... The AUG continuous control zone is a cylinder with a radius of 300 miles and a height from the seabed to low Earth orbits. Not a single aircraft, surface warship or enemy submarine has a chance to go unnoticed inside the guarded perimeter - in the event of real hostilities, their presence will be revealed, and the suspicious objects themselves will be immediately destroyed by the fire means of the ships and deck aviation.
Lords of the sea!
But why on the faces of the Yankees do not see cheeky smiles? Where did all the arrogance and the feeling of superiority go? Red eyes from tension, the sailors carefully peer into the sonar screens. There is something under the dark water ...
Houston, we have a problem!
The U.S. Navy command knew right away that the matter was abruptly wrong - in 2000, during an exercise off the coast of Hawaii, an Australian diesel-electric boat of the Collins type was able to break through the guards and freely entered the aircraft carrier group of the US Navy. Similar results were demonstrated by exercises in the Mediterranean - Israeli Dolphin-class submarines conditionally “sank” half of the Sixth fleet.
The Americans were helpless before the new threat.
Despite their contemptuous nickname, modern "diesel" turned into deadly opponents. Their small size and low noise level made the boats practically undetectable against the background of the sounds of the sea.
Unlike crashing nuclear ships, diesel-electric submarines have no itchy pumps that ensure the circulation of coolant in the reactor. They do not have turbo gear units and powerful refrigerating machines - only silent batteries and a quiet electric motor. Optionally - an air-independent installation, made on hydrogen fuel cells or as a Stirling engine, also working without internal explosions and strong vibrations.
Small size and power - all this reduces the thermal footprint and wetted surface of the boat. Noise decreases and stealth increases. The small mass of steel hull elements do not cause anomalies in the Earth’s magnetic field, preventing the boat from being detected by magnetic detectors.
A truly secretive, silent killer. Sea "black hole"!
The composition of weapons and a set of detection tools on board the diesel-electric submarines are in no way inferior to their older "colleagues" - nuclear-powered ships. Mine torpedo weapon, undersea-based cruise missiles, diving and special equipment - “diesel” are able to “pull three skins” from anyone who dares to poke into the coastal waters of their state.
However, they are relatively cheap (on average, 4-5 is on average cheaper than an atomic-powered vessel), numerous and, as a result, omnipresent. According to the calculations of the American command, in our days, diesel-electric submarines are in service with 39 countries of the world. More 300 diesel-electric submarines! - the coastal waters of Eurasia are literally teeming with these "fish", but the American fleet was never ready to face such a threat.
The Yankees themselves do not build diesel-electric submarines for one obvious reason - any conflicts always occur in the Old World, and to make war, the Americans are forced to drag across distant lands and three oceans. The US Navy has an unlimited budget and a pronounced offensive direction - of course, the choice was made in favor of the boats with a nuclear power plant. His last non-nuclear boat Yankees built in 1959 year (experimental submarine type SSK).
The meeting with the new threat made the Pentagon think over its own behavior and urgently adopt the DESI program (Diesel-Electric Submarine Initiative), aimed at developing measures to combat modern diesel-electric submarines.
From the middle of the 2000-x, the US Navy began to actively invite allies to the maneuvers - diesel-electric boats of the Brazilian, Chile, Colombia, Peru…
But one thing is to chase after the latest modifications of the “Type 209” - third-generation diesel-electric submarines, which are good in all respects, except one - every few days they are forced to rise to the surface.
And it is quite another thing - to meet with the ultra-modern diesel-electric submarines, equipped with an air-independent (anaerobic) propulsion system, dramatically extending the time under water. Such submarines go beyond the usual classification (diesel-electric submarines) and are classified as non-nuclear submarines (NNS).
To work out such a scenario, the US Navy decided to seek help from the allies and to lease the Swedish diesel-electric submarine HSwMS Gotland (Gtd) with a Stirling engine.
From the Varangians to the Americans
Gotland arrived in San Diego aboard the semi-submerged MV Eide Transporter platform in June 2005, the crew of 30 Swedish sailors was transferred to California by plane. It took a couple of weeks to acclimatize and adjust the balancing and submarine systems, originally designed for the cool, almost fresh waters of the Baltic, to the conditions of the great ocean.
And then it began ...
The next six months, the Third American fleet was intensely learning to search for a Swedish boat. Specialists of the US Navy meticulously studied the Gotland from the outside and inside, recorded its noise and parameters of thermal and electromagnetic fields.
A fantastic submarine rocked the Yankees imagination:
"Gotland" was extremely fast, powerful and most hidden. Six torpedo tubes, 18 torpedoes, the ability to set up 48 min.
Tiny crew, high automation and advanced detection systems.
The low mass of the hull, low-magnetic steel and 27 compensating electromagnets completely excluded the detection of the boat by magnetic anomaly detectors.
The noise background of the boat also exceeded all American expectations - thanks to a single all-mode electric motor and vibration isolation of all mechanisms, the Gotland was hardly detected even in close proximity to American ships, and the special hull cover, together with its small size, made Gotland difficult to detect. active sonars.
The boat simply merged with the natural thermal and noise background of the ocean.
Central Post (CP) of the submarine "Gotland"
But the most important thing is that the Swedish monster could remain continuously under water for two weeks (and, with an economical mode of oxidizer consumption, up to 20 days)!
Before the Americans was a masterpiece of technical progress. Invisible and invincible submarine, able to pass anywhere where there is seven feet under the keel, and perform any task, both in the coastal zone and in the open sea.
In the capabilities of their “adversary”, the Americans did not build illusions - back in 2003, during exercises in the Mediterranean, in a duel situation, the Swedish “Gotland” tracked down and conditionally “sank” the nuclear French boat and the American SSN-713 “Houston”. What made a real sensation.
This time everything happened in a similar way - despite the best efforts of the American anti-submarine forces, the Swedish boat stubbornly passed through all the cordons and found itself where it should not be.
The December 2005 of the year was the apotheosis - during the international exercises Joint Task Force Exercise 06-2, in which the US Navy Third Fleet was preparing to demonstrate everything that he had learned over the past year, a catastrophe occurred: led by the aircraft carrier Ronald Reagan.
... Muffled puffing Stirling engines, recharging batteries; quietly humming electric motor. The submarine ship was crawling in a five-node way, scanning the water column ...
First of all, “Gotland” tracked down and conditionally “destroyed” the nuclear submarine - the only one who was a real threat to the Swedes. Multipurpose PLA was to ensure the safety of AUG from attacks from under the water and cover the "dead sector" under the heads of cruisers and destroyers. For which she died first.
Left without their own submarine cover, surface warships began to "die" one by one - the Gotland passed through the warrant like a blade blade, alternately moving closer to the American ships and taking their photos from various angles and distances. The Yankees found out about the presence of the boat, only when they saw a breaker from the periscope nearby - in real conditions, this would mean a pair of released self-guided torpedoes.
It was not possible to establish steady contact with the boat - the only way to stay alive was to leave the terrible square, i.e. disrupt the execution of the main task. AUG could not break through and strike at the chosen target.
The shocking results of the exercise led to the most serious consequences - the contract with Sweden was extended for another year. Gotland continued to serve in the Pacific, as an imitator of the "enemy" NNS.
The results of further maneuvers involving Gotland are sparingly estimated as “successful”: the American command thanks all the exercise participants, the Swedish sailors share their enthusiastic impressions of the visits to Disneyland and to the US Navy aircraft carriers (which is, however, the same thing).
Fairing infrared sonar AN / SQS-53 cruiser type "Ticonderoga"
It is obvious that in two years of close contact with the Gotland, American sailors learned a lot about the design, capabilities and tactics of using modern diesel-electric submarines, which is called first-hand. It is reported that the Yankees did not spare their own forces and the resource of a foreign submarine - only in the first year Gotland spent 4000 hours in the sea, instead of the ones laid down under the 2000 regulation. Certainly certain conclusions were made and measures were taken to counter the underwater threat.
Could the Yankees find an effective solution to the problem? Hardly. The secrecy of modern non-nuclear submarines is too high.
The only excuse for American sailors - submarines, corresponding to the combat capabilities of "Gotland", are available in the composition of not every Navy. The circle of fourth generation naval base operators is limited mainly to developed countries, most of which are members of the NATO bloc:
- Sweden (three boats of the type "Gotland");
- Germany, Italy, Portugal, Greece, Turkey (the fleets of these countries use the German “Type-212” or export version “Type 214.” Very complex and expensive submarines with an air-independent installation on hydrogen elements);
- Israel (five “Dolphin” type boats of German construction, created on the basis of “Type 212”);
- Chile, Malaysia, India, Brazil (French-Spanish project "Skorpene"; India and Brazil will receive their ordered ships in the period 2014-2020);
- Spain (four boats under construction type S-80);
- Yu.Koreya (exploits German "Type 214");
- Japan (built on its own project boats "Soryu" with a Stirling engine).
Nimitz and South Korean boat San Von (type 214), Busan Naval Base
Nevertheless, the Yankees do not give rest to two dozen “Warsaw” women of the Soviet design, who bred around the world in the amount of 20 with more than one piece. The combat capabilities of the Varshavyanki are very close to the capabilities of fourth-generation boats (and according to a number of parameters - the depth of the dive, the ammunition, the composition of the weapons - are far superior to all foreign analogues). The only weakness is the limited power reserve in a submerged position, already on the third or fourth day Varshavyanka needs to ascend to the periscope depth to recharge the batteries.
In addition, Russia is conducting its own work on the creation of anaerobic propulsion systems for submarines — initially it was planned to equip the submarines of the 677 project (“Lada”) with such an engine. Alas, the main boat - B-585 "St. Petersburg", laid back in the distant 1997 year, was completed as a "regular" diesel-electric submarines. Impromptu did not go to the benefit of the ship - the B-585 was taken into trial operation of the Navy, but could not become a combat unit of the fleet (submerged speed - 60% of the calculated value).
M-305 (project 615), Odessa
In fact, not everything is as sad as it seems - after all, at one time the USSR was one of the world leaders in the field of creating air-independent power plants for the submarine fleet. It is enough to recall the 615 project - 29 series of small submarines (classification “M”, surface displacement / underwater displacement - 400 / 500 tons) equipped with equipment for operation of the submerged diesel engine (liquefied oxygen and carbon dioxide absorber).
Or diesel-electric C-273, re-equipped in 1980-ies according to the 613E “Katran” project - with the installation of an electrochemical power generator for underwater running.
Finally, air-independent propulsion systems will soon promise to appear on promising Russian boats, whose construction will be carried out according to the modernized 677 “Lada” project. The construction of "conventional" diesel-electric submarines will not be conducted anymore, quoting the former Commander-in-Chief Vladimir Vysotsky: "We do not need boats on the Second World War energy industry."
That's right. Russia needs non-nuclear submarines with anaerobic propulsion systems, like the Swedish Gotland - the most correct and effective investment for the speedy saturation of the fleet with new combat units. An ideal tool to combat enemy ships in the coastal zone and in open sea areas.
Video - "Gotland" in the service of the US Navy. Interview commander boat Frederick Linden for the news channel NBC4.
Summary of conversation:
Reporter: It looks like an ordinary submarine, but experts call it the most deadly boat in the world. This is a real threat and we were forced to seek help from Sweden.
Linden: It's dangerous to make too much noise in our work.
(R): Frederick Linden and 29 of his subordinates arrived at the Point-Loma naval base (San Diego) to help us deal with the new-generation submarines. Ordinary boats can not stay under water for a long time, but Gotland is equipped with a high-tech air-independent system.
(L): With an anaerobic (air-independent) engine, I can stay under water for weeks.
(R): The boat can stay under water for almost a month, but at the same time it is an incredibly secretive ship - all last summer the Navy had played cat and mouse with Gotland. The boat was able to conditionally sink our nuclear submarine and the largest nuclear aircraft carrier Ronald Reagan.
Norman Polmar, Naval Expert: The Gotland boat “cut circles” around our AUG without obstacles.
(R): Countries like North Korea, Iran and China are already working on creating such boats. With submarines like the Gotland, Iran can completely block tanker traffic in the Persian Gulf!
Polmarn: Yes, Iran is a real threat.
(R): Commander Linden understands how vulnerable the United States will be if Gotland falls into the hands of our enemies. (referring to Linden) Are there places on the North American coast where Gotland cannot penetrate?
Commander Linden shakes his head.