Military Review

Reactors on merchant ships. The end of romance

55
Reactors on merchant ships. The end of romance



The snow-white superstructures of this liner will never touch the soot of chimneys. Compact power plants of incredible power, previously unattainable speed, efficiency and unlimited cruising range.

This was the ideal ship in the middle of the XNUMXth century. It seemed a little more, and nuclear power plants unrecognizably change their appearance fleet - human civilization with hope and glee met the approaching Era of Atom, preparing to soon take advantage of all the “free” energy of the radioactive decay of matter.

In 1955, under the “Peaceful Atom” program, President Eisenhower announced plans to build a nuclear power plant (YASU), a concept demonstrator of promising technologies, whose appearance will answer the question of whether to use YASU in the interests of the merchant fleet.

The reactor on board promised many seductive advantages: the nuclear-powered ship required refueling once every few years, the ship could remain in the ocean for a long time without the need to enter the port - the autonomy of the nuclear-powered ship was limited only by the crew’s endurance and food supplies on board. YASU provided a high economic speed, and the absence of fuel tanks and compactness of the power plant (at least, it seemed to shipbuilders) would provide additional space for crew accommodation and payload.

At the same time, researchers were aware that the use of a nuclear power plant would cause many difficulties with its subsequent operation - measures to ensure radiation safety and the associated difficulties in visiting many foreign ports. Not to mention that the construction of such an exotic vessel initially "will cost you a pretty penny."

Do not forget that we are talking about the mid-1950s - less than a year has passed before the radio broadcast historical the message “Underway on nuclear power” sent from the Nautilus submarine in January 1955. Experts in the field of shipbuilding had the most vague ideas about nuclear reactors, their features, strengths and weaknesses. What about reliability? How much is their life cycle? Will the promised advantages of the nuclear power plant be able to outweigh the disadvantages associated with the construction and operation of a civilian nuclear ship?



All questions should have been answered by NS Savannah - 180-meter snow-white beauty, launched in 1959 year.

Experimental cargo-passenger nuclear-powered icebreaker with a total displacement of 22 thousand tons. Crew - 124 person. 60 passenger seats. The only nuclear reactor with a thermal capacity of 74 MW provided the economic speed of 20 nodes (very, very solid, even by modern standards). One reactor charge was enough for 300 000 nautical miles (half a million kilometers).

The name of the vessel was not chosen by chance - “Savannah” - this was the name worn by the steam-and-steam packet, the first of the ships to cross the Atlantic in 1819 year.

"Savannah" was created as the "dove of peace." The super-ship, which combined the most modern achievements of science and technology, was supposed to acquaint the Old World with the technologies of the “peaceful atom” and demonstrate the safety of ships with YASU (the Yankees worked for the future - in the future this will facilitate entry into foreign ports of atomic aircraft carriers, cruisers and submarines).



In an effort to emphasize the special status of the nuclear-powered icebreaker, the designers gave it the appearance of a luxurious yacht - an elongated hull, fast-moving lines, snow-white streamlined superstructures with observation platforms and verandas. Even the cargo booms and lifting mechanisms had an attractive appearance - not at all like the rusting masts of ordinary bulk carriers.

Considerable importance was given to the interior: initially, onboard the nuclear-powered vessel, 30 cabins were equipped with luxury class, with air-conditioning and individual bathrooms, a restaurant for 75 seats, richly decorated with paintings and sculptures, a lounge-cinema hall, a swimming pool and a library. In addition, there was a radiation control laboratory on board, and the galley was decorated with the latest “miracle of technology” - a water-cooled microwave oven, a gift from Ratheyon.

For all the glittering splendor was paid "hard cash".
47 million dollars, of which 28,3 million was spent on YASU and nuclear fuel.

At first it seemed that the result was worth all the investments. Savannah had excellent seaworthiness and record speeds among all other cargo ships of those years. She did not need regular refueling, and the appearance of the nuclear-powered ship made a strong impression on anyone who managed to see (or at least from afar) this luxurious miracle of technology piece of art.


Lobby

Alas, any shipowner had only one glance to understand: “Savannah” is unprofitable. In the holds and on the cargo decks of the nuclear-powered vessel, only 8500 tons of cargo were placed. Yes, any vessel of similar dimensions had a three-fold greater capacity!

But even this is not all - too fast lines and the elongated bow of the vessel made loading operations much more difficult. Manual labor was required, all this led to delays in delivery and downtime at the ports of destination.

Fuel efficiency thanks to an atomic reactor?
Oh, this is a great topic requiring a detailed answer.

As it turned out in practice, YASU together with the reactor core, coolant circuits and hundreds of tons of biological protection turned out to be much larger than the engine room of a conventional bulk carrier (this is despite the fact that the engineers did not dare to completely abandon the conventional GEMs - a couple remained on board the Savannah emergency diesel generators with fuel).


Behind the tightly battened door - reactor compartment

Moreover, the management of the nuclear-powered ship required twice the crew — all this made the operating costs even more expensive and reduced the amount of usable space on board the nuclear-powered ship. Also, it is worth noting the difference in the cost of maintaining high-level nuclear specialists, compared with engine mechanics and mechanics on a conventional dry cargo ship.

For maintenance of the vessel required special infrastructure and regular checks for radioactivity and the normal operation of the reactor.
Finally, the cost of 32-x fuel elements of uranium dioxide (the total weight of U-235 and U238 is seven tons), taking into account the work on their replacement and subsequent disposal, was not cheaper than refueling the vessel with ordinary fuel oil.

Later it will be calculated that the annual operating costs of the Savannah exceeded those of a similar cargo ship of the Mariner type by 2 million dollars. The ruinous amount, especially in the prices of half a century ago.


Laz to hell. Reactor "Savannah"


However, these are still trifles - the real problems awaited the Savannah upon arrival in Australia. Nuclear-powered ship simply was not allowed into Australian territorial waters. Similar stories occurred off the coast of Japan and New Zealand.

Each call to a foreign port was preceded by a long bureaucratic red tape - it was required to provide full information about the vessel and the time of call at the port, in an amount sufficient for the port authorities to take the necessary security measures. Separate pier with a special regime of admission. Security. Radiation Monitoring Groups. In case of a possible accident, several tugboats were standing around the clock “under steam”, ready at any moment to bring a radioactive pile of metal out of the port water area.

What happened was what the creators of Savannah most feared. The bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, coupled with the shocking results of investigative journalism on the effects of radiation exposure, did their job - the authorities of most countries were illusoryly afraid of a ship from YSU and extremely reluctantly allowed the Savannah into their territorial waters. In some cases, the visit was accompanied by serious protests from the local population. The “greens” were outraged - information appeared to the media that Savanna annually dumps thousands of gallons of process water from the reactor cooling system overboard 115 — despite all the justification for nuclear experts that the water is non-radioactive and not in contact with the active zone.

Of course, any commercial use of an atomic-powered vessel in such conditions turned out to be impossible.
Over the 10 years of its active career (1962-1972), “Savannah” passed 450 thousand miles (720 thousand km), visited 45 foreign ports. Onboard the nuclear-powered vessel, over a million foreign guests visited 1,4.


Yasu control station

Figuratively speaking, “Savannah” repeated the path of its famous ancestor - the sailing steamer “Savannah”, the first of the steamers that crossed the Atlantic, also ended up on the dustbin of history - the record ship turned out to be unprofitable in the whirl of gray everyday life.

As for the modern nuclear-powered icebreaker, despite its disastrous debut in the role of a cargo-passenger ship, Savannah much relieved the vanity of the American nation and, in general, was able to change the perception of ships from YSU as deadly and unreliable equipment samples.

After being transferred to the reserve, the Savannah with its jammed 9 reactor spent its years parked in the port of the same city in the state of Georgia, the city government proposed plans to convert the vessel to a floating hotel. However, fate decreed otherwise - in 1981, Savannah was put on display at the Patriot Point maritime museum. However, even here failure awaited her - despite the opportunity to stroll through the luxurious saloons and look through the window into the real reactor compartment, visitors did not appreciate the legendary nuclear-powered vessel, focusing all its attention on the Yorktown aircraft carrier moored nearby.

At the moment, the updated and tinted Savannah is quietly rusting in the port of Baltimore, and its further fate remains unclear. Despite the status of a “historical object”, there are more and more proposals to send a nuclear-powered icebreaker for scrap.

However, in addition to the Savannah, there were three more merchant ships with a nuclear power plant in the world - the Otto Gan, the Mutsu and the Northern Sea Route.

German drama

Interested in American developments in the field of nuclear technology, the German government in 1960 announced its own project of an experimental vessel with YSU, the Otto Hahn ore carrier (Otto Gan).
In general, the Germans attacked the same rake as their American counterparts. By the time Otto Gan was put into operation (1968 year), the scandalous euphoria around civilian nuclear-powered icebreakers was nearing its decline - in developed countries, massive construction of nuclear power plants and nuclear-powered warships (submarines) began, the public took the Atom era for granted. But this did not save the nuclear ship "Otto Gan" from the image of a poorly used and unprofitable ship.



Unlike the American PR project, the “German” was designed as a real ore carrier for work on the transatlantic lines. 17 thousand tonnes of displacement, one reactor thermal power 38MW. The speed of 17 knots. Crew - 60 people (+ 35 people scientific staff).

Over the years of its active service, Otto Gan 10 passed thousands of miles (650 million km), visited the 1,2 port in 33 countries, delivered ore and raw materials for chemical production to Germany from Africa and South America.
Considerable difficulties in the career of the ore carrier caused the Suez leadership to ban this shortest route from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean - weary of endless bureaucratic restrictions, the need for licensing to enter each new port, and the expensive operation of the nuclear-powered icebreaker, the Germans took a desperate step.



In 1979, the “nuclear heart” was deactivated and removed, and instead “Otto Gan” received a conventional diesel power plant, with which it goes today under the flag of Liberia.

Japanese tragicomedy

The sly Japanese did not let the Savannah into their ports, but they made certain conclusions - in the 1968, a nuclear-powered cargo ship was laid at the shipyard in Tokyo Fukushima Mutsu.

From the very beginning, the life path of this vessel was overshadowed by a large number of malfunctions - suspecting that something was wrong, the Japanese public forbade carrying out tests at the pier. The first launch of the reactor was decided to be carried out in the open ocean - Mutsu was towed 800 km off the coast of Japan.
As subsequent events showed, the public was right - the first launch of the reactor turned into a radiation accident: the protection of the reactor did not cope with its task.

Upon returning to the port of the city of Ominato, the crew of the Mutsu was waiting for a new test: the local fisherman blocked the way with his junk — remove the nuclear icebreaker wherever you want, I do not care. But he will not go to the port!
The brave Japanese held the defense of 50 days - finally, an agreement was reached on a short call to the port of Ominato with the subsequent transfer of the nuclear-powered vessel to the military base in Sasebo.


Atomic icebreaker "Mutsu"



Oceanographic ship "Mirai", our days

The tragicomedy of the Japanese atomic-powered "Mutsu" continued for nearly 20 years. By 1990, it was announced the completion of all necessary improvements and adjustments in the construction of the nuclear-powered icebreaker, Mutsu made several test runs at sea, alas, the fate of the project was predetermined - in 1995, the reactor was deactivated and removed, instead of Mutsu received the usual GEM. All troubles in an instant came to an end.
For a quarter of a century of endless scandals, accidents and repairs, the Mutsu merchant nuclear project passed 51 thousand miles and devastated the Japanese treasury by 120 billion yen (1,2 billion dollars).

Currently, the former atomic-powered vessel is successfully used as an oceanographic vessel “Mirai”.

Russian way

This plot is completely different from all previous stories. The Soviet Union is the only one who was able to find the right niche for civil nuclear-powered ships and get a solid profit from these projects.
In their calculations, Soviet engineers proceeded from obvious facts. What are two exceptional benefits of nuclear power plants?

1. Colossal concentration of energy.
2. The possibility of its release without oxygen

The second property automatically gives YASU a “green light” to the submarine fleet.

As for the high concentration of energy and the possibility of long-term operation of the reactor without refueling and recharging, the answer was suggested by the geography itself. Arctic!



It is in the polar latitudes that the advantages of nuclear power plants are best realized: the specifics of the operation of the icebreaking fleet are coupled with a constant maximum power regime. Icebreakers for a long time working in isolation from the ports, - leaving the highway to replenish fuel reserves is fraught with significant losses. There are no bureaucratic prohibitions and restrictions - break the ice and lead the caravan to the East: to Dixon, Igarka, Tiksi or to the Bering Sea.

The world's first civilian nuclear-powered icebreaker, the icebreaker Lenin (1957 year), showed a lot of advantages over its non-nuclear “colleagues”. In June 1971, he became the first surface ship in history who managed to pass north of Novaya Zemlya.



And new nuclear giants already came to his aid - four main icebreakers of the “Arctic” type. Even the strongest ice could not stop these monsters - in 1977, the “Arctic” reached the North Pole.
But that was only the beginning - on July 30, the nuclear-powered icebreaker "2013 Years of Victory" reached the Pole for the hundredth time!
Nuclear-powered icebreakers turned the Northern Sea Route into a well-developed transport artery, providing year-round navigation in the western sector of the Arctic. The necessity of forced hibernation was eliminated, the speed and safety of pilotage was increased.



There were nine in total. Nine heroes of polar latitudes - let me list them by name:
“Lenin”, “Arctic”, “Siberia”, “Russia”, “Soviet Union”, “50 Years of Victory”, “Yamal”, as well as two low-draft nuclear icebreakers to work in the mouths of Siberian rivers - “Taimyr” and "Vaigach."

Our country also had the tenth civil nuclear-powered icebreaker, the nuclear-powered icebreaker carrier of the Sevmorput icebreaking type. The fourth in the marine history of the merchant ship with YASU. A powerful machine with a displacement of 60 thousand tons, capable of independently moving in ice 1,5 meter thick. The length of the gigantic ship is 260 meters, the speed of travel in open water is 20 knots. Cargo capacity: 74 non-propelled liqueur barges or 1300 standard 20-foot containers.



Alas, fate was merciless to this wonderful ship: with a decrease in the flow of cargo in the Arctic, it was unprofitable. A few years ago, information about a possible conversion of the Northern Sea Route into a drilling ship slipped, but everything turned out to be much sadder - in 2012, the unique nuclear lighter carrier was removed from the register of ships and sent for scrapping.

Based on:
http://www.hnsa.org/
http://www.vevivi.ru/
http://www.wikipedia.org/
http://www.nssavannah.net/
Author:
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  1. Ivan79
    Ivan79 12 September 2013 08: 18 New
    +8
    It is a pity that ordinary courts are so unlucky. But they were the first! And our icebreakers, yes, can rightfully be considered the pride of the Russian nuclear fleet!
    1. Civil
      Civil 12 September 2013 08: 40 New
      13
      It’s a shame for SEVORMPUT, I suppose an effective manager already sells with yasu to China
    2. Vadivak
      Vadivak 12 September 2013 09: 02 New
      12
      Quote: Ivan79
      And our icebreakers, yes, can rightfully be considered the pride of the Russian nuclear fleet!


      They can be considered, only the merits of modern Russia are not here. This is a merit of the USSR. And most importantly, the right concept, the right ship in the right place

      Quote: Author Oleg Kaptsov
      There were nine in total. Nine heroes of the polar latitudes


      There are six active nuclear icebreakers - Russia, the Soviet Union, Yamal and 50 years of Victory, project 10580 Taimyr and Vaigach.

      However, in the near future, the issue of decommissioning the atomic icebreaker "Russia" should be decided. Two nuclear-powered icebreakers - Siberia and the Arctic - are already in the "cold sludge". In other words, there are no crews on board, water has been drained from the reactor circuits, the reactor equipment has been put into dry storage mode, all solid and liquid radioactive waste and all combustible materials have been removed. The vessels are disconnected from steam and electricity, all openings in the hulls are plugged. They should be disposed of first. In addition, work is underway to decommission the nuclear lighter carrier Sevmorput. They are almost finished.

      And what will be in return? After all, nuclear icebreakers, while they are and are operational, are ensuring the safety of navigation in the ice and the security (military and economic) of the country.
      1. Santa Fe
        12 September 2013 13: 32 New
        +3
        Quote: Vadivak
        There are six active nuclear icebreakers - Russia, the Soviet Union, Yamal and 50 years of Victory, project 10580 Taimyr and Vaigach.

        Vadim, there are fewer active
        "Russia" and "Soviet Union" are inoperative, the process of unloading of fuel and utilization has begun on "Russia"
        1. Vadivak
          Vadivak 12 September 2013 14: 43 New
          +1
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          the process of fuel unloading and utilization has begun at Rossiya


          Oleg, I just wrote about it above.
    3. ka5280
      ka5280 12 September 2013 09: 15 New
      -4
      On the contrary, very lucky. You would like all bargaining. ships were potential Fukushima?
      1. Geisenberg
        Geisenberg 12 September 2013 15: 36 New
        -1
        Quote: ka5280
        On the contrary, very lucky. You would like all bargaining. ships were potential Fukushima?


        If the memory does not lie on the territory of the Russian Federation, there were no nuclear accidents and apparently will not. So floating Fukushima is more a Japanese headache.

        Another thing is interesting here. Why nuclear tugboats with caravans of barges do not go along the North Sea route. This is an idea following the atomic icebreaker that lies on the surface.

        PS: And the fact that some countries do not allow civilian nuclear powered ships into their ports to mine is a banal zapadlo out of envy.
        1. Nick_1972
          Nick_1972 12 September 2013 17: 00 New
          0
          Memory fails when it comes to civilian nuclear powered ships. If in general, then immediately recall the accident in the Chazhma Bay in the Primorsky Territory.
        2. chehywed
          chehywed 12 September 2013 23: 42 New
          +3
          Quote: Geisenberg
          Another thing is interesting here. Why nuclear tugboats with caravans of barges do not go along the Northern Sea Route

          Geisenberg , I worked for 15 years in the MSC and here's what I can say. In difficult ice conditions, even two ships with a reinforced ice class sometimes cannot follow the nuclear-powered ship, and he drags one "on his mustache." In the Arctic, ice is not static, it moves in depending on the direction of the wind. And when there is compression (the wind drives the ice to the shore) it is really scary, a vessel weighing 30000 tons crunches like an eggshell.
        3. ka5280
          ka5280 13 September 2013 03: 48 New
          0
          World bargaining. fleet, it is several tens of thousands of units of a different class of ships. If all this armada is equipped with YaU. What to do with spent nuclear fuel then?

          PS: And the fact that some countries do not allow civilian nuclear powered ships into their ports to mine is a banal zapadlo out of envy.

          This is common sense!
        4. ka5280
          ka5280 13 September 2013 03: 56 New
          0
          http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/tra_mer_mar_tot-transportation-merchant-marine
          -total
          By this link you can see the statistics of registered bargaining. ships by the flags.

          I don’t think that anyone would be thrilled if a nuclear accident happened, even if not a big one, somewhere in the Russian or some other port.
  2. Firstvanguard
    Firstvanguard 12 September 2013 08: 30 New
    +4
    The cunning Japanese did not let the Savannah into their ports, but they made certain conclusions - in 1968, the Fukushima nuclear cargo ship Mutsu was laid at the shipyard in Tokyo.
    laughing wassat good
    a local fisherman blocked the way with his johnka - take away the atomic boat wherever you want, it does not bother me. But he will not enter the port!
    The brave Japanese held the defense of 50 days - finally, an agreement was reached on a short call to the port of Ominato with the subsequent transfer of the nuclear-powered vessel to the military base in Sasebo.

    MAN !! fellow drinks For not fucking! wink
    1. Santa Fe
      12 September 2013 11: 09 New
      13
      Land in Japan is in great shortage, and when it came time to build an airport for Tokyo, there was no place closer to Narita. And it was found there only because the imperial family donated their land holdings to the country. The airport plan, however, slightly grabbed the land on which stood houses belonging to ordinary Japanese ...

      These Japanese, as you know, were very lucky. I don’t know how the Shinto analogue of the saying about the testament to Christ’s day sounds, but for the simple shacks on the outskirts of the city forgotten by God, the government dumped lucky sums that nobody dreamed of.

      Everyone was satisfied. And only one stubborn Japanese refused to sell his house. I didn’t want to, that's all. Why? Yes, head out. His dad lived here, his grandfather lived here, and he planned that his children would also live here. Type a small homeland.



      At first, the authorities thought that the Japanese were cunning, and named the price from which the memory of grandfather was supposed to evaporate along with the names of the children. And then it turned out really terrible: the Japanese did not bargain. He just wanted to live where he lives. He refused to continue negotiations. He saw in the coffin and in white slippers the plans of the party and government.

      Please introduce a conflict and estimate further events, based on our knowledge of the proportions of man and the state. Oh, do we not know these proportions? It’s as if their slanting mitol was going to the scene of the incident, now the permanent mayor of Tokyo, a cunning member of the ruling party, calling the stubborn Japanese a redneck, sent Japanese riot police to him, now the stubborn was thrown away by decision of a manual Japanese court ...

      Really no?

      But no.

      For the proportions of man and state in Japan are different than ours. You can consider this person as backward, and malicious, and just asleep - but you can’t wipe your feet against him with impunity. Act, you know.

      You will laugh: Constitution!

      And in the middle of Tokyo Narita Airport is a private house. It is clearly visible on the Google map - you are welcome to admire: it stands to itself, as if nothing had happened, between taxiways.
      1. Vadivak
        Vadivak 12 September 2013 11: 54 New
        +4
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN

        their slanting mitol, the already permanent mayor of Tokyo, the cunning member of the ruling party, calling the stubborn Japanese a redneck, was sent by the Japanese riot police to him, the stubborn was thrown away by decision of a manual Japanese court ...


        Oleg, you are a talent
      2. Geisenberg
        Geisenberg 12 September 2013 15: 41 New
        +2
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        I didn’t want to, that's all. Why? Yes, head out. His dad lived here, his grandfather lived here, and he planned that his children would also live here. Type a small homeland.


        No offense, but this is idiocy elevated to the rank of virtue. I would not wish the enemy to raise children at the airport from which jet planes take off every minute.

        The Constitution - oh yes, it is observed, but the citizen is an idiot. He would be quietly screwed and examined. Surely suffers from a schiz.
        1. Santa Fe
          12 September 2013 16: 17 New
          +3
          Quote: Geisenberg
          No offense, but this is idiocy elevated to the rank of virtue.

          It seems to me that there was a tricky calculation:
          everyone who arrives in Japan sees how human rights are respected in this country. No Better Advertising for Investors

          although, of course, Japan is an amazing country. Here is also a "talking" picture
          1. Eugeniy_369
            Eugeniy_369 12 September 2013 17: 08 New
            +1
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            Here is also a "talking" picture

            Mdya ... talking .... what
            Immediately I remember - "Our dear .. oh police protects us, first catches then guards."
            Can throw up a pyaterochka? And with this money, a couple of new icebreakers and the modernization of the existing infrastructure? winked
        2. papik09
          papik09 13 September 2013 06: 02 New
          -1
          Ball! You are dumbass! There is COMPLIANCE WITH THE LAW - above all! And not like in the countries of the former USSR. am
  3. NOMADE
    NOMADE 12 September 2013 08: 37 New
    0
    Thanks to the Author, an interesting and informative article! I was especially impressed by the last photo of "Sevmorput" with people in the background! wassat
  4. svskor80
    svskor80 12 September 2013 08: 58 New
    +1
    They also say that efficiency and the Soviet way of life are two different things. Earned even where the bourgeois suffered embarrassment and loss.
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak 12 September 2013 09: 16 New
      +2
      Quote: svskor80
      They also say that efficiency and the Soviet way of life are two different things.


      The dollar was worth 60 kopecks, not 33 rubles.
      1. Uncle
        Uncle 12 September 2013 12: 58 New
        +4
        Quote: Vadivak
        The dollar was worth 60 kopecks, not 33 rubles.

        And the jeans are 100 rubles. The salary for this happiness ... And for consumer goods choked in lines. Now they seem to have eaten up, but did not become happier ...
        1. Vadivak
          Vadivak 12 September 2013 14: 49 New
          +3
          Quote: Uncle
          And the jeans are 100 rubles. The salary for this happiness ... And for consumer goods choked in lines. Now they seem to have eaten up, but did not become happier ...


          It was possible to sew for ten, I personally did not choke for anything, but "had connections." And what happiness is now? The rich cry no money, the poor cry no money. Not enough money for everyone.
      2. Santa Fe
        12 September 2013 13: 35 New
        +2
        Quote: Vadivak
        The dollar was worth 60 kopecks, not 33 rubles.

        Yes of course. try exchanging rubles for dollars while somewhere in Sri Lanka. Less than 5 for 1 will not work

        60 kopecks - Artificial course established by the state. However, few people cared in the conditions of socialism and a planned economy.
  5. ka5280
    ka5280 12 September 2013 09: 22 New
    -1
    But in general, on the ship, there is no sound more pleasant than a 2-stroke diesel engine working at full speed =)
  6. Misantrop
    Misantrop 12 September 2013 09: 56 New
    +5
    32 fuel elements from uranium dioxide (the total mass of U-235 and U238 is seven tons)
    And this is at 74 mW of plant capacity wassat And they still shouted about its compactness and low weight? belay For comparison, the mass of the nuclear reactor of the 2nd generation of the USSR Navy with a power of 90 MW was equal to ... only 86 kg. What is called "feel the difference" request lol
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak 12 September 2013 10: 14 New
      +2
      Quote: Misantrop
      What is called "feel the difference"


      Fig yourself a difference. I can’t even believe it
      1. Misantrop
        Misantrop 12 September 2013 10: 21 New
        +1
        Quote: Vadivak
        I can’t even believe it
        So I was shocked when I first learned about their installations. How was there enough space on the Savannah to accommodate such a nuclear freak? wassat
        1. Vadivak
          Vadivak 12 September 2013 10: 55 New
          +2
          Quote: Misantrop
          How on "Savannah" in general there was enough space to accommodate such a nuclear freak


          It turns out the steamer for the engine.
          1. Uncle
            Uncle 12 September 2013 13: 00 New
            0
            Quote: Vadivak
            It turns out the steamer for the engine.

            Floating reactor, an old floating suitcase .. laughing
        2. Santa Fe
          12 September 2013 11: 00 New
          0
          Quote: Misantrop
          32 uranium dioxide fuel elements (the total mass of U-235 and U238 is seven tons) And this is at 74 mW of the unit’s power

          Guys, I probably wrote incorrectly there

          Initial U-235 loading 312.4 kg
          Initial U-238 loading 6787.5 kg

          Average burnup 7352 mwd / ton
          Final enrichment (wt%) 3.63%
          Final U-235 loading 254.8 kg
          U-235 consumed 57.6 kg
          Final Pu-239 loading 17.2 kg
          Final total plutonium loading 19.9 kg
          Percent metal atom burnup 1.06%
          Average thermal neutron flux (at 63.5 mw) 7.2 x 1012

          What is the difference between initial loading and final?
          1. Misantrop
            Misantrop 12 September 2013 11: 05 New
            +3
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            What is the difference between initial loading and final?
            Isotopic composition. The burning out of uranium-235 during the campaign of the reactor, the production of plutonium-239 from uranium-238 during the same time, other isotopes of radiation decay
            1. Santa Fe
              12 September 2013 11: 16 New
              +1
              And here is the difference. Burnt uranium

              U-235 consumed 57.6 kg

              It turns out that there really were 7 tons on the ship? request
    2. Volkhov
      Volkhov 12 September 2013 13: 02 New
      0
      The nuclear submarines have almost weapons-grade fuel composition, and there is almost natural uranium.
      The first German bombs (800 mm shells) also had 7 tons - without enrichment everything is big.
      1. Misantrop
        Misantrop 12 September 2013 18: 47 New
        0
        Quote: Volkhov
        The nuclear submarines have practically the fuel composition

        In the United States, yes, but in the Soviet enrichment was 26-29% (depending on the location of a particular assembly in the core)
        1. Santa Fe
          12 September 2013 19: 18 New
          0
          Quote: Misantrop
          In the United States, yes, but in the Soviet enrichment was 26-29% (depending on the location of a particular assembly in the core)

          Savannah reactor fuel enrichment - 4,4%
  7. ben gun
    ben gun 12 September 2013 10: 08 New
    0
    Thanks Oleg, great article. good
  8. Dimon-chik-79
    Dimon-chik-79 12 September 2013 10: 36 New
    0
    Yes sorry unique ship
  9. Coward
    Coward 12 September 2013 11: 35 New
    0
    I don't remember exactly what year, I think in the 90s. "Sevmorput" came along Vladik and stood in the roadstead. The newspapers wrote: "They say the residents of Vladivostok were categorically against the entry. And on the basis of this, the authorities banned the mooring."
    And then flashed infa that precipitation was not enough.
  10. Slogin
    Slogin 12 September 2013 11: 45 New
    0
    I don’t understand why for scrap ... You can sell it if you do not need it, or for rent. China would not refuse, or Japan ... why immediately break it !?
    1. Uncle
      Uncle 12 September 2013 13: 04 New
      +1
      Quote: Slogin
      what to break immediately !?

      Yes, the logic of the Democrats is sometimes incomprehensible. On the Volga there are a lot of shipyards, the main feature of which is the carts, with the help of which the ship is taken out of the water. So it was they who went into scrap metal during the restructuring, and without them the plant does not make sense, now these shipyards stand without orders, they can only repair the surface part.
  11. ivachum
    ivachum 12 September 2013 12: 33 New
    +2
    Quote: ka5280
    would all bargain. ships were potential


    Tell me, are you afraid of driving a car? It’s dangerous because ... Walk, though ... what if the tram moves? am
    1. ka5280
      ka5280 12 September 2013 13: 30 New
      0
      As I understand it, the specifics of the merchant fleet is as familiar to you as the Australopithecus kibernetika. =)
  12. srelock
    srelock 12 September 2013 12: 35 New
    +4
    "Sevmorput", of course, is a pity, but the future looks quite optimistic:
    1. Symbiotos
      Symbiotos 14 September 2013 01: 50 New
      0
      a very interesting presentation of the new icebreaker pr.22220. I think the present and the future of these ships are! you can’t lose your achievements - you need to build. inspires respect for the creators!
  13. ivachum
    ivachum 12 September 2013 12: 38 New
    +1
    Quote: Slogin
    I don’t understand why for scrap ... You can sell it if you do not need it, or for rent. China would not refuse, or Japan ... why immediately break it !?


    A similar technique in the wrong hands is a threat to OUR national security. Or do you propose selling unnecessary ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads? China is tearing into the Arctic ... Do you propose making it easier for him there? Ally does not mean friend. Today is the union, and tomorrow the war is for total annihilation. Two tigers in one cage cannot exist for a long time. And we have one cell with China - Eurasia (and not only with China) ... drinks
  14. ka5280
    ka5280 12 September 2013 13: 33 New
    0
    In general, an ice class lighter is a strange ship. How is it unloaded in an ice field?
    1. Kibalchish
      Kibalchish 12 September 2013 14: 12 New
      +3
      Just the Northern Sea Route was also planned as a landing ship in case of war in the Arctic.
      1. Santa Fe
        12 September 2013 14: 23 New
        +2
        Quote: Kibalchish
        Just the Northern Sea Route was also planned as a landing ship in case of war in the Arctic.

        Yes, a lighter truck - this thing is more dangerous than Mistral

        What amphibious armored personnel carriers, a docking chamber and landing katra ... are there ... a lighter carrier is capable of delivering hundreds of main battle tanks to a non-equipped enemy coast in one trip

        The largest ship of the Far Eastern Shipping Company is the Alexei Kosygin Likhetovoy (60 thousand tons, non-nuclear, currently sold in the USA)
        1. Vadivak
          Vadivak 12 September 2013 14: 56 New
          +4
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          The largest ship of the Far Eastern Shipping Company is the Alexei Kosygin Likhetovoy (60 thousand tons, non-nuclear, currently sold in the USA)


          After the sale, the American company Waterman Steam Ship became the new owner of the Aleksey Kosygin lighter. After a major overhaul in 2003 with the new name Atlantis Forest, the ship became part of the US Maritime Security Program, the US Maritime Security Program.

          After the acquisition, the Americans were amazed at the achievements of Soviet naval shipbuilders.


          By the way, other similar vessels were also sold, they were of no use to the new government.
  15. abdrah
    abdrah 12 September 2013 14: 05 New
    0
    "The Yankees worked for the future - in the future it will make it easier to enter foreign ports of nuclear aircraft carriers, cruisers and submarines" - these are bastards, but why is it always so - they are all for the future and the future, and we are catching up ...
  16. Sarmat1972
    Sarmat1972 12 September 2013 15: 43 New
    +2
    My colleague, formerly served in Murmansk - guarded the base of icebreakers. According to him, while the icebreakers were in the base, they fed the shore from their reactors and almost half of the city was provided only by the YaS icebreaker. At this time, repairs were carried out at local power plants.
  17. USNik
    USNik 12 September 2013 16: 05 New
    +1
    In general, almost all developed countries ran a rake and were convinced of the futility of the commercial use of nuclear rovers. The question arises, why are they still trying to push nuclear control system onto the plane ??
    1. nbw
      nbw 12 September 2013 18: 56 New
      0
      What is torture? Such attempts in the 70s ended, as far as I know.
  18. Santa Fe
    12 September 2013 17: 53 New
    +1
    Salon yachts of abramovich "Savannah"
  19. chunga-changa
    chunga-changa 12 September 2013 18: 50 New
    +1
    The first pancake is lumpy. But the prospects of nuclear ships have not gone away, just their time has not come yet. Apparently it will be implemented in the form of an ocean tug of a dragging hull with cargoes, this will make port calls not mandatory. Automation and improvement of reactors will reduce staff. The crews will be interchangeable, as at a marine rig. He worked for a period, changed by helicopters. The reactors themselves will become smaller and will not require recharging the entire service life. Bioprotection can be provided by flooding the reactor with water.
  20. UVB
    UVB 12 September 2013 19: 53 New
    0
    Thank you very much for the informative article! I, to my shame, from atomic civilian ships, except for icebreakers, knew only about the "Sevmorput". Indeed, in our media practically nothing was reported about foreign ones.
  21. papik09
    papik09 13 September 2013 06: 11 New
    0
    Thanks. The article put a "plus". For a long time I wanted to learn more about the same ships. Very interesting. Thanks again. hi
  22. Woldemar
    Woldemar April 8 2014 16: 32 New
    0
    Interesting article.

    "There were nine of them. Nine heroes of the polar latitudes - let me list them by name:
    "Lenin", "Arctic", "Siberia", "Russia", "Soviet Union", "50 years of Victory", "Yamal", as well as two atomic icebreakers with a shallow draft for work in the mouths of Siberian rivers - "Taimyr" and "Vaygach". " good

    And what, such a short age at the icebreaker? The icebreaker "Russia" has been in service since 1985, not even 30 years old, but it is already being scrapped. It's a pity.