Military Review

Observation vedts CIA. Lockheed A-12 Supersonic Strategic Scout

41
Lockheed A-12 was developed to replace the U-2. The work was ordered and financed by the Central Intelligence Agency. The main reason for the start of work was the improvement of the potential enemy air defense systems - U-2, even though the flight altitude was rather slow, and therefore vulnerable to air defense. A-12 was produced in 1962-1964 and was operated in 1963-1968 (the last flight was May 1968 of the year). The design of the single-seat aircraft served as the basis for the SR-71 Blackbird high-speed reconnaissance aircraft.


Lockheed was already working out possible solutions when Clarence L. (Kelly) Johnson, head of prospective development, who served as director of Lockheed's Advanced Development Projects office (also known as Skunk Works) was summoned to Washington in 1958.

A-12 (ser.No.06932) in flight, 1960


Announced a competition for the best car designed to replace the U-2. At the same time, not a cent was allocated for the design of new cars - companies developed cars at their own expense, hoping that all expenses would be reimbursed in the future. Among those represented were the Navy draft and the Boeing draft. Lockheed presented several projects for consideration: G2A - subsonic tailless with low ESR, CL-400 - supersonic with hydrogen-fueled engines, A-1 and A-2 - supersonic aircraft with ramjet or TRD-ramjet. The designation of the latter was decoded as "Archangel-1 (2)". In September, 1958 was most favored by the FISH project proposed by the Convair division of General Dymanics Corporation. The car was an unmanned reconnaissance vehicle launched from the projected high-speed version of the Hustler bomber - B-58B. However, after 2 a month, Lockheed is offering a new project for a high-speed scout under the designation A-3. At the end of November, Convair and Lockheed are being offered to create supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft with two using the powerful Pratt & Whitney J58 engines. The project was given the code mark GUSTO.

Preference was given to the project Lockheed. In addition to lower cost and better tactical and technical characteristics, the fact that the previous U-2 was created on time and without exceeding the budget played a significant role here. In addition, the Skunk Works unit's staff assurance provided complete secrecy. In total, Skunk Works developed 12 prototypes before the aircraft layout was approved - it was the last prototype that received the designation A-12. 14 September 1958, the CIA entered into a contract with Lockheed to continue work on the A-12 aircraft. 01.09.1959 million dollars was allocated for expenses between 01.01.1960 and 4,5. The project was given the code designation OXCART (“The ox cart”). 26 January 1960 The CIA issued an order for X-NUMX aircraft A-12. The contract amount was almost 12 million.



An interesting fact is that the CIA began to select pilots before the first flight of the aircraft. All in all, the air forces selected 11 people. All pilots have been tested by the CIA and thorough medical selection.

The program had a very high level of secrecy, which can be compared with the Manhattan project. About the development of Lockheed A-12, in addition to people conducting research and development, knew the American president, several people from the Air Force and several congressmen. It was strictly forbidden to link the work with the company Lockheed, all the drawings, assemblies and components, marked "C & J Engineering". Necessary calculations carried out on the computer by NASA, to preserve secrecy, were performed by Skank Works workers at night.

Project A-12 was carried out according to a modified tailless design with a wing, which smoothly mated with the fuselage (later this scheme was called integral). When designing, designers faced various problems “getting out” from everywhere. "Tails" with a delta wing were available, but they had only one engine. Two engines of the Mirage IV were located in the fuselage, and in the new car they are separated. The designers feared that if one of the engines failed, the significant turning moment could not compensate for the rudders on the keels.



The problem was the high temperature of the structure at high speeds. Expansion of the metal during heating could cause unacceptable temperature stresses, deformation and fracture. High temperatures caused the use of special kerosene. Titanium alloys used for A-12 caused headaches. Titanium was not only heavily processed, but there was also an acute shortage of this material in the United States. For aircraft titanium was ordered in the USSR. Electrical contacts were gilded by electroplating, and in some places they were additionally lined with asbestos to increase their reliability at high temperatures.

According to the EPR contract A-12 it was necessary to minimize. In November, 1959, the electromagnetic testing of the model began at a specially designed Groom Lake site (Nevada). During the modifications Lockheed A-12 received a characteristic "kobrovidnuyu" form - bending contour and sagging on the sides of the fuselage. The influx of aerodynamics did not worsen, but even increased the stability of the aircraft and the lifting force, reduced the bending moment on the fuselage. Small keels mounted at the ends of the engine nacelles were tilted to the center of the aircraft 15 degrees from the vertical. The company has developed a radio-absorbing spike-shaped construction with plastic honeycomb filler. It was used to make side bursts, elevons, and wing socks. About 20% of the wing area is made using this design, which allowed it to withstand heating to 275 ° C. Ferrite-based black paint dissipated heat and reduced the radar visibility of the vehicle.

The fuselage, the wing (sweep on the leading edge - 60 °) and other elements of the aircraft had a complex shape, allowing to achieve high aerodynamic characteristics in various flight modes. Full turn keels at different flight conditions were rotated asynchronously or synchronously within ± 20 degrees. To save weight, the single cabin was not equipped with heat protection. All life support systems were connected to the pilot's spacesuit.



The first five A-12 aircraft built in 1962 were equipped with Pratt & Whitney J75 engines (thrust 76 kN). However, the engines used for the first cars made it possible to accelerate the dive speed M = 2. In order to increase the speed in October, specially designed J58 engines began to be installed on the aircraft, which made it possible to develop the speed M = 1963 in 3,2.

Since the main purpose of Lockheed A-12 was to carry out reconnaissance flights over the territory of a potential enemy, special cameras were ordered to equip the vehicles. Hycon, Eastman Kodak and Perkin-Elmer were attracted to create them. All cameras developed by these companies (Type I, II and IV) were acquired for the OXCART program. In addition, they used the FFD-4 infrared stereo camera, developed by Texas Instruments Corporation in 1964 for U-2 by the TACKLE project. To protect the camera from heat created a special window of quartz glass. With a metal frame, the glass was fused using ultrasound.

In mid-January, the first prototype of the aircraft was assembled in the hangar of the Watertown Streep Air Force Test Base in the hangar of the Airtown Stree Air Force Test Base. Flight tests began in the spring. In the same period the equipment was installed. The prototype of the Lockheed A-1962, piloted by test pilot Lou Schalk, first flew into the air on April 12 of the year 25, during one of the runs, the car left the ground. The first "official" flight of the A-1962 took place on 12 on April 30 of the year. A-1962 broke the 12 sound barrier in May 2 during the second test flight.



All this time, Lockheed A-12 aircraft were equipped with J75 engines. October 5 1962, the car with the engines J75 and J58 rose in the air, and January 15 1963, the A-12, flew two J58. During the tests, a constant fuel leak was detected. Impaired tightness and overheating of the wiring insulation remained a problem during the entire period of operation of the A-12.

The plane had a large number of flaws. The main one is the enormous psychophysical stress on the pilot of a single-seater. 24 May 1963 near Wendover, UT the first A-12 crash occurred. During flights over American territory for various reasons 1963 A-1968 crashed in 4-12.

Speed ​​M = 3 was reached 20 July 1963 of the year. In November of the same year, the estimated speed and altitude were achieved. 3 February 1964 of the year the scout at an altitude of 25290 meters picks up speed M = 3,2 and maintains it for 10 minutes. 27 January 1965 of the year A-12 for 1 hours 40 minutes flew at a speed of M = 3,1 overcoming the distance 4,8 thousand km.

As of October 1966, about 40 flights a month were carried out during the tests. Another impressive demonstration of the capabilities of the Lockheed A-12 was Bill Perk's six-hour flight on December 21, 1966. The car overcame 10198 miles (16412 km). 1967 began with tragedy - in a routine training flight on January 5, Walter Ray crashed on a fourth prototype. Immediately after take-off, the flow meter failed, which caused an increased fuel supply and engine ignition.



Despite the fact that the aircraft was originally designed for reconnaissance flights over the territory of the USSR and Cuba, A-12 for these tasks were never used. Despite the successes that the A-12 demonstrated during test flights, the car remained "raw" and extremely difficult in piloting and maintenance. Despite this, the customer requested November 5 of the year to provide 1964 aircraft for reconnaissance flights over Cuba by 4. Since civilian pilots were not trained, Kelly Johnson allowed testers to voluntarily take part in this operation. By November 10 A-12 had been prepared for the operation, but the CIA leadership had already refused to use the new intelligence officer. One of the reasons for the rejection of the A-12 was the unavailability of on-board electronic warfare equipment.

His baptism of fire Lockheed A-12 was to take place in Asia. 18 March 1965 held a meeting of Maccon, director of the CIA and McNamara, minister of defense. They discussed the issue of strengthening China’s air defense and the increased threat from it for US U-2 aircraft and reconnaissance UAVs. It was decided that the alternative to the UAV and U-2 are Lockheed A-12, which must be transferred to Asia. The program was given the name Black Shield (Black Shield, Black Shield). The Kadena airfield on the island of Okinawa was chosen as the home base. During the first phase of the program in Caden, it was intended to deploy three intelligence officers for a period of 60 days twice a year.

In 1965, interest in A-12 from high-ranking officials dropped sharply. Requests by the CIA leadership to allow flights over North Vietnam and China under the “Black Shield” program came across opposition from the State Department and McNamara.



The reluctance of the manual to use A-12 for its intended purpose was the reason for raising the question of their necessity. The decision to put the Lockheed A-12 already built up on conservation was made at the end of the 1966 year. Their place was to be occupied by spy satellites and the double reconnaissance SR-71 - a direct descendant of A-12. February 1968 was defined as the deadline for conservation. However, instead of conservation, the scouts began to prepare them for combat missions. Change the decision forced the appearance of the C-75 air defense system in North Vietnam. A use request for A-12 flights over DRV came from US President Johnson. The scouts were supposed to monitor the North Vietnamese air defense, tracking changes in the deployment of missile systems. The use of A-12 over Vietnam was authorized by the American President 16 May 1967 of the year. 22 - On May 27, three A-12 unmarked, fully painted black, were transferred to Okinawa.

29 in May, the commander of the expedition unit, Colonel Slater, reported on readiness for the first reconnaissance flight that took place two days later - 31 in May 1967 of the year. Flight duration - 3 h 39 min., Speed ​​- M = 3,1, height - 80 thousand feet (24 383 km). The Scout has fixed 70 positions of the SAM. Between May 31 and August 15, seven sorties were flown. Radar radiation was recorded in four of them, but no missile launches were noted.

16 August - 31 December scouts made another fifteen flights over the DRV. In the September 17 flight, the aircraft launched one missile of the C-75 complex, and September 23 launched another launch. October X-NUMX A-30 manned by Dennis Sullivan fired six missiles that caused minor damage to the aircraft - this is considered to be the only instance of a scout defeat.



Between January 1 and 31 March 1968, planes flew over Vietnam four times, over North Korea - twice. The first flight over Korea was made by CIA pilot Frank Murray on January 26. The flight of pilot Jack Layton over the DPRK 8 in May 1968 was the last for Lockheed А-12. After this, the reconnaissance mission began to be preserved.

Back in July, a memorandum was prepared by the budget committee on 1966, which proposed two options for the fate of Lockheed А-12 and SR-71:
- maintain the status quo, A-12 - remained at the CIA, SR-71 - in the air force;
- cancel A-12, transferring all functions to SR-71 scouts.

Observation vedts CIA. Lockheed A-12 Supersonic Strategic Scout
The only built double training A-12, exhibited at the California Science Center in Los Angeles


December 16 The last option was chosen for 1966: A-12 minimized from January 1 on 1968. The first semester of 1968, A-12, was attempted to be kept by the CIA - various options for creating a “rapid reaction squadron” were proposed. However, on May 16, the American president confirmed the earlier decision. In May-June 1968, the scouts left Kadena, on June X, the conservation work of the scouts began in Palmdale. Not all airplanes returned from Okinawa, 4 June, during a training flight, was flown by A-4, piloted by Jack Wick. Officially reported that SR-12 disappeared.

A-12 last rose in the 21 sky on June 1968 of the year.

According to the program А-12, 18 aircraft of the following modifications were built:
A-12 - supersonic single strategic reconnaissance for the CIA;
A-12 "Titanium Goose" - combat training two-seater;
YF-12A - fighter-interceptor, double;
SR-71A - supersonic strategic double reconnaissance aircraft for the Air Force;
SR-71B - combat training aircraft, double;
SR-71C - combat training aircraft, double;
M-21 - double carrier for unmanned aerial vehicle D-21.

Flight-technical characteristics of Lockheed A-12:
Length - 31,26 m;
Height - 5,64 m;
Wing area - 170 m²;
Wingspan - 16,97 m;
Empty weight - 30600 kg;
Normal take-off weight - 53000 kg;
Engine - 2 × Pratt & Whitney J58-P4;
Engine weight - 3200 kg;
Maximum thrust - 2x10630 kgf;
Traction on afterburner - 2x14460 kgf;
Fuel - 46180 l;
Maximum speed - 3300 km / h;
Cruising speed - 2125 km / h;
Rate of climb - 60 m / s;
Practical range - 4023 km;
Tactical range - 2000 km;
Practical ceiling - 28956 m;
Flight duration - 5 hours;
Wing load - 311 kg / m²;
Thrust-to-0,54;
Crew - 1 man.















Based on materials:
http://vert-mi8.ru
http://www.airwar.ru
http://www.airbase.ru
http://www.testpilot.ru
http://mostinfo.su
Author:
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  1. Landwarrior
    Landwarrior 16 September 2013 08: 26 New
    +9
    Cute airplane and in many ways unique. Even managed to leave the S-200. Unlike U-2, this spy was never able to be grounded.
    1. Vashestambid3
      Vashestambid3 16 September 2013 08: 50 New
      -2
      Quote: Landwarrior
      Nice airplane and in many ways unique

      For the air defense generals of the USSR at that time, he didn’t seem tickly pretty, wink for them he was a nightmare smile spent a lot of money on specialized interceptors such as the MiG-25 and MiG-31 to catch up with him, on duty 24 hours a day !! Lol smile Royal Article smile To the author the highest award !!
    2. klimpopov
      klimpopov 16 September 2013 09: 42 New
      +8
      After the appearance of this aircraft (in the video), the need for lockhide disappeared.


      Well, for a snack without comment)))
      1. smprofi
        smprofi 16 September 2013 11: 16 New
        0
        Quote: klimpopov
        After the appearance of this aircraft (in the video), the need for lockhide disappeared.

        faith in the power of domestic weapons is good. only the idea expressed is not true (by the way, some "experts" with manic stubbornness say that the SR-71 "buried" the Krug "air defense system").
        in fact, everything is much simpler. here is one of the main characters who stopped flying the SR-71 Blackbird:



        Larry D. Welch, chief of the United States Air Force (Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force) from July 1, 1986 to June 30, 1990. it was said about him that he did not want to hear anything about the plane if he could not carry a bomb nor rockets. even this Larry "pleased" the cost of one flight of the SR-71: fighter squadron could fly for almost a month with this money.
        and the need for SR-71 gringos was very well remembered during the Desert Storm, but the train left.
        The reconnaissance program (Big Safari) began in January 1995, on January 12, a NASA-stored aircraft, serial number 64-17971, made a five-minute flight from Edwards AFB to the factory airfield in Palmdale, and the first official flight took place on April 26 " canned "SR-71A, in August a second plane flew. In total, it was planned to re-commission three mothballed cars. Before resuming operation, the aircraft underwent modernization, during which they installed receivers for exchanging data on the tactical situation and equipment for transmitting intelligence information to the ground in real time.
        The first "reconstructed" reconnaissance was handed over to the Air Force on June 28, 1995. All three aircraft are currently based at the Edwards AFB airbase and are in service with their 9th SRW.

        Unfortunately, there is no later news.
        1. klimpopov
          klimpopov 16 September 2013 11: 36 New
          +3
          Nevertheless, why did they hunt the 25 so hard? Why they were surprised when they studied his body. In the end, flights over Israel remember, there are memories of the pilot.
          faith in the power of domestic weapons is good. only here the thought expressed is not true

          Downplay is also not worth it.
          And it is impossible to speak unequivocally in this story. That one was buried. A set of circumstances led to the closure. And 25 and subsequently 31 played far from the last role!

          1. smprofi
            smprofi 16 September 2013 13: 06 New
            +1
            minus comment in vain put. even though a person persists, there is still some sound thought:
            Quote: klimpopov
            A set of circumstances led to the closure.


            Quote: klimpopov
            In the end, flights over Israel remember, there are memories of the pilot.

            I can still remember. I knew about these flights back in the 80s
            Quote: klimpopov
            Nevertheless, why did they hunt so hard for the 25th?

            yes hunt for any type of weapon
            1. klimpopov
              klimpopov 16 September 2013 16: 31 New
              +1
              Yes, I have these minuses ....)) Well, after all, they hunt for some very carefully. Do you agree? Mig - 25 and Mig - 31 were just from this series.
      2. Landwarrior
        Landwarrior 16 September 2013 17: 37 New
        +3
        Quote: klimpopov
        After the appearance of this aircraft (in the video), the need for lockhide disappeared.

        For the sake of objectivity, I want to add- Belenko (if you forgot, the hack that the MiG stole to Japan) to a question like SR-71 vs. MiG replied that MiG could bring down the 71st, but that he could not catch up. I don’t know if this is significant or not ...
        1. 0255
          0255 16 September 2013 21: 42 New
          +1
          For the sake of objectivity, I want to add- Belenko (if you forgot, the hack that the MiG stole to Japan) to a question like SR-71 vs. MiG replied that MiG could bring down the 71st, but that he could not catch up. I don’t know if this is significant or not ...

          the Americans, from his words, understood that the MiG-25 would not catch up with the SR-71 and therefore paid only 1 million kopeks, although the MiG-25 was more expensive)))
          1. Landwarrior
            Landwarrior 17 September 2013 06: 27 New
            0
            Quote: 0255
            the Americans, from his words, understood that the MiG-25 would not catch up with the SR-71 and therefore paid only 1 million kopeks, although the MiG-25 was more expensive)))

            Much more expensive. After that, at least with radio equipment there was kypezh. In general, if he was lamb-addicted, his betrayal cost much more sad
      3. UVB
        UVB 16 September 2013 21: 17 New
        0
        More recently, there has been much debate about the future fate of the MiG-31. And one of the senior officials from the Air Force / I don’t remember exactly who / stated that the 31st now cannot reach speeds of more than 1500 km / h or something like that, since the glazing of the lamps does not withstand heating at high speeds. I didn’t understand. Did they change the lanterns to bad ones, or did they lose their properties by age? Or is this not true?
    3. smprofi
      smprofi 16 September 2013 13: 16 New
      +2
      Quote: Landwarrior
      I even managed to leave the S-200. Unlike U-2, this spy was never able to be grounded.

      but there were cases when the A-12 / SR-71 entered far into the territory of the Union and that there would be exactly the S-200?
      U-2 in the Union shot down only one. and they stopped flying over the USSR. but they continued to fly over China. and they stuffed 9 pieces there



      and SR-71 walked along the borders of the Union, did not particularly invade airspace. so they didn’t shoot him down. Well, where did the SR-71 fly, over which countries, so there the S-200 was not on duty.
      1. Landwarrior
        Landwarrior 16 September 2013 17: 41 New
        +1
        Quote: smprofi
        but there were cases when the A-12 / SR-71 entered far into the territory of the Union and that there would be exactly the S-200?

        Not in the Soviet sky. Over North Korea.
        Blackbirds sometimes flew over North Korea. According to airborne equipment, Richard says they were fired at with SA-5 Gammon (C-200) missiles. But at an altitude of more than 30 km, the speed of the rocket dropped sharply and getting away from it with a climb (just what he was talking about 110 thousand feet in flight altitude) was not difficult. Maneuvers to evade these missiles were worked out in advance and were used by SR-71 pilots as needed.

        Link here: http://maxpark.com/community/1039/content/1737495
        Do not pay attention to the popup wink
        1. smprofi
          smprofi 16 September 2013 18: 19 New
          +3
          thanks for the link. a little earlier I myself made material on the SR-71 Blackbird and the entire family (here is the last part, there are links to the previous ones:
          http://nnm.me/blogs/smprofi/zona_51_chast_iiif/)
          mainly used foreign materials, including sites of veterans SR-71. about the shelling of their S-200, or how they "easily" left the Soviet fighters - not a gugo was there. where the author of the material from the link you provided took the information from is his business. I especially liked this:
          Theoretically, Drozd could be shot down by S-300 air defense missiles, but Drozd is equipped with rather powerful electronic defense means that are capable of incapacitating electronic components of the guidance heads of these missiles at a distance of about 50 km.

          to yours:
          Quote: Landwarrior
          For the sake of objectivity, I want to add- Belenko (if you forgot, the hack that the MiG stole to Japan) to a question like SR-71 vs. MiG replied that MiG could bring down the 71st, but that he could not catch up. I don’t know if this is significant or not ...

          I wouldn’t particularly believe Belenko. and all the more so since he "sang" to his new owners what he wanted and what they expected from him. how his words were recorded, you can find here:
          http://www.wvi.com/~sr71webmaster/mig25.html
          The next reason should be considered to have entered service with the MiG-31, which has become a worthy rival to the American reconnaissance aircraft SR-71A in the Far East and the Arctic. If until 1984 the pilots of the 365th IAP (having shot down the South Korean Boeing 707 in 1978), armed with the outdated Su-15, had been helpless against reconnaissance aircraft of the SR-71 type for a long time, then they were transferred to the new Su-27 and MiG- 31, weaned the "seventy-first" to fly on their site. The interception took place on March 8: the MiG-31 pair “processed” the SR-71 in neutral waters in such a way that, having failed to complete the mission, it went to its base. According to the English site The Spyflight Website [http://www.spyflight.co.uk/main.htm, but you have to dig there, a direct link to the article does not work] June 3, 1986 6 MiG-31s ​​performed a coordinated interception over the Barents Sea with imitation of missile attacks from different angles to the SR-71. On May 27, 1987, in the Arctic, the MiG-31 crew consisting of the Guards Captain Yu.N. Moiseev and the Guards Captain O.A. Krasnov (72nd ГИАП) had to carry out combat action on the reconnaissance aircraft SR-71 and displace it far into neutral waters.
          1. Landwarrior
            Landwarrior 16 September 2013 23: 26 New
            +1
            smprofi Well, I’m not saying that Belenko is the source of last resort. he definitely lacks a bullet in his head wink I haven’t read your article, I repent, I will make up for this shortcoming yes
            about the S-200 from the same took
            1. 0255
              0255 17 September 2013 09: 30 New
              +2
              smprofi, I’m not saying that Belenko is the source of last resort. he definitely lacks a bullet in his head didn’t read your article, I confess, I will make up for this shortcoming
              about the S-200 from the same took

              in 2006, Belenko drank alone in a cheap American motel. It serves him right.
              1. Landwarrior
                Landwarrior 17 September 2013 09: 52 New
                +1
                0255, still 9 grams by weight did not get wink
      2. Fedya
        Fedya 22 September 2013 18: 46 New
        0
        And he did not have to fly into the territory, he had equipment that could see from an altitude of almost 500 km (he could lie). In general, this fool requiring three refueling and after the flight more system checks than on the shuttle, was not worth the money that was eating!
  2. aleks.baa2012
    aleks.baa2012 16 September 2013 09: 32 New
    0
    A very fragile fighter of only 2G withstands overload, from which the Americans would have made a bomber with it, and so a pleasure air boat is harmless but beautiful very winked.
    1. klimpopov
      klimpopov 16 September 2013 09: 44 New
      0
      Beauty is a subjective matter. But here is what an unusual floor for sure.
  3. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky 16 September 2013 09: 46 New
    +7
    The plane, in many ways ahead of its time! However, the very complex and expensive operation, as well as the appearance of reconnaissance satellites, did not allow them to remain in service for a long time. The article is good, thanks to the author.
  4. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky 16 September 2013 09: 51 New
    -1
    Quote: klimpopov
    After the appearance of this aircraft (in the video), the need for lockhide disappeared.


    Well, for a snack without comment)))

    Unfortunately, the MiG-31 could accelerate to 3000 km / h for a very short time, and I personally have not heard about interceptions of the SR-71. Over the entire period of operation, there was not a single combat loss of the SR-71.
    1. klimpopov
      klimpopov 16 September 2013 10: 06 New
      +1
      Well, I don’t argue! Nevertheless, they could not catch 31 at that time, but he could. A fact is just a fact ... By the way, 31 is still relevant.
      In general, "thank you" Belenko, and after all you live in a fellow countryman ...
    2. ruslan207
      ruslan207 16 September 2013 20: 32 New
      -1
      The upgraded mig25 which did not go into the series could fly at 3200 km / h without much harm to itself
    3. 0255
      0255 16 September 2013 21: 47 New
      +1
      Unfortunately, the MiG-31 could accelerate to 3000 km / h for a very short time, and I personally have not heard about interceptions of the SR-71. Over the entire period of operation, there was not a single combat loss of the SR-71.

      SR-71 and so fell without the help of MiGs 25s and 31s.
  5. Blondin nikonov
    Blondin nikonov 16 September 2013 10: 05 New
    +1
    I wonder how much this "scam" program cost American taxpayers?
  6. pensioner
    pensioner 16 September 2013 10: 07 New
    +6
    MiG-25 successfully resisted SR-71:The aircraft was given the special “sports” name “E-266”, under which it was registered with the FAI International Aviation Federation, and it began to crack down on world records set primarily by the American superintelligence SR-71. This was a continuation of the peculiar psychological pressure of the USA, following the space successes of the USSR. Until now, many of the records of the E-266 remain unbroken.
    There were really a lot of modifications, some of them on the verge of a joke. Feeling the need to somehow justify the ever-increasing output of the aircraft, Mikoyan found him more and more new applications. The simplest solution lay on the surface: if the MiG-25 flies higher and faster than the SR-71, then why not make a Soviet tactical scout out of him.
    In addition, the MiG-25 was mass-produced, unlike the SR-71. And if my memory serves me right, the Americans prepared the plane for flight for at least a day.
    1. nightingale
      nightingale 17 September 2013 00: 12 New
      0
      it seems like still moment 25 in high-rise razdechiki is listed
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 17 September 2013 00: 26 New
        +1
        Only certain modifications, the MiG-25r high-altitude reconnaissance.
  7. Vasia kruger
    Vasia kruger 16 September 2013 11: 24 New
    +3
    Thanks to the author, a very interesting article. Now it became interesting how the a-12 differs from the cp-71?
    1. smprofi
      smprofi 16 September 2013 13: 19 New
      0
      The prototype for the SR-71 strategic reconnaissance was the fourth prototype interceptor, known under the designation YF-12C, which became an intermediate modification between the interceptor and reconnaissance. Compared to the YF-12, the fuselage was extended by 0,91 m and returned to the previous form of lateral sag. An enlarged fuel tank was installed in the rear of the fuselage. The main difference between the R-12 and the A-12 was the presence of a second crew member, whose cabin was equipped in the section reserved for the A-12 under the compartment with photo equipment.
  8. georg737577
    georg737577 16 September 2013 14: 11 New
    +4
    The development is fantastic in today's times. An example of a "century of technological development" when scientists and engineers set the tone, not managers ...
    1. wei
      wei 16 September 2013 17: 26 New
      0
      I agree + 100
      think about it 58 year no comp.modeling nor ... nothing but brains and desires
      Respect to engineers and designers of all countries and continents whose achievements we often use today hi
  9. Taoist
    Taoist 16 September 2013 15: 14 New
    +1
    It looks fantastic ... but I would argue about its technical excellence. the same MiG-25 having similar performance characteristics was much simpler and more reliable (and most importantly cheaper). One fact is that because of the need to compensate for thermal expansion and the use of special fuel, the “thrush” had an unsealed fuel system on the ground. Do you imagine a combat vehicle constantly standing in a pool of kerosene? Thrush buried primarily the unprofitability of its use. By and large, he remained an experimental record machine.
    1. loft79
      loft79 16 September 2013 16: 28 New
      +2
      Quote: Taoist
      the same MiG-25 having similar performance characteristics was much simpler and more reliable (and most importantly cheaper)

      Similar performance characteristics, debatable.
      SR-71: 3,1M - 1,5 hours
      Mig-25: 2,8M - about 10 min
      In my opinion, you are trying to compare machines that are different in tasks.
      Pure high-altitude reconnaissance SR-71 and more versatile Mig-25.
      Quote: Taoist
      "Thrush" buried primarily the unprofitability of its use

      Most likely, the current situation at that time. hi
      1. klimpopov
        klimpopov 16 September 2013 16: 32 New
        +1
        Well, the cars are different, but one direct competitor to the other, right?
        1. loft79
          loft79 16 September 2013 16: 38 New
          +1
          competitor? in what?
          The adversary, yes.
      2. Taoist
        Taoist 16 September 2013 21: 13 New
        +1
        It’s worth remembering that in the USA they began to develop what later became a “pure high-altitude reconnaissance” just like an interceptor ... But in the end, they failed to solve the problem of combining high-altitude high-speed flight and at least minimal maneuverability - so he became not a good scout of life. Again, 25y in the modification of the Republic of Belarus could not only conduct reconnaissance but also strike at the discovered targets. So ... Well, the restrictions on the time and speed of supersonic flight on the 25 were mainly associated with the restrictions on aerodynamic heating, because unlike the titanium Drozd, the 25 is duralumin and steel ... (the price, however). So it turned out that on the one hand a universal multi-purpose machine (which can also be operated in combat units and by ordinary pilots) with slightly different performance characteristics. And on the other hand, a record but wildly expensive one, which also requires pilots with the skills of testers ... Which is better? The question is usually rhetorical.
  10. klimpopov
    klimpopov 16 September 2013 16: 47 New
    0
    Quote: loft79
    competitor? in what?
    The adversary, yes.

    Well, you understood me correctly!
  11. The comment was deleted.
  12. Rainman_1
    Rainman_1 16 September 2013 18: 29 New
    +1
    beautiful plane ... just not equal to our instant-31)))
  13. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 16 September 2013 18: 46 New
    +1
    Well, to begin with, the Israelis claim that in 1982 they managed to fill up the Syrian MiG-25RB near Beirut, allegedly hurt by the advanced Hawk air defense missile, and finished it off with the F-15. There is information about the downed MiG-25RB during the Iran-Iraq war.
    During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988. eight MiG-25RB Iraqi Air Force carried out not only reconnaissance flights, but also bombed targets in the rear of the enemy. In particular, they carried out successful bombing of oil terminals in the Persian Gulf, and also bombed Tehran's airport. One MiG-25RB was shot down by the Hawk air defense system when it was flying at a relatively low altitude.

    http://www.libma.ru/transport_i_aviacija/aviacija_i_kosmonavtika_1997_08/p9.php

    But we forgot about our answer U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft Myasischev M-17 "Stratosphere" and its further development of the M-17RM and M-55 "Geophysics", which set 25 world records of altitude, speed and climb for weight category 16 vehicles -20 tons with one turbojet engine. Among them, it should be especially noted such as climbing records to a height of 12 or more kilometers (both without cargo and with cargo with a total weight of 1000 and 2000 kgf). So, for example, the previous record for climbing 12 km was 14 minutes. 23,34 s Aircraft M-17 "Stratosphere" reached this height in 7 minutes. 41,2 s, once again confirming the glory of the General Designer, in his technical solutions far ahead of time.
    http://www.airwar.ru/enc/spy/m17.html

    M-17 "Geophysics"
    1. 0255
      0255 16 September 2013 21: 57 New
      +2
      Well, to begin with, the Israelis claim that in 1982 they managed to fill up the Syrian MiG-25RB near Beirut, allegedly hurt by the advanced Hawk air defense missile, and finished it off with the F-15. There is information about the downed MiG-25RB during the Iran-Iraq war.

      In Lebanon in 1982, the MiG-25 shot down one F-15, one F-15 shot down the MiG-25. Another MiG-25 and F-15 collided in the air, an Israeli pilot died, the Syrian stayed alive. The score between the F-15 and the MIG-25 was 2: 2. This is data from domestic sources, do not believe that Israel shot down 102 Soviet fighters, losing 1 Kfir. Keep in mind that in Lebanon and the Iran-Iraq war on the MiG-25 flew Arabs who do not know how to fight. And the SR-71 was piloted by professional test pilots. At first, Iraqis could not master the MiG-25, they say that at the beginning of the Iran-Iraq war, they were taught by Soviet instructors.
  14. nightingale
    nightingale 17 September 2013 00: 58 New
    +2
    In the north, the pilots told: amers flying along the border, having seen a moment31, preferred to immediately get out of their way.
  15. studentmati
    studentmati 17 September 2013 00: 59 New
    +1
    SR-71 Blackbird.

    A product worthy of being placed in "Aircraft Hall of Fame"! good
  16. NOMADE
    NOMADE 17 September 2013 07: 48 New
    0
    A good aircraft, as always, Lockheed used a fairly high "coefficient of novelty" (they have many interesting projects). Particularly noteworthy is its engine, it is very original, in fact a hybrid of turbojet engine and ramjet with 2 ny type of work! We can say - a work of art. Why we and the Americans did not go this way further (in terms of engines) is not entirely clear to me.
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 17 September 2013 13: 58 New
      0
      For engines of this type, the margin of gas-dynamic stability is very small; they do not tolerate sudden changes in operating modes. And for any combat aircraft, this is a standard condition. As a result, it turned out that the organic shortcomings of such a scheme outweighed the gain achieved with its help ... We also carried out such work and turned out to be unpromising in the same way.
      "In one cart harness a horse and a trembling doe" (c) I really wanted but did not succeed ...