power of the headlamp of the communicator (less than 1 watt). Therefore, radars require expensive solutions.
                capability is important only for the microwave generator and dielectric strength of the PAR. For a computer, receivers and phase shifters, the ability does not matter and does not affect the cost in any way.
                4.
                Quote: Andreas
                there are also NVidia GPUs with 1024 cores
                What do you think is the cost of verifying such a processor for security and certification for the army?
                5. For a long time there are cheaper and well-established ways to transfer data to WCDMA for high speeds, mobile Wi-Fi, and a lot more are surely being developed.
                And most importantly, if we repeat all the nonsense that is being done in DARP, then we will again turn to star wars and ruin the country.
                1. Andreas
                  23 September 2013 18: 38 New
                  0
                  1. If a microwave signal of the CDMA2000 standard from a omnidirectional antenna with a power of 0,25 watts is caught at a distance of 10 km, then what should be the power of a narrowly focused headlamp in the same situation?

                  2. The thickness of the shock-absorbing polymer shell of the helmet located between the infantryman’s head and the domed HEADLIGHT (embedded in the external protective polymer shell) is at least 10 mm.

                  3. Do not say - the more powerful any device, the more it is material-intensive and time-consuming, and therefore more expensive.

                  4. The graphics processor consists of many specialized cores, the structure of which is an order of magnitude simpler than the universal processor and lends itself perfectly to x-ray control for the absence of hardware bookmarks.
                  In this case, manual verification is performed only once, the subsequent automatic X-ray control for compliance with the verified sample is continuous.

                  5. I have nothing against the WCDMA broadband radio standard (with a channel bandwidth of 2x5 MHz). I just don’t want to indicate a specific microwave communication standard at the stage of consideration of ASUV fundamental issues.
              2. Volkhov
                Volkhov 23 September 2013 18: 19 New
                0
                The radio waves and the frequency of the laptop act on my body and for more than half an hour they are completely unpleasant when in contact with the surface - this is hardly unique, especially since there are sanitary standards.
                Where did the data on thousands of flights “over Iran” come from - for now, everything ended with either an interception of control or the sending of aircraft even when approaching the border.
                Reconnaissance UAVs may still be invisible in the area of ​​radio silence and recording in memory, and broadcast - in any way.
                If the enemy is the peasants, then the focus will succeed, and if a more developed civilization is useless. Put these caps on to officials - a competent physiologist activates them a zone of conscience ...
                1. Andreas
                  23 September 2013 18: 59 New
                  0
                  Since 1992 I have been “irradiated” with a computer for at least 8 hours a day, since 1997 - with a cell phone. While God has mercy.

                  American UAVs have been flying over Iran for at least 12 years.

                  The UAV repeater certainly "glows" in the radio spectrum. But:
                  - firstly, each UAV in a hexagonal cell is 6 times redundant by other UAVs with overlapping service areas;
                  - secondly, it is protected by a short-range air defense system with the function of intercepting anti-aircraft missiles and artillery shells;
                  - thirdly, it is protected by means of fire support, specialized in counter-battery combat;
                  - fourthly, it has on the ground a reserve of backup copies of UAVs.

                  So you can shoot down a UAV repeater (with the loss of the enemy artillery / missile launcher or the whole battery as a result of counter-battery combat), but it is impossible to disable the cellular microwave communications network.
                  1. Volkhov
                    Volkhov 23 September 2013 19: 24 New
                    0
                    Quote: Andreas
                    Since 1992, I have been “irradiated” with computers for at least 8 hours a day, and since 1997 - with a cell phone. While God has mercy.

                    Well, not really - then you have come off from reality ... clouds of drones, continuous computerization with AFAR on your heads, video streams across the network from a soldier to the General Staff ... even in America this is more modest, and in Armenia it is not much better than a CA.
                    To understand what is happening, you first need to understand what is happening, who the enemy is, how the hostilities are being conducted and why, what is the immediate prospect ... And the solutions are more fantastic and simple than in this scheme.
                    1. Andreas
                      23 September 2013 20: 41 New
                      0
                      The number of UAVs in service with the US Armed Forces exceeded 8000 units.

                      In 2003, during a two-week army operation, 4 American and 1 British divisions defeated 23 Iraqi divisions (with many years of combat experience in the war with Iran and the United States), which were armed with thousands of tanks, self-propelled guns, missile launchers, air defense systems, aircraft and helicopters. The coordinated actions of all military branches of the US-British coalition were provided by the network-centric technology TBMCS (Theater Battle Management Core Systems).

                      Starting in 2014, the American Army will use the Digital Battle Field (see the article in the "Technologies" section of the topwar.ru portal).

                      In order to prevent technological lag, we need to start development in advance, and not on December 31, 2020 am
                      1. Volkhov
                        Volkhov 23 September 2013 21: 22 New
                        0
                        Well, under the current regime, "we" are US allies with specialization in dirty work - in order to fight America, you must first conduct a revolution or be captured by their opponent (which is more realistic), but then the control systems will definitely be theirs, and "we" will be again a penalty battalion , but not American but German ...
                        In the current reality, there is a war with the Syrian army, and in the long term with the Iranian and DPRK - it’s quite enough to defeat, given the reluctance of the United States and China to get into the war.
                        Common sense and peace would help more than wearable computers.
                      2. Andreas
                        23 September 2013 21: 42 New
                        0
                        I am more attracted by the two-week version of the army operation of 5 Russian divisions with ASUV versus 23 Iranian divisions without ASUV.

                        With a ratio of human losses of 172 to 9200 of them.
                      3. Volkhov
                        Volkhov 23 September 2013 22: 51 New
                        0
                        This is the dream of the Arbat Macedonian - 5 Russian divisions (in the army formally 3, including in the Kuril Islands, in the Airborne Forces 7 and in the Air Forces) will lose more in travel. It’s obviously better for Iran to control it — they planted other people's drones, and ours (Israeli) fly away.
                      4. Arabist
                        Arabist 23 September 2013 22: 54 New
                        0
                        Volkhov, and what is your army in your opinion?
                      5. Volkhov
                        Volkhov 23 September 2013 23: 27 New
                        0
                        On duty today?
                        The army of brigades is mainly 800 thousand in total with the fleet and airborne forces.
                        There are still divisions in the Strategic Missile Forces, but life has shown that missiles fall in combat launches, so this kind of troops is full ballast and hemorrhoids.
                      6. Arabist
                        Arabist 24 September 2013 14: 42 New
                        0
                        and when did we have combat launches?
                      7. Volkhov
                        Volkhov 25 September 2013 14: 52 New
                        0
                        “We” have a whole war in a limited format, it’s even difficult to single out individual achievements.
  • biznaw
    biznaw 22 September 2013 06: 32 New
    +1
    Quote: Andreas
    But the hardware base of the well-known ASUV still looks childish and demonstrates its performance only until the first use of EMR.
    The pyramidal structure of the ASUV (that "Maneuver", that "Andromeda-D") is generally beyond the reasonable - an artillery / rocket strike on the top and the fighters will need to remember what flags and paper cards are.

    + pissot !!!
    Ale, people! Have you served in the Soviet army? Forgot the concept of offensive action? Let me remind you. The enemy troops are hit (s) with atomic (and) ammunition (s) and then tanks and infantry fighting vehicles of the Soviet army rush through the cleared place. NATO is very worried about our number of nuclear tactical ammunition. We even have special ammunition for tulips. Neither NATO nor the super-duper tablets and helmets of AFAR in helmets will help. Jeepies will not help either, as if they were not protected. Only our ancient devices on radio tubes, which restore operability several seconds after an impulse, are resistant to amy. We still have them, but in the west they have not been in the armies for a long time. Our gunners still know how to make calculations and bindings without computers and jeepies, these qualities would not be lost. Western warriors cannot fight without these devices. Fighting for them will end very quickly.
    1. scientist
      scientist 22 September 2013 10: 05 New
      +2
      Now the concept of war is changing. No one is going to fight the premium of nuclear weapons. Even the most warlike Yankees realize that no bunkers can save them. I think in the immediate plans of the United States to achieve a complete ban on WMD in order to untie its hands for conducting remote military operations anywhere in the world.
      Therefore, now, at a reasonable pace, on the basis of long-term strategies, it is preparing for high-tech wars of the 21st century. It is advisable to do this without excesses, because some offer fantastic projects with a HEADLIGHT on their heads, others try to ban cybernetics in the army, as it was in the middle of the last century
      1. Volkhov
        Volkhov 22 September 2013 11: 36 New
        0
        Right now, several military nuclear explosions occur every month - so far limited war.
    2. Andreas
      22 September 2013 13: 49 New
      0
      EMP is the babble of the Soviet "strategists", since an arbitrarily thin layer of any metal protects against EMP.

      In other words, the metal cases of radio stations, computers and batteries, the metal braid of electric and radio frequency cables, the use of optical fiber instead of copper in data transmission cables, the incorporation of automatic fuses at the antenna inputs.
      1. scientist
        scientist 22 September 2013 16: 21 New
        +1
        Quote: Andreas
        EMR elementarily protects an arbitrarily thin layer of any metal

        Somehow 15 years ago I ran into the problem of protection against electromagnetic radiation, which was created by RLK 64Zh6. A pulse of several GW drooped through the entire receiver protection and burned out first the protective pin diodes, and then the microstrip microwave amplifier itself. Directional couplers and gas arresters designed for such protection did not help. I had to modify the microwave path by installing mechanical microwave relays in the circuit, which reliably blocked it in the off state, and when turned on, connected the synchronization system so that during the transmission the receiver would be blocked by forced ignition of gas dischargers, because when the EMR penetrated, they did not have time to light up on their own.
        therefore from my own experience I affirm that modern radio stations, neither Russian nor Western, are capable of providing protection against electromagnetic radiation. And what will be needed in the future should be tested and this task is far from simple. However, I have not heard in any of the tasks and even concepts of the development of military communications that such tasks of protection against electromagnetic radiation would be posed, and therefore its solution should not be expected in the near future.
        1. Andreas
          22 September 2013 17: 19 New
          +1
          I agree that in the case of shielding the casing, the EMP penetrates through the antenna input.

          Gas dischargers will not help.

          TVS diodes only
          http://microem.ru/produkti/komponenti-silovoj-elektroniki/ustrojstva-zashhiti-li
          ttelfuse / komponenti-zashhiti-slabotochnih-tsepej / tvs /

          and IMPATT diodes
          http://www.club155.ru/diods-uhf-generator
        2. Eugene
          Eugene 22 September 2013 20: 21 New
          0
          Forced ignition is cool ..! Respect!
      2. Eugene
        Eugene 22 September 2013 20: 19 New
        0
        It will not protect against an impulse. It’s good. It will be boring, try.
        1. scientist
          scientist 22 September 2013 21: 10 New
          0
          forced ignition, this is a short pulse of 1-2 KV to the cathode of the spark gap, with a small advance of the start pulse of the EMR transmitter. This is almost a regular technical solution. And the system worked for so many years and is normal.
  • amp
    amp 22 September 2013 12: 28 New
    +1
    The topic is very interesting. In my opinion, the army of the 21st century will differ from the army of the 20th century precisely in the control system. Here the problem is not only communication, but also in the system of codes your own - someone else's. If such codes are made sufficiently effective, then this will raise the army to a new level. Guided missiles will be able to automatically avoid the defeat of their troops and automatically hit any armed person who does not have a "mine" code. The combat robots, which will undoubtedly appear in the future, will do the same.
    The code itself can be done now, but there are 2 problems.
    1. How to avoid the capture of the code signal transmitter by the adversary and, accordingly, its use?
    2. The signal must be passive. An active signal, like an airplane, will give out a place of deployment of troops.
    I think that the country that will solve this problem will create the 1st army of the 21st century.
  • scientist
    scientist 22 September 2013 19: 34 New
    0
    Quote: Andreas
    TVS diodes only

    Quote: Andreas
    IMPATT diodes

    Putting such protection on the microwave antenna inputs does not work, there will be too large losses, and they are not intended for this. This is to protect the power supply, cable entries, shorter than the bass, but in any case they are needed and are usually installed. And for work in the microwave so far, in addition to pin diodes and transistors, they have not come up with a similar technology, and they provide a level of protection that is quite adequate and with a minimum level of internal noise. But if you find something better, then I will be grateful for the link.
    1. Andreas
      25 September 2013 10: 12 New
      0
      The most reliable option of protection against EMR - optocouplers (optoelectronic converters)
      http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%EF%F2%F0%EE%ED

      To connect the communicator with an external antenna, you can use a fiber optic cable connecting a pair of bi-directional optocouplers, which are installed respectively in the port of the communicator and at the entrance to the antenna.
  • IS-80
    IS-80 23 September 2013 12: 05 New
    0
    Quote: Andreas

    The clock frequency of the processor of a modern communicator (smartphone) exceeds 1 GHz, the number of processor cores is 4, the amount of RAM is several gigabytes, the amount of ROM is hundreds of gigabytes. Over the next three years, they plan to bring these indicators to 10 GHz, 32 cores, 100 gigabytes and 1 terabyte.


    About 3 years, this is extremely unlikely. 32 cores may be, 10 GHz is highly unlikely, 100 GB of RAM is extremely unlikely, 1 TB is unlikely. This is all based on the pace of development to this day.
    1. Andreas
      23 September 2013 12: 45 New
      0
      NVidia on October 26.10.2012, 1536 announced a new line of graphics processors for tablets, including a 680-core GTX 0,72MX processor with a core frequency of XNUMX gG.
      http://www.hwp.ru/tags/%E3%F0%E0%F4%E8%F7%E5%F1%EA%E8%E9%20%EF%F0%EE%F6%E5%F1%F1


      % EE% F0

      Hynix on March 13.03.2011, 100 introduced the three-dimensional TSV technology for connecting RAM chips into a single multilayer module with a capacity of up to XNUMX GB
      http://appleinsider.ru/eto-interesno/vosmislojnaya-pamyat-hynix-obemom-do-100-gb


      -v-edinom-module.html

      Samsung introduced NVMe SSD XS24.07.2013 solid-state drives in a 1715-inch 2,5 TB form factor at an exhibition in Seoul 1,6/XNUMX/XNUMX
      http://vido.com.ua/article/6423/vysokoskorostnyie-ssd-samsung-s-obiemom-pamiati-


      1-tb /
  • scientist
    scientist 23 September 2013 20: 57 New
    0
    Quote: Andreas
    I do not want to indicate a specific standard for microwave communication at the stage of consideration of fundamental issues of the automated control system

    I agree with this, because I believe that the connection should be different and the more different the connection, the more reliable the management.
    And the fundamental issues of ACMS, important for its development are the operating system, database and GIS. Then, on the basis of these basic technologies, it is possible to develop any military applications, build what topology of command you like, and then it is already possible to connect any connection for channel formation and the desired user interface for various types and types of troops and tasks to be solved.
    And I would also conceptually divided into 3 types of tasks to be solved in the ACS system: settlement and analytical planning tasks, troop and support command tasks, weapon control tasks. This separation is necessary. due to the different responsibilities of officials (no, administrative and criminal, respectively), different time cycles (days, hours, minutes) and conditions of combat use (staff, field and fire contact).
    This is important, because even high-ranking officials are often confused and demand to mix everything together and display on one screen, and this is a problem.
    1. Andreas
      23 September 2013 21: 08 New
      0
      +100500 about your opinion on the ASUV system software, but only of domestic design (otherwise, at hour D, all automation will order a long life).

      I also agree to the division of the generalized concept of "simulation of military operations" into three types of tasks.

      The only addition to the above - communication, equipment and programs must be done in parallel after coordinating all the fundamental decisions at a conceptual level.
      1. scientist
        scientist 24 September 2013 09: 51 New
        0
        Quote: Andreas
        communication, equipment and programs must be done in parallel

        as practice shows, then much is difficult to link into a single complex. And our industry does not like to think of uniform exchange protocols and standards. They will then redo everything with pleasure, naturally at the expense of the state.
        1. Andreas
          24 September 2013 10: 42 New
          0
          The agreement should be excluded - we need a directive from the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, developed by the project team under the Minister.
          1. scientist
            scientist 24 September 2013 23: 04 New
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            I agree. But the procedure is approximately the following. There are no technicians in the Moscow Region, there are only administrators. Therefore, the Moscow Region will entrust this to the lead scientific research institute, and they will delegate it to the departmental, because all military research institutes are specific for us. Although they are now impoverished, the parent enterprises and design bureaus still have their own people, and therefore the "tab in the box."
            1. Andreas
              25 September 2013 08: 37 New
              0
              In creating a new troop command and control system, the decision-maker should be the Minister of Defense, and not the faceless central apparatus of the Ministry.

              The project team for the development of the ACSM concept and the specification of standards, protocols and formats for the transfer of information should work under his direct supervision.
  • i.xxx-1971
    i.xxx-1971 6 January 2014 15: 52 New
    +1
    The US Army did not win a single victory in the twentieth century. Given the rabble that it is equipped with at present, nothing will change in the twenty-first century.
    1. scientist
      scientist 6 January 2014 16: 05 New
      0
      This is a natural result of any mercenary army, where the main incentive is the service of money. After all, the dream of a mercenary to earn and live well. Unlike real soldiers and officers who are ready to take risks and give their lives so that their people can live well.