Military Review

U-211: Fight for survival in the half-century. Part I. Feat

The fate of the submarine "Shch-211" was not easy. She fought and died in World War II, fulfilling her duty to the end. 60 For years, the cause and place of the death of the "Pike" was known only by the gloomy abysses of the Black Sea. The little that people knew they had to keep military secrets at dusk. Even in the official documents of that time they did not indicate what the heroes were specifically awarded for, but they sparingly wrote “for the fulfillment of the special task of the command”. Then came the victory, and the feat of the crew was adequately appreciated. In the "muddy 90-x" enemies again declared the battle "U-211". This time they tried to drown the memory of the submariners who perished on it.

Submarines of the "Pike" type are a series of medium-sized submarines built in the USSR in the 1930s - 1940s. They were relatively cheap to build, manoeuvrable and tenacious. "Pike" actively participated in the Great Patriotic War, 44 of the 31 warriors were killed. Submarines of the "Щ" type sunk a total of 27 enemy transports and tankers with a total displacement of 79 gross, on their combat account - 855% of the sunken and damaged enemy tonnage . Shch-35 was laid down on June 211, 3 at factory No. 1934 named after 200 Communards in Nikolaev, serial number 61. It was launched on September 1035, 3, and on May 1936, 5 it went into operation and became part of the Black Sea fleet.

U-211: Fight for survival in the half-century. Part I. Feat
Shch-211 on the go

22 June 1941 of the year Sh-211 was part of the 4 Division of the 1 Sub Brigade, based in Sevastopol and undergoing maintenance. The commander of the "Pike" was cap. leith Alexander Danilovich Devyatko. In July, the assistant commander was appointed by Art. leith Pavel Romanovich Borisenko. July 6 "Pike" went on its first combat expedition, to the position number 5 near Cape Emine, on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, but did not have meetings with enemy ships. The boat returned to Sevastopol on July 27.

August 5 A group of Bulgarian Communists from 1941 arrived aboard the Shch-211. Senior group was Tsvyatko Radoinov. Their task was to lead the Resistance Movement in different areas of Bulgaria and deploy mass guerrilla, subversive, intelligence and propaganda activities in the strategic rear of the Third Reich. The group was deeply conspiratorial and, in theory, no one except the captain was supposed to communicate with its members. Even the captain was “strongly recommended” not to communicate directly with the members of the group, but to resolve all the issues raised through the senior Tsvyatko Radoinov. However, the case was smooth only on paper.

The Bulgarians were extremely surprised by the irrational, in their understanding, distribution of the load in a tight “tin can”, where they were crammed under the conditions of the strictest secrecy. They knew that they would have to travel for at least three or four days and were not too lazy to distribute the load in such a way that they could get as comfortable as possible under these conditions. The mechanic of the submarine was also extremely surprised by the sudden unbalance of the ship, which suddenly "went berserk" and almost turned over at the pier. Finally, the watch took an emergency situation, keeping the "Pike" on an even keel, and the saboteurs settled down almost like at home. The idyll was destroyed by the captain of the ship, who was resurrected by visiting guests. The saboteurs were conscious and immediately began to return everything "as it was." However, cap. leith Nine did not dare to experience fate once again. The Bulgarians were put overboard and the team itself, for the umpteenth time, redistributed the load and differentiated the submarine. Having reasoned that the safety of the ship was more important than any conspiracies, the Shuki commander distributed the "guests" evenly in all the rooms of the submarine. The Bulgarians made friends with the Soviet crew and, until the end of their lives, spoke about Soviet submariners with great respect and genuine human warmth. The conspiracy was the best possible.

Meeting at the stern "pike" before going to sea. Cap 3 rank B. A. Uspensky far left, dressed "on marching." On the right is the commander of the 2 th DPL, captain 3 of the rank Yu.G. Kuzmin, an officer from the pike team and the military commissar of the 1-th LCL regimental commissar V.P. Obidin

Late in the evening of August 5 “U-211” set off. Providing on board went to the commander of the 4-o battalion submarine cap. 3 rank B. A. Ouspensky. The submarine reached the Bulgarian coast 8 August. Due to the strong light of the moon and the risk of being detected, the group landed three days later - on August 11, at the mouth of the Kamchiya River, north of Cape Karaburun. Of the entire group, only Kostadin Lagadinov, later a military lawyer and a general of the Bulgarian People’s Army, survived the war.

Already on August 22, members of the G.Grigorov battle group set fire to a train with fuel destined for the Eastern Front in Varna that burned 7 tanks with gasoline. In the same month in Sofia, P. Usenliev's battle group organized the wreck of a freight train with cargoes for the German army. By the end of the summer of 1941, with the help of Soviet submarines and airplanes, 55 figures from the BRP (k) illegally entered the territory of Bulgaria. In November, Tsvyatko Radoinov became part of the Central Military Commission of the Bulgarian Workers' Party (Communists). Only during the first year of the activity of the combat groups, the police reports recorded more than 260 sabotage and acts of sabotage.

The monarchist fascist police of Bulgaria did not sleep either. In pursuit of the diplomatic and political pressure of the Third Reich, Bulgaria in the summer of 1942 conducted two high-profile demonstrative trials of leaders and participants of the Resistance Movement. At the “Process of submariners and parachutists”, the Sofia Military Court gave the death sentence to 18 defendants from 27, among those who were executed was Tsvyatko Radoinov. At the Trial of the Central Committee of the PDP (k), the same court from 60 sentenced 12 to death (6 of them in absentia), 2 to life imprisonment, and the rest to different terms of imprisonment. The death penalty was executed the very next day in the dash of the School of reserve officers in Sofia.

Despite the brutal public reprisals, persecution and torture in the dungeons of the police, fighting groups did not stop resistance. Just two months after the mass shootings, 19 September 1942, the Slavcho Bonchev battle group consisting of six communists, armed with only one pistol, disarmed the guard and set fire to the Sveti Iliya cooperative in Sofia. It contained sheepskin coats produced in Bulgaria for parts of the Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front. Due to the tense situation with the provision of warm clothing for the German troops in the USSR, the diplomatic representatives of the Third Reich in Bulgaria reacted extremely acutely. The police urgently installed all the perpetrators of the sabotage, and the court obediently sentenced Slavcho Bonchev to death in absentia. However, 5 in November, 1942, in Sofia, on Ferdinand Boulevard, flashed another warehouse with warm clothes prepared for the Hitler army.

In the victorious 1943 year, the Central Military Commission of the PDU (k) was reorganized into the General Headquarters of the People’s Liberation Insurgent Army of Bulgaria, and the territory of the country was divided into 12 guerrilla operational zones. During 1943, the partisans held 1606 actions, and by the end of August 1944 - more 1909. To protect their military facilities and communications in Bulgaria, the Wehrmacht command was forced to divert 19,5 thousand. When the troops of 3-o of the Ukrainian front reached the northern border of the country, the German command reasonably decided that it was not worth defending in a country with such mighty popular resistance. Hitler's troops got out of the way and not a single Soviet soldier was killed during the liberation of Bulgaria, excluding, of course, single deaths due to careless handling of weapons and equipment, sickness and other non-combat losses.

All these combat successes became possible to a large extent thanks to the efforts of the Shch-211 crew. Indeed, from 55 leaders and organizers of the Resistance Movement in Bulgaria, 11 in August, 1941 from Щ-211 ’landed 14. Having landed just one landing party, “U-211” caused damage to the Third Reich, commensurate with all the losses that Hitler's Germany suffered from all 44 “Schuk” combined.

Four days after the landing of the Bulgarian group - 15 August 1941 of the year, “W-211” opened the “battle account” of the Black Sea Fleet in the Great Patriotic War, sinking the Romanian transport “Peles” (5708 brt) near Cape Emine. In its third campaign of 29 in September of the same year, Shch-211 sunk an Italian tanker Superga (6154 brt) near the Bulgarian coast.

14 November 1941 of the year “U-211” went on a military campaign to the position number 21 near Varna, from which it did not return. The cause and place of death for a long time remained unknown.

At the beginning of 1942, the sea threw the body of a Soviet naval officer in a rubber suit on a sandy beach near the village (now the city) of Byala, north of Cape Ak-Burn (now Cape Sveti-Atanas). 6X30 Binoculars No. 015106 from 1921 was wrapped around the neck with a broken eyepiece. This officer was the assistant commander of "Shch-211" Senior Lieutenant Pavel Romanovich Borisenko. Probably at the time of the death of the Pike was in the surface position, and Borisenko, who was on the bridge of the watch, was killed in the explosion. He was buried in the city cemetery in Varna, where grateful Bulgarians are still caring for his grave today.

Both officers - the captain and his assistant were awarded the Order of the Red Banner, but did not live to see their awards. In the “description of the exploit” section, in their award lists, they wrote “for bold and decisive actions to destroy the enemy ships and for fulfilling (securing the decision of the commander in the performance) a special task”. During the war years it was impossible to disclose who, from where and in what way the organizers of the Resistance Movement in Eastern Europe send. Even in their secret award documents.

Italian tanker "Superga"

After the war, the commander of "U-211" was awarded the Presidium of the Bulgarian National Assembly with the Order of the "9 of September 1944 of the Year" I degree with swords. In the name of Alexander Devyatko, a street in Varna was named, on which a modest bronze slab with a bas-relief and the name of the hero was installed. The place and circumstances of the death of "Pike" was still unknown.

The end of the first part.

Продолжение следует ...

Bulgarin sm, but Russia is the motherland (Bolg.) // Duma: gazeta. - 2010. - No. 209.
Podvodnicharite: Spomeni for the feat of podnodnicharite and parachutistite prez 1941 / 1942, / Kiril Vidinski; Lit. processing Alexander Girginov; [With predg. from Ivan Vinarov] Sofia: BKP, 1968, 343 p .; 25 see (bolg.)
Platonov A.V. Encyclopedia of Soviet Submarines 1941 — 1945. - M .: AST, 2004. - S. 187-188. - 592 with. - 3000 ind. - ISBN 5-17-024904-7
Articles from this series:
U-211: Fight for survival in the half-century. Part I. Feat
U-211: Fighting for vitality, half a century long. Part II. Memory
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  1. Su-9
    Su-9 17 September 2013 08: 36
    Eternal GLORY to the Heroes!

    Of course, there is no monument to them at home. Shame on us all.

    But the role of the Bulgarian resistance is exaggerated, in my opinion. Bulgarians were allies of Germany. They are by the way dip. relations with the USSR supported the entire war, and officially did not fight against the USSR. He is glad that they did not send expeditionary units against the USSR and quickly surrendered. The Bulgarians mainly had an internal struggle for power, especially without war - the communists against the monarchists. There were no "Wehrmacht soldiers" guarding communications there - advisers, air defense - yes. And so the Bulgarians themselves successfully fought with their resistance, and even fought against Tito and against the Greeks (and the Yugs and the Greeks were real partisans).
    1. Bagatur
      Bagatur 17 September 2013 16: 47
      As we say in Bulgaria, without 5/09.1944/9.09.1944 when Stalin declared war, there was no coup on 160/000/XNUMX when communists came to power. Yes, and the coup itself was made by the garrison of Sophie and the junkeri military training))) Several thousand illegal immigrants opposed the XNUMX army and the Gendarmerie Corps ... they had no chance to take power without external (USSR support). Eating such a case is similar to an anecdote, but he kept up with Varna. Our komunagi came to the Soviet commander of the city and shouted "My comrades got up! .. ???????????? Get up .... ??? Why didn't you get up yesterday ???"
      1. Su-9
        Su-9 17 September 2013 22: 01
        Yes, Bulgaria has an interesting history in general, especially since the Bulgarian National Revival. Little was known about this in the former Union. And so you lived surrounded by unfriendly countries and fought with them very successfully, only political and strategic allies usually let you down ..
        1. Bagatur
          Bagatur 18 September 2013 19: 11
          Mzhno skazat-Bulgaria stands in the center of the Balkans ... and everyone wants to expand their borders at its expense. By the way, this is the most suitable country in Europe, which garanits with itself .. And not only the vile policy of "allies-robbers", but the strategic miscalculations of the Bulgarian rulers in the Balkan and World War I led to the fact that the country with the most combat-ready army in the Balkans suffered 2 national disasters in 1913 and 1919 ...
  2. washi
    washi 17 September 2013 15: 24
    I do not understand what the article is about?
    About the Bulgarian resistance, which was not there, or about the boat, which drowned their own (thanks to the admirals of October and Kuznetsov)?
    1. The comment was deleted.
  3. Walking
    Walking 17 September 2013 15: 54
    Everlasting memory!
  4. Bagatur
    Bagatur 17 September 2013 16: 39
    When Hitler and Stalin signed a pact on 23.08.1939/1/1941, our komunyags did not become antifascist. When on March 22, 06.1941 Bulgaria entered into an alliance with Germany, they were also silent, the Molotov-Ribentrop pact was led. Well, on 50/000/1941 Germany attacked the USSR and it became a miracle ... the Bulgarian communes woke up as "anti-fascists", whether the ruling regime in the country was faosist is another question. The very fact that the head of the state was the monarch-tsar Boris III already spoils such a concept. You won't name him a democrat, but they will be accused of fascism. It’s too bold ... What do they say? We don’t dispute the fact - he didn’t send the Bulgarian troops to Russia (the people didn’t allow it either), 500 Bulgarian Jews in the death camps did not give up, this is how she is "monarch -fascist "power in Bulgaria. I really wanted to find a Bulgarian politician nowadays who said NO to the United States, Russia, etc., when it comes to vital national interests in the country ... I know that a lot will not agree with me, but I must say, in March XNUMX Bulgaria has two roads - fought with Hitler for the black eyes of Chrchil and his Balkan allies (Greece and Yugoslavia) and bit occupation and the Germans or stat allies, which is what happened. I must say, after the First World War, more than a million Bulgarians in western Thrace and Macedonia were given the Entente to be torn apart by the Serbs and the Greeks ... the terror over the locality of the Bulgarians arranged by them far surpassed everything that the Turks had done in XNUMX years ... this barbarism was also determined by the Bulgarian position. Unfortunately, this honey agaric has put the country on against Russia ...
  5. gerafak
    gerafak 17 September 2013 20: 46
    Heroes have eternal memory! An article was written by a resident of Bulgaria, hence his attention to the Bulgarian resistance and some inconsistencies in the Russian language.