Military Review

Germany's small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery in World War II

34



After defeat in the First World War, the Versailles Treaty of Germany was forbidden to have anti-aircraft artillery in general, and the available anti-aircraft guns were subject to destruction. Therefore, from the end of the 20-s to the 1933, German designers worked on anti-aircraft guns secretly both in Germany and in Sweden, Holland and other countries. At the beginning of the 30-s in Germany, anti-aircraft units were also created, which were called "railway battalions" for conspiracy before 1935. For the same reason, all new field and anti-aircraft guns, designed in Germany in the 1928-1933, were called “arr. 18. Thus, in the case of requests from the governments of England and France, the Germans could answer that these were not new weapons, but old ones created as early as 1918 during the First World War.

In the early 30s, due to rapid development aviation, increasing the speed and range of flights, the creation of all-metal aircraft and the use of aviation armor, there was an acute question of covering troops from attack aircraft.
The existing anti-aircraft guns created in the years of the First World War did not meet the modern requirements for the rate of fire and the speed of aiming, and the rifle-caliber anti-aircraft machine guns did not satisfy the range and power of the action.

Under these conditions, small-caliber anti-aircraft guns (MZA), caliber 20-50-mm, were in demand. They have good rates of fire rate, effective fire range and projectile striking effect.

Anti-aircraft machine 2,0 cm FlaK 30 (German 2,0 cm Flugzeugabwehrkanone 30 - 20-mm anti-aircraft gun model 1930 of the year). Developed by Rheinmetall in 1930, the Wehrmacht began to receive guns from 1934 g. In addition, Xinmx-mm Flak 20 company Rheinmetall exported to Holland and China.



The advantages of the Flak 2 30-cm machine were the simplicity of the device, the ability to quickly disassemble and assemble, and relatively low weight.

Germany's small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery in World War II


28 August 1930 an agreement was signed with the German company BJTAST (front office of Rheinmetall) to supply the USSR with other 20-mm anti-aircraft automatic cannon. All Rynmetall supplied the 20-mm anti-aircraft gun, two samples guns and one spare swinging part.
After testing 20-mm gun of "Rheinmetall" company was put into service under the name 20-mm automatic anti-aircraft and anti-tank gun obn.1930 g. Production of 20-mm cannon obr.1930 g. It was transferred to the plant №8 (Propulsion of the Moscow region ), where she was assigned the 2К index. The batch production of guns was started by the plant No. XXUMX in 8. However, the quality of the manufactured automaton turned out to be extremely low. Military acceptance refused to take anti-aircraft guns. As a result, Kalo- noyn’s breeders (No. XXNX) failed to cope gun manufacturing.

According to the results of the combat use of 20-mm Flak 30 in Spain, the company "Mauser" carried out its modernization. The upgraded model was named 2,0 see Flak 38. The new installation had the same ballistics and ammunition.



All changes to the device were aimed at increasing the rate of fire, which increased from 245 rds / min to 420-480 rds / min. It had height reach: 2200-3700 m, firing range: up to 4800 m. Mass in combat position: 450 kg, mass in the stowed position: 770 kg.
The Flak-30 and Flak-38 light automatic guns had basically the same design. Both cannons were mounted on a light wheeled carriage, which provided in a combat position a roundabout with the highest angle of elevation 90 °.



The principle of the mechanisms of the machine rev. 38 remained the same - the use of recoil force in the short course of the barrel. An increase in the rate of fire was achieved by reducing the weight of moving parts and increasing their speeds, and therefore special buffers-shock absorbers were introduced. In addition, the introduction of a copy space accelerator made it possible to combine the release of the shutter with the transfer of kinetic energy to it.
The automatic building sights of these guns produced vertical and lateral preemptions and made it possible to direct the guns directly at the target. Input data in the sights were entered manually and determined by eye, except for the distance, which was measured by a stereo range finder.

Changes in the carriages were minimal, in particular the second speed was introduced in the manual guidance drives.
There was a special, knowledgeable "pack" version for mountain army units. In this version, the Flak 38 gun remained the same, but a small and, accordingly, lighter gun carriage was used. The gun was called the 2-cm mountain anti-aircraft gun Gebirgeflak 38 and was a weapon designed to destroy both airborne and ground targets.
The 20-mm Flak 38 troops began to arrive in the second half of 1940.

Flak-30 and Flak-38 anti-aircraft guns were a very widely used air defense weapon of the Wehrmacht, Luftwaffe and SS troops. A company of such cannons (12 pieces) was part of the anti-tank division of all infantry divisions, the same company was an integral part of each motorized anti-aircraft division of the RGK, attached tank and motorized divisions.



In addition to towed, it was created a large number of self-propelled guns. Trucks, tanks, various tractors and armored personnel carriers were used as chassis.
In addition to direct assignment, by the end of the war they were increasingly used to combat manpower and light armored vehicles of the enemy.

The scale of use of Flak-30 / 38 cannons is indicated by the fact that in May 1944 of the ground forces had 6 355 cannons of this type, and the Luftwaffe units providing German air defense had more than 20000-mm cannons.

To increase the density of the fire based on the Flak-38 was developed quad installation 2-cm Flakvierling 38. The effectiveness of anti-aircraft installation was very high.



Although the Germans throughout the war constantly experienced a shortage of these anti-aircraft installations. Flaquirling 38 found use in the German army, in the anti-aircraft parts of the Luftwaffe and in the German Navy.



To increase mobility, many different anti-aircraft self-propelled guns were created on their base.



There was a version intended for installation on armored trains. An installation was being developed, the fire of which was supposed to be controlled using radar.

In addition to the Flak-30 and Flak-38 in the German air defense, the 20-mm machine gun was used in smaller quantities. 2 cm Flak 28.
This anti-aircraft gun conducts its lineage from the German "Becker gun", which was developed as early as the First World War. Firm "Oerlikon", so named by location - the suburbs of Zurich, acquired all the rights to develop a gun.
By 1927, Oerlikon developed and put on the conveyor a model called Oerlikon S (three years later it became just 1S). Compared with the original model, it was created under a more powerful cartridge 20 × 110 mm and was characterized by a higher initial velocity of the projectile in 830 m / s.



In Germany, the gun was widely used as a means of air defense of ships, but there were also field versions of the gun, which were widely used in the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe anti-aircraft forces, under the designation - 2 cm Flak 28 и 2 cm VKPL vz. Xnumx.



In the period from 1940 to 1944, the volume of transactions of the head company Werkzeugmaschinenfabrik Oerlikon (WO) only with the axis powers - Germany, Italy and Romania - amounted to 543,4 CHF. francs, and included the supply of 7013 20-mm guns, 14,76 million cartridges for them, 12 520 spare barrels and 40 thousand ammunition boxes (that's such a Swiss "neutrality"!).
Several hundred of these anti-aircraft guns were seized in Czechoslovakia, Belgium and Norway.

In the USSR, the word “Oerlikon” became a household name for all small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery of the period of the Second World War.

For all its merits, 20-mm anti-aircraft guns were unable to guarantee 100% penetration of the Il-2 attack aircraft.
To remedy this situation, in the 1943 year, by the firm Mauser, by imposing the 3-cm of the MK-103 aircraft cannon on the 2-cm carriage of the Flak 38 automatic anti-aircraft gun, the Flak 103 / 38 anti-aircraft gun was created. The gun had two-sided tape power. The mechanisms of the machine were based on a mixed principle: unlocking the barrel bore and cocking the bolt were carried out using the energy of powder gases discharged through the side bore in the barrel, and the feed mechanisms were operated using the power of the roll-back shaft.

In mass production Flak 103 / 38 launched in 1944 year. Total produced 371 gun.
In addition to single-barrels in a small number, twin and quad 30-mm units were produced.



In 1942 ― 1943 The Waffen-Werke enterprise in Brun, based on the 3-cm aircraft cannon MK 103, created an anti-aircraft automatic cannon MK 303 Br. From the Flak 103 / 38 cannon, it was distinguished by the best ballistics. For a projectile weighing 320 g, its initial velocity for the MK 303 Br was 1080 m / s versus 900 m / s for Flak 103 / 38. For projectile weighing 440 g, these values ​​were 1000 m / s and 800 m / s, respectively.

The automation worked both at the expense of the energy of the gases discharged from the bore, and at the expense of the recoil of the trunk during its short course. Valve - wedge. Sending ammunition was carried out by the rammer all the way to the movement of the cartridge in the chamber. The muzzle brake had an 30% efficiency.
Production of guns MK 303 Br began in October 1944 g. In total, until the end of the year 32 guns were handed over, and in 1945 g. - 190 as well.

The 30-mm units were much more efficient than the 20-mm, but the Germans did not have time to develop a large-scale production of these anti-aircraft guns.

In violation of the Versailles agreements, Rheinmetall began work on the 20-cm automatic anti-aircraft gun at the end of the 3,7-s.
Automatic guns worked by the recoil energy during the short course of the barrel. The shooting was carried out from the thumb carriage, leaning with the help of a cruciform base on the ground. In the stowed position, the gun was mounted on a four-wheeled wagon.

The 37-mm anti-aircraft gun was designed to fight flying at low altitudes (1500-3000 meters) by airplanes and to fight ground armored targets.



The Renemetall 3,7-cm cannon along with the 2-cm automatic cannon in 1930 were sold by the BYUTAST office to the Soviet Union. In fact, only full technological documentation and a set of semi-finished products were supplied, the guns themselves were not supplied.
In the USSR, the gun received the name "37-mm automatic anti-aircraft gun mod. 1930. Sometimes it was called 37-mm gun "H" (German). Production of the gun was started in 1931 at the plant number 8, where the gun received the index 4K. In 1931, the 3 guns were presented. At 1932, the plan was for 25 guns, the plant presented 3, but the military acceptance accepted none. At the end of 1932, the system had to be removed from production. The Red Army did not hit a single 37-mm cannon arr. 1930

3,7-cm automatic gun company "Rheinmetall" entered service in 1935, called 3,7 cm Flak 18. One of the major drawbacks was the four-wheeled wagon. It turned out to be heavy and clumsy, so it was replaced by a new four bed carriage with a separating two-wheeled drive.
3,7-cm anti-aircraft automatic gun with a new two-wheeled carriage and a number of changes in the device of the machine received the name 3,7 cm Flak 36.



There was another option 3.7-cm Flak 37, distinguished only by a complex, controlled sight with a counter-decisive device and a proactive system.

In addition to regular gun carriages arr. 1936, 3,7-cm, Flak 18 and Flak 36, were installed on railway platforms and various trucks and armored personnel carriers, as well as tank chassis.



Production of Flak 36 and 37 was carried out until the very end of the war in three factories (one of them was in Czechoslovakia). By the end of the war, there were about 4000 37-mm anti-aircraft guns in the Luftwaffe and the Wehrmacht.

During the war, on the basis of 3,7 cm Flak 36, Rheinmetall developed a new 3,7-cm automatic Flak 43.



Automatic arr. 43 had a fundamentally new automation scheme, when part of the operations was carried out at the expense of the energy of the exhaust gases, and partly at the expense of rolling back parts. The Flak 43 magazine accommodates 8 cartridges, while the Flak 36 has been designed for 6 cartridges.



3,7-cm automaton arr. 43 installed on both single and two-gun installations.

During World War II, there was a “difficult” for anti-aircraft guns level heights from 1500 m to 3000. Here the planes were not very accessible for light anti-aircraft guns, and for heavy anti-aircraft artillery guns this height was too small. In order to solve the problem, it seemed natural to create anti-aircraft guns of some intermediate caliber.

German designers of Rheinmetall offered the military a cannon, known by the index 5-cm Flak 41.



The action of automation is based on a mixed principle. The unlocking of the bore, the extraction of the liner, the throwing of the bolt back and the compression of the spring of the bolt tensioner were due to the energy of the powder gases discharged through the side bore in the barrel. And the flow of ammunition was carried out due to the energy of the rolling back barrel. In addition, partial fixed roll-out of the barrel was used in automation.
The barrel bore was locked with a wedge sliding gate. The power supply of the machine by the cartridges is lateral, on the horizontal supply table with the help of a holder for 5 cartridges.
In the stowed position, the installation was transported on a four-wheeled wagon. In the combat position both moves rolled back.

The first copy appeared in 1936. The revision process went very slowly, as a result the gun was put into mass production only in the 1940 year.
A total of 60 anti-aircraft guns of this brand were released. As soon as the first of them entered the army in 1941, major shortcomings emerged (as if they were not at the training ground).
The main problem was the ammunition, which were little adapted for use in anti-aircraft guns.



Despite the relatively large caliber, 50-mm shells did not have enough power. In addition, the flashes of shots dazzled the gunner, even on a clear sunny day. The carriage was too bulky and inconvenient in real combat conditions. The horizontal guidance mechanism was too weak and worked slowly.

Flak 41 is available in two versions. The mobile anti-aircraft gun moved on a biaxial gun carriage. The stationary gun was intended for the defense of strategically important objects, such as the Ruhr dam. Despite the fact that the gun turned out, to put it mildly, unsuccessful, it continued to serve until the end of the war. True, by the time they left the entire unit 24.

It is fair to say that the guns of this caliber have not been created in any of the belligerent countries.
The anti-aircraft 57-mm C-60 was created in the USSR by VG Grabin after the war.

Assessing the actions of the German small-caliber artillery, it is worth noting its exceptional efficiency. The anti-aircraft cover of the German troops was much better than the Soviet, especially in the initial period of the war.

It was the anti-aircraft fire that destroyed most of the IL-2 lost for military reasons.
The high losses of IL-2 themselves should be explained, first of all, by the specifics of the combat use of these attack aircraft. Unlike bombers and fighters, they worked exclusively from low altitudes - and therefore, more often and longer than other aircraft, they were in the realm of fire of German small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery.
The extreme danger that German small-caliber anti-aircraft guns posed to our aviation was caused, firstly, by the perfection of the material part of this weapons. The design of anti-aircraft installations made it possible to very quickly maneuver the trajectories in the vertical and horizontal planes, each gun was equipped with an artillery anti-aircraft fire control device, which gave corrections to the speed and course of the aircraft; tracer shells facilitated the adjustment of fire. Finally, the German anti-aircraft guns had a high rate of fire; Thus, the 37-mm installation Flak 36 produced 188 shells per minute, and the 20-mm Flak 38 - 480.
Secondly, the Germans had a very high saturation of the troops and air defense units of the rear facilities. The number of barrels covering the objects of the Il-2 attacks increased continuously, and at the beginning of 1945 an attack aircraft operating in the German fortified area could be released per second (!) To 200 — 250 20– and 37-mm projectiles.
The reaction time was very short, from the moment it was detected to the opening of fire. The first accurate shot of a small-caliber anti-aircraft battery was ready to give within 20 seconds after the discovery of Soviet aircraft; The Germans injected the corrections for the change in the course of the Il-2, the angle of their dive, speed, distance to the target for 2 — 3 seconds. Their concentration of the fire of several guns on the same target also increased the probability of hitting

Based on:
http://www.xliby.ru/transport_i_aviacija/tehnika_i_vooruzhenie_1998_08/p3.php
http://zonawar.ru/artileru/leg_zenit_2mw.html
http://www.plam.ru/hist/_sokoly_umytye_krovyu_pochemu_sovetskie_vvs_voevali_huzhe_lyuftvaffe/p3.php
A.B. Wideograd "God of War of the Third Reich"
Author:
34 comments
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  1. Flying Dutchman
    Flying Dutchman 13 September 2013 09: 11
    +5
    I wonder why they didn’t use tape power on 20 graphs, and it’s so unfortunate that the NKVD did not find an effective council for the breeders of Kalinin.
    1. Bongo
      13 September 2013 10: 05
      +5
      Apparently store food is structurally simpler, besides the dimensions of the weapon itself are less. Although there is a significant loss in the rate of fire compared with tape power.
      In fairness it should be noted that the band power supply in the Ministry of Defense, in those years was not used anywhere. The exception Flak 103 / 38 - which is described in the article and the Soviet small-scale marine installations on the basis of ShVAK and VY.
    2. Stas57
      Stas57 13 September 2013 10: 34
      +1
      Quote: Flying Dutchman
      I wonder why they didn’t use tape power on 20 graphs, and it’s so unfortunate that the NKVD did not find an effective council for the breeders of Kalinin.

      and shoot them all immediately, but it’s better to devour them alive, and right away we will release satellites, right?
      But nothing, that it was a systemic problem, and in each industry?
      Though in tanks, even in armament, even in aviation, even in metallurgy, wherever you throw
      What to do when yesterday’s peasants work hard in the morning, study during the day, and even study in the flying club in the evening?
      Carry everyone in the NKVD? Well, well ... how simple you are.
      1. Igarr
        Igarr 13 September 2013 19: 19
        +1
        That's right, Stas ...
        ..about tape power ....
        think ... due to what, by what mechanism the tape moves ... how many cartridges in the tape, what is the weight of the suspended tape, the inertia of the equipped tape ...
        Remember .... automatic loaders and charging mechanisms .. in modern tanks ...
        and all questions will go away.
        And also - the issues of tape flexibility, articulation, calibration, field damage ..
      2. Panzerjäger
        Panzerjäger 10 August 2021 17: 20
        0
        Do you know what kind of plant was in Podlipki? That there were no yesterday's peasants there, but the workers and technicians of the Gun Factory, which had already been formed in 1711, that was taken out of Petrograd during the civil war. the qualifications of these workers were of the highest quality. And not 10 or 20 workers arrived, but more than a thousand people, according to some information, up to one and a half thousand of the most qualified specialists. And they did not return to St. Petersburg. So there were no yesterday's peasants who had just got up to the machines. Rather, they were, but in percentage terms, they are several times less than at new enterprises.
    3. Panzerjäger
      Panzerjäger 10 August 2021 17: 15
      0
      The tape feed, with all its advantages, has a drawback - the heating of the barrel as a result of prolonged continuous shooting.
      And in the early 30s there was still the OGPU, which was ruled by Yagoda. Because the structurally more complex ShVAK 20-mm in 1938-1939 was quite successfully produced in Kovrov, Tula and Izhevsk, and during the war, when adolescents and women stood at the machines and at the assembly. And then the plant in Podlipki suddenly gives up. Indeed, there is something to think about. Moreover, at the beginning of the 30s, this plant filled up ALL the projects that it was entrusted with in terms of small-caliber rapid-fire and automatic artillery.
  2. 311ove
    311ove 13 September 2013 09: 25
    +1
    attack aircraft ... 200-250 shells per second
    And Eli still "worked" like that. that the Germans were terrified of them!
  3. igordok
    igordok 13 September 2013 09: 26
    +9
    In the USSR it was even so.
  4. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 13 September 2013 10: 10
    +2
    Looking at all this splendor, you begin to remember with a quiet, gentle word of Marshal Tukhachevsky with his "brilliant" idea of ​​a "universal weapon", who almost completely killed the Red Army's armament with anti-aircraft artillery. After all, on August 6, 1930, the head of the State Armament, Weapons and Machine Gun Association, Comrade Budnyak, and the head of the Butast company, Hugo Freisenstein, signed an agreement in Berlin on technical assistance in organizing the production of six artillery systems in the USSR:
    1) 7,62 cm anti-aircraft gun;
    2) 15,2 cm mortar;
    3) 3,7 cm anti-tank guns;
    4) 2-cm machine;
    5) 15,2 cm howitzers;
    6) 3,7 cm automatic anti-aircraft gun.
    All these guns were created by the Rheinmetall company. The serial production of the guns was started by the plant number 8 in 1932. For this year the plant was given a plan - 100 guns. The plant presented 44 guns to the military representatives, and they accepted only three. In 1933, the plan was 50 guns, 30 were presented, 61 were handed over (among the latter there were guns made in 1932). As a result, the bunglers from the plant. Kalinin (No. 8) could not cope with the production of the gun. On November 1, 1936, the Red Army was armed with thirteen 20-mm guns mod. 1930 on wheeled carriages and eighteen 20-mm guns mod. 1930, installed on ZIS-6 vehicles. In addition, there were 8 training guns on wheeled carriages. The production of the 37-mm anti-aircraft gun was started in 1931 at the plant number 8, where the gun received the index 4K. In 1931, 3 cannons were presented. For 1932, the plan was 25 guns, the plant presented 3, but the military acceptance did not accept a single one. At the end of 1932, the system had to be discontinued. Not a single 37-mm gun mod. 1930 Instead, the 40-mm Bofors anti-aircraft gun with its unsuccessful automation had to be copied.
    1. carbofo
      carbofo 13 September 2013 13: 07
      0
      But after the war, we made up for one Shilka worth something.
      In the army, however, antiaircraft guns for their intended purpose are not used almost, mainly as stationary firing points, but there are fewer people who want to get a line from a shilka or zu-23-2.
      1. Bongo
        13 September 2013 13: 23
        +5
        This use of the ZU-23 is typical of the "Counter-Terrorist Operation Mode".
        In the Bekaa Valley, in 80, Shilka showed herself very well for her intended purpose.
        1. carbofo
          carbofo 14 September 2013 17: 39
          +6
          I had to indicate the time period for using anti-aircraft guns as such!
          Of course, I meant both Chechen wars.
          Recently I saw videos from Syria there, too, anti-aircraft gunners participate in battles, specifically, the shilka went and fired, but there were videos with a clearly anti-aircraft machine gun and from the side of the CCA I just can’t say this or that device, although I remembered there was still the video on it was exactly zu-23-2.
      2. nnz226
        nnz226 13 September 2013 21: 18
        +6
        And what did 1941 turn into when the Stukas were carrying both infantry and tank columns on the march ?! The soldiers died before they could reach the front and shoot at the enemy!
        1. carbofo
          carbofo 14 September 2013 17: 45
          0
          The soldiers died everywhere, this is war.
          I hope the author will describe OUR anti-aircraft story in the Second World War, otherwise I get jarred when first articles about everyone and then about ours.
          Although, as the immortal Stirlitz said, only the last is well remembered, that is why our IS-3 tanks were the last to go to the parade in Berlin, a good impression was left so that in the West they spoiled bricks from fear for 30 years.
          1. Bongo
            15 September 2013 15: 35
            +3
            Such an article was already 12 August.

            http://topwar.ru/31576-zenitnye-sredstva-protivovozdushnoy-oborony-rkka.html
  5. Eugeniy_369
    Eugeniy_369 13 September 2013 10: 16
    +3
    The article pole, illustrations pleased, but about self-propelled versions of small-caliber air defense systems will not be enough No. .
    "Flaks" of all calibers and systems have brought enormous harm to our Air Force (and not only).
    I think there was no one stronger than German air defense in WWII. Regrettably, but a fact.
    Covering the columns on the march is worth something. By the way, ours gained experience from the attacks of the Luftwaffe of our tank formations on the march and in battle in the absence of their own aviation. "Shilka", "Tunguska" were developed under the influence of WWII experience. Amer with air defense did not bother much, the Air Force took over the air defense function almost completely. Although anti-aircraft machine guns on their tanks were not uncommon, and the M17 was also available))))
    1. Bongo
      13 September 2013 10: 23
      +2
      Thank you!hi
      About self-propelled ZSU is the topic of a separate article, too broad.
  6. chunga-changa
    chunga-changa 13 September 2013 10: 38
    -7
    How elegantly the author solved the problem "As a result, the bunglers from the Kalinin factory (No. 8) could not cope with the production of the gun." It turns out that the team of bunglers is to blame. Were they specially collected there? Presumably, the production of the gun was transferred to the plant by chance, without thinking. When the gun did not work because of the "scammers", they decided not to transfer it to other factories, purely out of harm, although they would undoubtedly cope there. Or is it a conspiracy. For some reason, the same "team of bunglers" serially produced 61-k and 72-k, created on the basis of bofors, the first of them is still in service in some countries.
    1. Bongo
      13 September 2013 11: 24
      +3
      Regarding 61-k and 72-k-talk is separate. The quality and reliability of these systems did not suit the military. And how much was released at the beginning of the war?
      All that fell on this plant local cadres managed to ruin. Normally, they only got 45.
  7. Stas57
    Stas57 13 September 2013 11: 01
    +1
    As a result, the breeders from the Kalinin factory (No. 8) were unable to cope with the production of guns.

    completely disagree with the derogatory statement of the phrase.

    If the author picks up documents and correspondence with the people's commissariats, I’m quite sure that the machine park of the plant, even from the time of the tsar, does not meet the task, the technological level of the task does not match the capabilities, the technical literacy level of the personnel is lower than necessary, welding has been replaced with some kind of riveting, allies Deliver substandard parts with a delay and violation of production technology, etc., etc.
    That is, all the typical examples for any production before the war will be on the face, so it is not correct to blame some "scammers".
    One can say with such success - the breeders made Т34, which was broken after a short march, the breeders made KV, with its frictions, the breeders made Yaki and Lagi with their destruction of the planes, overheating, etc., etc.
    And the landings and the NKVD alone cannot solve the problem when yesterday's agrarian country, destroyed by the war, takes the path of industrialization.
    To paraphrase Stalin, we had no other country then.
    1. Bongo
      13 September 2013 11: 27
      +4
      No need to exaggerate about LAGG and HF. This technique was adopted shortly before the war. And the anti-aircraft gun for 10 years to the mind failed to bring.
      1. Stas57
        Stas57 13 September 2013 11: 34
        -4
        No need to exaggerate about the LAGGs and HF. This technique was adopted shortly before the war. And for 10 years, they failed to bring the anti-aircraft machine gun to mind

        stupidly, the first material on the topicThe company failed to master the production technology of these guns - the details of each manufactured machine were manually adjusted
        but, apparently the author of the article, you have already found and punished the guilty "scammers".
        Local personnel managed to ditch everything that got to this plant. Normally they only got 45

        at the same time, as I understand it, you did not consider the objective reasons for the failure, the difference in the production of the complex machine and 45 was not taken into account, but the conclusions were drawn, the guilty crooks and clumsies were found and spat on.
        ok, there are no more questions
        1. Bongo
          13 September 2013 12: 55
          +5
          I am glad that you understand everything.
          But seriously, in addition to objective reasons, such as low professional training and outdated machine tool park, there was also a reluctance of the enterprise management to engage in anti-aircraft guns (and not only them), all attempts to launch a series of new samples were met with hostility.
          In any case, in 10 years, it was possible to master anything in the series.
          1. chunga-changa
            chunga-changa 13 September 2013 18: 18
            0
            You’ll laugh, but breeders from the Votkinsk plant under the control of MIT have been developing the mace in the series for 15 years, and it does not fly. In your opinion, this is simply the management of the plant that does not want to deal with missiles and not only them.
            1. Bongo
              14 September 2013 02: 42
              +5
              Yes, the argument with the "Bulava" is simply lethal, as if they were delivered to us in finished form from Germany and there is no difference with the anti-aircraft machine gun laughing
              1. chunga-changa
                chunga-changa 14 September 2013 13: 37
                0
                The mace was made on the basis of spent poplar-m.
                All the same, we have not in the yard in 1930, but about 50 years of experience in the production of various missiles. In addition, you claim that in 10 years you can master anything in the series, or you did not write it.
  8. kafa
    kafa 13 September 2013 16: 43
    0
    Quote: 311ove
    attack aircraft ... 200-250 shells per second
    And Eli still "worked" like that. that the Germans were terrified of them!

    the infantry was boyal and the anti-aircraft gunners felled IL-2 and other things, of course, 20mm, but they also 88mm and death for pilots and tankers - if they did not win the duel.
    and YOU dug up empty mortal cartridges (suicide bombers are hexagonal carbolite (or ebony) empty
    .... and around gunpowder from artillery ammunition
    1. Igarr
      Igarr 13 September 2013 19: 26
      +5
      Good article...
      now I’m convinced where this expression came from - the Arlikons are beating ... at least, in the Kaliningrad region they said just that ...
      ...
      How many times he said how confident he was .... even in the article ... but we don’t have to fight the Germans !!! And to collaborate .... if you are unbearable ...
      Whatever you take, they sold us .... anti-tank guns, anti-aircraft guns, submarines, planes, surface ships, planes, chemistry, press-forging equipment ...
      Damn ... these fucking Germans-were going to fight us at all ????
      Then they - four times abnormal - that after the sale of everything ... and the running-in of everything at the training grounds ... - poked themselves into fighting with us - their best EXAMINATORS ...
      Poor Germans.
    2. carbofo
      carbofo 14 September 2013 17: 50
      0
      kafaHow old are you?
      And then I have certain doubts as to what thought you tried to present!
      In other words - You yourself understood what you said?
  9. mirag2
    mirag2 14 September 2013 06: 43
    0
    I read the memoirs of a German soldier, he served on a half-track armored personnel carrier armed with a 20mm anti-aircraft gun (I don’t remember how many barrels), he says that he once ran into a Soviet T-34, thought that his death had come, in desperation he gave it was a turn from this installation on it — and suddenly, surprisingly, the tank stopped, tankers jumped out of it, surrendered. And then he began to do so, figurated on our tanks from a 20mm machine gun, tankers jumped out of the tanks and surrendered. And there’s an awful lot of something he thus captured our tanks-chut whether or not more than a hundred. I, in fact, somehow weakly believe in it, if only it is possible that these lines of 20mm automatic machines created such sound pressure in the tank that it was impossible for a person to be there. these 20mm shells pounded armor with terrible force.
    1. Bongo
      14 September 2013 07: 03
      +5
      This is of course a fiction about hundreds of tanks. The ability of 20-mm to create intolerable sound pressure is contrary to the laws of physics. But the defeat cases of 20-mm caliber of our tanks really were, especially easy were the lungs in the initial period.
      In the article about the German anti-tank artillery, there is a table with statistics on the destruction of shells of various sizes.
      1. mirag2
        mirag2 14 September 2013 09: 48
        0
        I also doubt it, but he doesn’t say that he was able to break through the armor, but I thought that this was possible if the shells of this machine were hollowed out on the armor and the person inside could not make this sound, that is. loud.
        1. zyablik.olga
          zyablik.olga 14 September 2013 12: 38
          +7
          Tankers had to withstand shelling of a much larger caliber.
  10. zyablik.olga
    zyablik.olga 14 September 2013 12: 37
    +7
    It is a pity that we were not able to create during the war installations under 14,5 and 23-mm. Could be no worse than German shooters.
    1. carbofo
      carbofo 14 September 2013 17: 54
      0
      But we had several tens of thousands of PTR just under caliber 14.5.
      1. Bongo
        15 September 2013 15: 37
        +4
        Well, yes, they are very effective against aviation.