Military Review

The first story

The first story

The reverse side of the reforms of Alexander II

The transformations of Russia launched by Alexander II became truly grandiose - the liberation of the peasants, judicial, zemstvo, army reforms, a breakthrough in industrial development, and the reorganization of the educational system. But evaluations of these processes are usually one-sided. Bulging positive and useful, researchers rarely pay attention that the same reforms had a downside. In the muddy waters of drastic changes, a new generation of leaders, and not only patriots, spilled out to the country's leadership. Even when he was the heir to the throne, Masons began to attach themselves to Alexander; ordinary careerists and amateurs of profit did not miss their goal. In particular, D.A. Milyutin (Minister of War), A.A. Abaza (Minister of Finance), M.T. Loris-Melikov (commander of the Caucasus Army, later Minister of the Interior). Historical works praise them as the main initiators and agents of progress, who managed to raise Russia to a new level. Well, the liberals created such fame for them. This trinity actually played the role of major reformers.

But their true merits turn out to be dubious and ambiguous. And by itself, the period of reforms became, as it were, the first act of "restructuring." “Orality and publicity” were proclaimed - this was reflected in the rampant demagogy, the proliferation of the yellow press, the proliferation of “public” organizations of all kinds. Western ideas, views, evaluations were spread. Europe was declared an ideal role model with the rejection of all national, Russian. In the educational system, emphasis was placed on Western works, the role of Orthodoxy was undermined. And under the guise of a democratic talker, under the bursts of fanned sensations, the delyages were operating, knowing perfectly well what they needed. The liberation of the peasants and landowner property operations, the development of Siberia, the Far East, Central Asia were accompanied by an unprecedented scale of predation and "privatization."

Under indirect blows came the Church. Under various pretexts, she tried to reject property, closed parochial schools, their state funding ceased. On the other hand, free-thinkers, rogues, terrorists felt like a fish in water, the state’s revolutionary swing began. It is worth remembering the sale of Alaska along with the Pacific coast of America right up to California. It was the “first swallow” of the loss of Russian territories. All subsequent "progressive reformers" will do the same. To conclude the Brest, Riga Peace, give foreigners their bases in Austria or Finland, surrender Eastern Europe, sign the Belovezhsky Agreements ...

Can it be considered accidental that "rasskazachivanie" was not an invention of the Bolsheviks either? They were significantly ahead of the reformers 1860-s. At that time, the long Caucasian war ended, and high-ranking capital liberals began to argue that "the role and task of the Cossacks are already over." The then leaders did not dare to start a reckless break-up, but began to implement their course on the sly. In 1865, in St. Petersburg, a special committee was set up to review the Cossack legal provisions - it was announced that the welfare and “citizenship” of the Cossacks should be improved. Moreover, in different Cossack Troops of Russia, appropriate commissions were created from elected, authoritative Cossacks, they worked out their proposals, but ... the St. Petersburg Special Committee did not even consider them.

At the first meeting, Minister of War Milutin unequivocally outlined the task - if contradictions arise between military Cossack traditions and “citizenship”, priority should be given to “citizenship”. And then the liberal press joined in with a vengeance, raising a grandiose sensation. It inspired and imposed the installation that the “archaic” Cossacks did not fit into the models of the “modern” state of the European type, into the structures of European armies. The popular newspaper “Golos” directly “voted” - is it necessary to raise the question of the improvement of the Cossack Troops and the costs of such programs, if the question “about the necessity of the very existence of these Troops” is controversial, as “forces whose combat qualities cannot be perfect”?

To dare and abolish the Cossacks from Milutin and his ilk turned out to be a gut. Protests rose, and the king would not agree to that. They decided to recognize as unnecessary and disband only two small Cossack Troops - the Danube and Bashkir-Mescheryak. But the rest are scheduled to ruin gradually. Once General A.P. Yermolov intended to make the North Caucasus a single Cossack region. His projects were fully shared by the commander of the Caucasian army, who triumphantly ended the war with the mountaineers - General of Infantry N.I. Evdokimov (son of a soldier and Terek Cossack).

If for continuous settlement there was not enough hereditary Cossacks, the postscript was widely practiced. Friendly highlanders became the Cossacks - part of the Ossetians and Kabardians. Yermolov turned into the Cossacks of the peasants of the Caucasian province, retired soldiers, then resettled from Ukraine, from Central Russia. This did not cause the Cossacks to blur. The soldier who fought 25 for years in the Caucasus and then wished to stay here was a “ready” Cossack, like the local Russian peasants who lived with weapons in hand. And from other provinces invited volunteers - if under the bullets and raids of the highlanders they felt that the Cossack life was not for them, they could go back, no one held.

But Milyutin conceived Evdokimov's plans. He himself resigned and moved the mass resettlement of peasants to the Cossack regions. Now, the bullets did not whistle, there were no raids, and the peasants were freed from serfdom without land! Gushing stream. In 1868, laws were issued allowing foreigners to settle on Cossack lands, to acquire property. In this case, the Cossacks were given free access from the Troops. Do you want to refuse from official duties - please! Declare that you are no longer a Cossack!

In 1869, the “Provision on a land plot in the Cossack Troops” was adopted, in 1870, the “Provision on public administration in the Cossack Troops” - the village community was recognized as a whole estate, nonresident was given the right to participate and vote in village meetings. True, only in matters that concern them, but this meant all the issues of economic life. Well, the plots of officers and officials, previously given instead of salaries and pensions, turned into private property. They were allowed to sell to anyone. The aliens immediately began to buy them. The result became eloquent: while in 1864, in the Kuban and Terek, the number of nonresidents was 1 - 2%, then in 1878 - 18%, and in 1880 - 44%.

Reformed and administration. The posts of military atamans are now combined with the posts of heads of regions. In practice, this meant that the civilian commander was endowed with the title of chieftain. In the course of such transformations, Milutin deftly (and single-handedly) corrected the terminology. In his circulars, he explained that it was wrong to call the whole territory of a Cossack Army the “military land”. It should be called the land of the Kuban, Terek, etc. areas. And the category of "military land" include only those areas that are directly occupied by the Cossacks. If the area is inhabited by peasants or highlanders, the land is not “military”, it should be allocated to civilian administration.

As a result, the territorial integrity was preserved ... only two Troops! Don and Ural. Don was the biggest, and the local military ataman had already managed to get the rights of the governor before the reforms of Milutin. And in the Ural land were not fertile, non-resident here did not go. The areas of the rest of the Troops were crushed, the Cossack yurts were now interspersed with civil volosts. In some places, a direct “raskazachivanie” unfolded. The Black Sea region from Novorossiysk to Adler was separated from the Kuban Army, began to be settled by Armenians. The Stavropol brigade was also separated from the Kuban, the 12 villages of the Cossacks were transferred to the position of peasants. The same fate befell the Adagum regimental division. From the Orenburg Troops they tore off the western part of the Samara-Orenburg line, and the Cossacks were also “surrounded”. General civil courts, zemstvos were extended to the Cossack Troops.

Everything else, all these changes were superimposed military reform. At its core, it was important and necessary, the recruitment system was replaced by conscription. But in 1875, the Charter of universal service extended to the Cossacks. Although they themselves did not consider their service as a “duty”! They considered it a duty, their main destination! It was considered offensive to talk about “conscription”. However, in the new Charter, the Cossack Troops were not at all attributed to the main composition of the army. They were qualified as "auxiliary troops"! In the lists they squeezed in the middle between the military personnel of the reserve and the detachments of foreigners.

The service life of the Cossacks in the ranks was reduced from 12-16 to 4 years. And almost all the Cossack divisions were disbanded. Only one survived, 1-i Don. Other Cossack regiments were distributed to army-wide cavalry divisions. Now in each of them there were dragoon, ulansky, hussar regiments, and the fourth by number - Cossack. But Milutin's cavalry significantly reduced. 16 cavalry divisions remained in Russia. Thus, in the peacetime army there were only 20 Cossack regiments. A new position was introduced that the Cossacks should serve not all, but by lot. Those who have bypassed the lot will instead pay a special tax.

What should this lead to? Service in the general cavalry divisions, short and not for everyone, would gradually erase the characteristics of the Cossacks. It would dissolve among non-resident. Logically (according to the logic of the liberals) it should have happened so! Being a Cossack was not profitable from a material point of view! Why spend money on horses, uniform, weapons, although they may not be called into service? Why be distracted by the fees, military duties, if you can easily get out of the Cossack state and engage in their own economy, trade, start crafts? To live just as peasants live in the neighborhood. And if they still call (but the peasants were not called upon by everyone, but by lot), then they should serve without the hassle, with full state support. But ... the Masonic reformers did not succeed. The Cossacks acted different logic. They, in spite of everything, remained Cossacks! Cases of exit from the Cossacks were isolated. A further “raskazachivanie” crossed out life itself.

In the Russian-Turkish war 1877-78. Milyutin made an “evil genius”, almost leading Russia to a catastrophe. The reform of the army ended in 1875, the new system has not yet created the prepared reserves, the overwhelming majority of the troops consisted of soldiers of the 1 and 2 years of service. But the Minister of War in reports to the king diminished the strength of the Turks three times. Their combat effectiveness declared zero at all. Convinced that the war will be an easy walk. According to the plans developed by him, completely insufficient forces concentrated on the main directions. In addition, Milutin transferred the contract for supplying the current army to the merchant association “Kogan, Gregor, Gorvits and Co” - and on the 3 clause of this contract, the high command undertook to notify the suppliers about movements of units and formations in a week! If you call it a betrayal, then ... how else to call it?

The trouble was not long in coming. When the small Vanguard of Gurko crossed the Balkans, suddenly two “unrecorded” Turkish armies emerged! They were well trained, well armed — with Krupp guns, peabody rifles. Milyutin also sprayed the weakened Russian cavalry: the cavalry divisions were distributed by individual regiments to infantry formations. Meanwhile, the Turks created a new numerous cavalry just after the pattern of the Cossacks - bashi-bazouks. For this purpose they used Circassians and Chechens who had been departed or exported from the Caucasus. The state provided them with excellent horses, the latest Winchester store rifles. One army found itself on the Russian flank, taking Pleven, the other struck in the forehead, at Shipka ...

Rescued Russian Cossacks. It became a prepared reserve. At the expense of the Cossacks, natural riders, was able to quickly compensate for the blatant puncture with cavalry. Constituting the entire 2,2% of the country's population, the Cossacks gave 7,4% of its armed forces — put up 125 thousand soldiers. And the fights with bashi-bazouks, in spite of the numerical inequality, the enemy’s best weapons, the Cossacks invariably won. They did not forget how they smashed the same Circassians and Chechens in the Caucasus.

There were other factors that were not taken into account by the enemies of Russia - the unprecedented patriotic upsurge, valor and dedication of our soldiers. It took the Turks to take Shipka, as their three armies would have joined. The whole Russian grouping in the Balkans would be under the threat of defeat. Why, did not take! Were exhausted, filled up with corpses approaches to the positions - and not taken. But the blood of the soldiers who fell during the assaults of Plevna, flowed not only from Turkish bullets and shells. Did not the war ministry fool the enemy with egregious mistakes and false reports? And on whose conscience were the lives of frozen Shipka defenders? Milyutin's friends “Kogan, Gregor, Gorvits and Co” simply robbed the soldiers, did not put on sheepskin coats and coats for winter.
By the way, another reformer, Loris-Melikov, also showed himself not in the best way. He was appointed commander of the Caucasian army and languidly trampled on the spot. He allowed the enemies to gather superior forces, and as soon as they launched an offensive, he commanded a withdrawal. Only the heroic defense of the fortress of Bayazet by the Cossacks of the 1 of the Umansky Regiment and the battalion of the Stavropol Regiment prevented the invasion of Turks in the Russian Transcaucasus and the massacre of the Christian population. And the governor of the Caucasus, Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich, straightened the situation and defeated the enemy, having received for it the order of St. George 1 degree.

Liberals played a dubious role in diplomatic battles. When the Russian troops entered victoriously in the suburbs of Istanbul, England, Austria-Hungary rose up. Germany insidiously set to play along with them. And the king's entourage began to push him to make concessions, positions in the Balkans and in the Caucasus surrendered.
After the war, the “rasskazachivaniya” projects no longer rose. Cossacks too vividly proved their right to exist. Some previous installations were canceled, new Cossack divisions began to be created. But the three reformers — Milyutin, Abaza, Loris-Melikov, in spite of everything, remained on top of the government, even drafted and imposed a “democratic” constitution on the tsar. When it became clear that revolutionaries were too loosening the foundations of Russia, Alexander II ordered one of the leaders, whom he considered his trusted friends, Loris-Melikov, to save the situation. It seems to be a fighting general, and at the same time a cultural, progressive one. He was appointed Minister of the Interior and Chairman of the High Commission against Terrorism.

However, the struggle he led somehow very much "progressive"! On the move, he abolished the Third Security Division (secret police), pardoned and released political prisoners from prisons, returned excluded unreliable students to universities. Results affected quickly. 1 March 1881 was on the capital street in the king's carriage flew a bomb. The Cossack of the convoy, Alexander Maleichev, rushed to her on the horseback, took the blast wave and shrapnel. Alexander II was a brave and noble man. Although the coachman demanded to rush immediately to the palace, the sovereign considered it his duty to linger and leave the crew. He interrogated a terrorist caught by passers-by, then bent over a dying Cossack. But nearby there was a killer understudy. I threw the second bomb ...

Alexander III ascended the throne, he sharply changed his father's policy. He proclaimed “Russia for Russians!”, Headed for the patriotic and Orthodox way of development. Under him, zealous perestroika had to resign. Prince Alexander Mikhailovich Dondukov-Korsakov, one of the main opponents of the “disclosure”, was appointed the commander-in-chief of the Caucasus. By the way, he was also a military general, and after the liberation of Bulgaria, he was the head of the first administration of the country, who was building up life and control. In the Caucasus, Dondukov-Korsakov revealed glaring facts. The civil authorities, under the jurisdiction of which the Cossacks fell, oppressed them in every way. They transferred all the Zemsky duties and taxes. Land and other disputes were invariably resolved in favor of the peasants - they took away from the Cossacks what they won by their labor and blood!

The commander-in-chief vigorously undertook to restore order, developed a project of "counter-reforms" approved by the king and distributed to all the Cossack Troops. By the way, for this, grateful Cossacks assigned Dondukov-Korsakov the title of “honorable old man of the village of Batalpashinskaya”. Until the end of his life, the prince was proud of this title, putting him on a par with the rank of cavalry general, doctor of law at Petersburg and Berlin universities. But it was no longer possible to straighten out what the reformers had done. You will not evict the mass of non-resident! And where? What are they to blame? Thus, in the Cossack Troops there remained “time bombs”, which had already worked in another historical period and with other generations of Russian destroyers.
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  1. bya965
    bya965 17 September 2013 08: 00
    Thank you for the pages of our history that are unknown to me.
    My father was a Cossack son, and I was a dog's tail. Now the Cossacks are mostly "disguised", not for the Russian people and Russia, but for power and for "their own piece of the pie." "Nickel in the Black Earth Region" will be a litmus test for the revival of the Cossacks. Defend their land, the Cossacks have the right to exist, no, they do not. On my father's side, my ancestors are Cossacks from the lower Khopra (spent my childhood in a house built with premium money for Shipka), on my mother Voronezh peasants from those places where this meteorite nickel, silver and palladium are going to be mined and enriched, pouring poison into one of the cleanest rivers Europe.
    I personally will not stay away.
    1. washi
      washi 17 September 2013 15: 13
      My forefathers were Cossacks from lower Khopr (I spent my childhood in a house built for reward money for Shipka), and my mother Voronezh peasants from the places where this meteorite nickel, silver and palladium are going to be mined and enriched, pouring poison into one of the cleanest rivers Of Europe.
      I personally will not stay away.
      Are you Sure that the output will be poison? Maybe the opposite? If we take into account the planned treatment facilities, the opposite is true: clean water will flow into the drain of private and private farms, agricultural firms and simply residents of the region who do not have normal sewage (treatment facilities). Pits in the yard are not considered.
      1. Hon
        Hon 17 September 2013 17: 46
        Who told you that they are missing? Have you been to the Voronezh region? The region is very good, and salaries and order. I myself am from the neighboring Saratov region, also from Khopra. I often visit Borisoglebsk; local nickel mining is not necessary for nafing.
      2. bya965
        bya965 17 September 2013 18: 08
        Quote: Vasya
        Are you Sure that the output will be poison? Maybe the opposite? Given the planned treatment facilities ...

        I'm sure. I specially studied this issue and everything is clear there. And also explain to me what kind of nationality the "Russians" are who own Gazprom as a national treasure. I don't belong to her personally. And why should the governor and the former minister of agriculture, instead of raising it, campaign for nickel?
      3. The comment was deleted.
      4. saygon66
        saygon66 17 September 2013 19: 27
        _ Nickel is mined by the so-called in an open way, in quarries! I saw such live in g. Prokopyevsk and Kiselyovsk, Kemerovo region. This is the "lunar surface" for many years. What is there about water ...
  2. 225chay
    225chay 17 September 2013 08: 28
    How everything looks like the situation in Russia.
    Reformers Milyukovs, Loris Melikovs, Abaza and other liberals destroyed Russia in much the same way as the villains from the beginning of perestroika 85 until recently.
    Companies "Kogan, Horwitz, Gregor", etc. and now it is complete and the goal is probably the same: robbing the population and destroying the state.
    All sorts of "order bearers" Masons are teeming in our time.
    But rasskachivanie on the instructions of the enemy of the Russian people Sverdlov it generally does not fit into any framework and can safely be equated with genocide
    1. washi
      washi 17 September 2013 14: 59
      Yes, this is the Kings - priests. In fact, the Bolsheviks are to blame (although there was not even a hint of them)
      And the Bolshevik dossier is a consequence of tsarism. In 1869 the “Regulation on the land system in the Cossack Troops” was adopted, in 1870 the “Regulation on public administration in the Cossack Troops” - allotments of officers and officials, previously given instead of salaries and pensions, turned in private property.
  3. netMolotov
    netMolotov 17 September 2013 11: 02
    I do not know who the ancestors of the author of the article were, but mine were serfs. And the fact that I am not now a serf slave for me outweighs all the negative aspects of the reforms of Alexander ll. As I think, for millions of other descendants of serfs.
    1. washi
      washi 17 September 2013 15: 16
      The emancipation of the peasants is a good idea, but done in one place.
  4. Asan Ata
    Asan Ata 17 September 2013 11: 56
    How familiar everything is! The same play with other participants.
  5. xan
    xan 17 September 2013 12: 17
    the general focus of the article is understandable
    however, in his student years he read about Milyukov’s reforms, and there the assessment was positive, but with nuances.
    Milyukov’s reforms created an army that, during the reign of the next tsar, allowed Russian diplomacy to solve problems in Russia's favor with virtually no wars.
    Another thing is that the ruling class itself has degraded at an accelerated pace, and could not rely on the whole of Russian society and on the national idea, as in Germany.
  6. Vadim2013
    Vadim2013 17 September 2013 13: 25
    Yes, the settlement of the mass of nonresident on the Cossack lands turned out to be “delayed mines”, which worked already in a different historical period and under other generations of destroyers of Russia.
  7. Vityaz68
    Vityaz68 17 September 2013 15: 04
    1. washi
      washi 17 September 2013 15: 19
      And after that, in both world Bulgarians fought against us. And now thank you rarely hear from them.
  8. dmb
    dmb 17 September 2013 15: 10
    Dear fellow citizens. read the article, and then put in place of the phrase "Cossacks", "Tatars", "Bashkirs", etc. The rhetoric is exactly the same. I just want to assign the title of Hero of Russia to Ataman Krasnov, so that he does not differ at all from Kadyrov. Someone can intelligibly explain why the Don Cossacks, which by the end of the 19th century found themselves far from the country's borders, had the right to privileges, but, say, the descendants of the soldiers who participated in the Battle of the Ice, the Kulikovo or Borodino battles, no. It is somehow forgotten that the Cossacks are citizens of Russia, and we all have the same rights and obligations.
    1. bya965
      bya965 17 September 2013 18: 01
      Quote: dmb
      why the Don Cossacks, who by the end of the 19th century found themselves far from the borders of the country, had the right to privileges, but let's say the descendants of the soldiers who participated in the Battle of the Ice, Kulikovskaya or Borodino battles, no. It is somehow forgotten that the Cossacks are citizens of Russia, the rights and obligations of all of us are the same.

      My answer is simple: "Everyone has very different rights and responsibilities." Yes, and the Cossacks did not have private ownership of land and I hope they will not.
      With Krasnov, it's also not so simple. There are no traitors among the Cossacks. "There are no bonds brighter than brotherhood!" But, the Cossacks are of different faiths (Old Believers who fought on the side of the Turks, Kalmyks assigned to the Don Army) and different views on the structure of Russia, and no one is immune from mistakes. There are no traitors, the Cossack cannot betray.
      1. dmb
        dmb 17 September 2013 19: 40
        The depth of your answer is striking in its pretentiousness, lack of any justification and ignorance of the history of your own country. The German von Panwitz and the Cossack Krasnov are definitely "brothers". Their other relatives Himmler, Goebbels and further on "g" are also known. Well, God bless them. You can also recall the "Nekrasovites" in the service of the Turkish Sultan, who fought against Orthodox Russia, but I think that what has been said is enough for you.
        1. saygon66
          saygon66 17 September 2013 20: 38
          -Krasnov, Shkuro and Semyonov hated the Bolsheviks, they did not represent Russia under them. They made their choice and answered for it ... The Cossacks served their privileges in all wars: to gray hair - "under the gun" Unlike others, service was not considered a disaster. And they plowed and grazed the cattle no less than others, and, by the way, did not keep farm laborers. Today's Cossacks are a separate and sad song ...
          1. dmb
            dmb 17 September 2013 22: 08
            Denikin did not feel love for the Bolsheviks either, but unlike the "brothers" you named, he did not become a German lackey. As for all the wars, I wrote above. I recommend reading it so as not to repeat the same thing.
            1. saygon66
              saygon66 18 September 2013 18: 32
              - And how then to relate to such people as Count Ignatiev, Aleksei Alekseevich, a graduate of the Page Corps, the Academy of the General Staff, an officer of the Life Guards of the Cavalry Guard Regiment, a military attache of Russia in France ?! A neophyte who suddenly believed in the bright ideas of communism or an apostate? Not so simple...
              -The difference between the Cossacks and others (in relation to service) is about the same as between a volunteer and a conscript ... The first goes to serve by virtue of education and convictions, the second - by duty ... They still say: "In the Army- TAKEN ... "I'm sorry, I can't explain it more clearly ...
        2. bya965
          bya965 18 September 2013 09: 22
          Quote: dmb
          let's remember also the "Nekrasovites"

          This is the Old Believers in my answer to you, read carefully.
          Quote: dmb
          German von Panwitz

          Taken from here
          Helmut's father - knew Russian, was a supporter of Bismarck and the idea of ​​re-creating a new "Holy Alliance" of Germany with Imperial Russia against the Anglo-French.

          Silesia (now this is the territory of Poland) is an ancient Slavic land, secured only in the middle of the XYIII century to the Prussian crown.

          The surname von Pannwitz, as well as many names of representatives of the Prussian service nobility (von Seidlitz, von Tirpitz, von Clausewitz, von Bassewitz, von Blaskowitz, von Staunitz, von Holtitz, von Strelitz, von Steinitz, von Studnitz, Bülow von Dennevitz, von Jastrzębski Falkengorst, von Levinsky-Manstein, etc.) indicates that among the founders of the clan were Western Slavs.
          Cossacks never bore the insignia of the SS troops, and von Pannwitz himself pointedly put on a Cossack hat and his old front coat.

          Von Pannwitz officially reinstated the institution of the Orthodox military clergy in his corps; according to some accounts, even he secretly accepted Orthodoxy.

          Photo by Helmut von Pannwitz with Orthodox priests see here:

          Helmut von Pannwitz was adopted by a Soviet orphan boy Boris Nabokov.
          Von Pannwitz also did this to emphasize his contempt for the delusional "racial theory" of the Nazis and not to join their party.

          Photo of Helmut von Pannwitz (in a front overcoat and with a hat on his head), standing with his adoptive son Boris Nabokov, see here:

          There are also two photographs of adopted Soviet children adopted by German officers and Cossacks who followed the example of Helmut von Pannwitz.
          Foreign publications report that von Pannwitz demanded that the British and Americans send him to death in the USSR in order to share the fate of the Cossacks of the 15th KKK VS CONR.
          But this is not the whole truth.

          At first, nobody wanted to take General von Pannwitz.

          Nobody needed him.
          Neither the USSR nor the ally.

          Paphos, not pathos, and there were no traitors among the Cossacks. By the way, the national clothing of the Don Cossacks (it was forbidden by Peter the Great) is very similar to the German one (most likely the Western Slavs), and my ancestors are very fond of order and more like the Germans.
          As a child, Krasnova's cousin (she died at the age of 95) nursed me (and all my relatives, there were no children of their own). When she was asked: "Are you nasty for the Whites and for the Reds"? She answered: "I am neutral." I will not write more about Krasnov, since I will not be biased.
          1. dmb
            dmb 18 September 2013 11: 14
            I can only repeat myself, learn history. Orthodox Old Believers fighting on the side of Muslims are traitors, no matter what excuses they hide behind. Well, okay, let's move on to a more vivid example of the Cossack "brotherhood" Well, Mazepa threw "Peter", that "damned m ... l", but in relationship with Kochubei and Iskra or Colonel Paley? I think if von Panwitz or Krasnov had been caught by the Cossacks from the brigades of Dovator and Belov, they would have lived a very short time.
            1. bya965
              bya965 18 September 2013 21: 52
              Quote: dmb
              Orthodox Old Believers fighting on the side of Muslims are traitors,

              Well, yes, there were Slavs, they occupied almost all of Europe about 5 thousand ago (I'll just remind the northern Slavic cities of Hamburg, Berlin, Arkaim on the Buyan island), but Cyril and Methodius came and taught us writing and faith. Yes, faith in us already genetically sits, I generally keep quiet about writing and education. We have faith in the Good, in the Motherland, in the relatives, in the People. According to the old faith, according to the new Orthodox faith, or even some other.
              Cossacks, when they drink, do not clink glasses and do not make toasts, just if they want to say "Be Good".
              Quote: dmb
              Well, Mazepa "threw" Peter ",

              “Although history is a lie, stated in words,” Mazepa is a traitor to me, and Peter I is just an enemy. But, I didn't hold a candle and I don't even know what happened in my country in 91 and 93.
      2. Black
        Black 17 September 2013 21: 51
        Quote: bya965
        Yes, and the Cossacks did not have private ownership of the land and I hope it will not.

        The property was public, and not much different from private. And what does it mean - will not be ??? Has already.
  9. The centurion
    The centurion 17 September 2013 15: 12
    The true truth. The tale-making began even before the tsarist government long before the revolution, and the Bolshevik-Trotskyists actively accelerated this process. Ivan the Terrible, Boris Godunov, Peter the Great, and Catherine II also successfully practiced razachachivanie. But they spread rot on one Cossack Troops, but at the same time strengthened other Cossacks. But the liberals, as the offspring of comprador and cosmopolitan, intended to destroy the Cossacks, as an imperial-patriotic estate, with a root. Their reforms undermined the three whales on which the Cossacks kept: Cossack service, Cossack land use and land, and Cossack privileges. And they finally succeeded. Contributed to this dirty business and the "great reformer" P.A. Stolypin. Caused by his pre-war reforms and the failures of the First World War, the indifference of the Cossacks to the tsarist regime gave a respite and an opportunity for the Bolsheviks to gain a foothold in power and the opportunity to win the civil war. Cossacks managed to split. On the sidelines of the outbreak of civil war, the white Cossacks of Shkuro fought with the red Cossacks of Budenny, the red Cossacks of Mironov fought with the white Cossacks of Mamontov, the white Cossacks of Dutov fought with the red Cossacks of Kashirin, and so on ... At the same time, there were the best sons of Don, the Kuban Ural, etc. A bloody whirlwind swept over the Cossack lands. My late grandmother said: “They shared on whites and reds and let each other chop up to the joy of the Jewish commissars.” Something like that. Article plus.
  10. Bagatur
    Bagatur 17 September 2013 17: 05
    In the Russian-Turkish war 1877-78. Milyutin made an “evil genius”, almost leading Russia to a catastrophe. The reform of the army ended in 1875, the new system has not yet created the prepared reserves, the overwhelming majority of the troops consisted of soldiers of the 1 and 2 years of service. But the Minister of War in reports to the king diminished the strength of the Turks three times. Their combat effectiveness declared zero at all. Convinced that the war will be an easy walk. According to the plans developed by him, completely insufficient forces concentrated on the main directions. In addition, Milutin transferred the contract for supplying the current army to the merchant association “Kogan, Gregor, Gorvits and Co” - and on the 3 clause of this contract, the high command undertook to notify the suppliers about movements of units and formations in a week! If you call it a betrayal, then ... how else to call it?

    The trouble did not keep itself waiting. When the small Gurko Front detachment crossed the Balkans, two “unaccounted” Turkish armies suddenly appeared! They were well trained, well armed - with Krupp guns, Peabody rifles.

    The Turkish army of the European standard was created in 1834! In the Balkans, the Oman Empire had 350 soldiers, and at least 000-100 bashibozuk (regular troops) from the locality of Musyulman, incl. and Circassian native of Russia. And the entire Danube army of Russia consisted of the -West detachment of Gen. Kridener-150, the Eastern detachment of the throne successor Alexander-000 against him, 35 army of Mehmed Ali Pasha and the Ancestral detachment of Gen. Gurko — 000 Wh. 70 Bulgarian militias - it was they who were hit by 000 Suleiman Pasha’s army if he complied with the order of Serasker and went through the Eastern Balkans (out of 100 mountain passes, only 000 Shipka and Hainboaz kept the Russians) and dined with the army Mehmed Ali Pasha .. the war could have ended very quickly; it is not so victorious for Russia! Thank God .. that the Turkish Pasha's mediocrity (excluding Osman in Plevna) exceeded by far the majority of Russian generals! It was a pity that such as Skobelev, Stoletov, Gurko and Totleben did not plan, they did not wage war ... their memory is eternal! Eternal glory to the main hero of the RUSSIAN SOLDIER! He won the war on his own tricks, despite general miscalculations ...
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  12. Walking
    Walking 17 September 2013 18: 41
    All these liberal democrat reformers are too expensive for Russia.
  13. Black
    Black 17 September 2013 21: 59
    Cutting out has cost and costs Russia. And even more expensive ...
    Quote: Centurion
    the liberals, as the offspring of compradorism and cosmopolitanism, planned to destroy the Cossacks, as an imperial-patriotic estate, with a root

    How not bitterly aware of this, but they succeeded.
  14. mithridate
    mithridate 18 September 2013 15: 12
    Freemasonry has always tried to destroy the Slavic world.
  15. Bagatur
    Bagatur 20 September 2013 22: 16
    Meanwhile, the Turks created a new numerous cavalry just on the model of the Cossacks - Bashibuzuk.

    Let me clarify, as Bulgarians, I know firsthand something "bashibozuk". By the way, this is not necessarily a cavalry ... The name itself znyachit - a self-made head. That was the name of the regular troops, recruiting from the local Turks and other Müsühlman. Against the peaceful Bulgarian population, they showed themselves as a real head cutter who did not know mercy for the defenseless people. Against the redovny army, and the preparation of people as Cossacks, they cost nothing ... the intelligence is much easier to slaughter the peasants than they were equal to the Cossacks ...