Closer is the day of the signing of the Association Agreement between Ukraine and the EU. It is symbolic that this should take place in Vilnius - the former capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which picked up the lands of Western Russia after the Mongol-Tatar pogrom. It would be worth remembering those times when, figuratively speaking, we already found ourselves by the will of fate in Europe, to think: are the hopes of the naive East Slavic Westernizers justifying free European “happiness”?
In 1569, the big, loose and fond of drinking state, called the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, was in a state of deep crisis. In addition to Lithuania, it included White and Little Russia. However, there were no Belarusians and Ukrainians yet. As there was no Belarusian and Ukrainian languages. In the then documents, the ancestors of the Belarusians and Ukrainians were called “the Russian Christian people of Lithuania”, and the Russian ancestors were called the “Russian people of Moscow”. It was still well remembered that in the times of pre-Mongol Russia, all this was one people.
They were ruled in Lithuanian Rus by tycoons - in the present, oligarchs - princes Radzivilly, Ostrog, Vishnevetsky and Hodkevich. The nobility had almost no rights. Exactly, like many of today's business deputies who are hostages of the so-called party discipline and do not even dare to lift the tail. In fact, petty nobles were something like our 90's gangsters. The magnates, that is, the leaders of the gangs, gave them a little to get rich by plundering the small world, but they were kept in strictness. To know the place. The common people, however, lived in relative freedom - serfdom did not exist.
But Poland lay next to great temptation - a cheerful country where its magnates almost did not exist, as today its oligarchs, and the gentry kept themselves proud. They exploited mercilessly serfs, although they were the same Poles as they, and ruled the country, hotly discussing all the most important issues on the Sejm - no less violent than our present Verkhovna Rada.
Although Lithuania and Poland were considered separate states, they were ruled by one king from the Lithuanian Jagiellon dynasty - Sigismund II Augustus. This order started since 1385, when the local dynasty died out in Poland, and Sigismund's ancestor, Vladislav Jagiello, was invited to the throne.
Sigismund II Augustus strengthened the union with curses from the next world
But in 1569, the Jagiellons themselves found themselves in the situation of “endangered”. Sigismund II Augustus lived the age of childless. His beloved wife Barbara Radziwill was poisoned by the king’s mother, Bonn Sforza from the Italian ducal family. Angry mother-in-law fiercely jealous son to the Lithuanian beauty. Until his death, Sigismund remembered his spouse and even died in a room draped with black cloth in memory of his beloved. His mother, however, was also poisoned when she returned to her native Italy with a wagon train of silver exported from Polish estates. But this did not help the prosperity of the two states. It was obvious that after the death of Sigismund Augustus, they would have to go their separate ways, in connection with the suppression of the dynastic union, for completely natural reasons.
The situation was aggravated by the fact that in the east of Lithuania Muscovite Rus became stronger. Her Grand Duke Ivan Vasilyevich the Terrible declared himself king, and was even about to offer his candidacy for the post of Lithuanian prince and Polish king after the easily predictable death of Sigismund. Lithuania, among other things, also waged war with Moscow - sluggish, like the current trade "war" of Ukraine with the Russian Federation. Then the Muscovites will pull the Lithuanians out of something, the Litvin Muscovites will be thrown at the border on the loot. But there were more Muscovites, and they took over, invading the lands of the present Belarus, the noble cavalry and the Tatar troops.
The funny thing is that Poland at the same time stood aside and did not rush to the aid of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. They say that we have one king, but the states are different, and there is no common border between the free Polish people and the Russian kingdom. So why should we fight?
Death of Sigismund II Augustus. The king died three years after the Union of Lublin surrounded by astrologers
ON TWO TONES IMMEDIATELY. Sigismund Augustus, who was, nevertheless, still alive, despite this mess, implicated in international law, did not want to lose the Lithuanian crown during his lifetime. He liked to sit on two thrones at once. And the Lithuanian magnates, who risked losing their position, were pushing the king: you, our grand prince, among other things, do something - make the Poles raise their asses!
Sigismund rushed to the Poles: “Save!” Those answered: “Of course, we will help. Just let us make sure that after your death, Sigismund, the new king, we chose with the Litvinians in the general Diet, and let the Grand Duchy of Lithuania pass the Podolia, Volhynia and Kiev region to the Kingdom of Poland for the assistance rendered in the war with the Muscovites. Because we are European people, and just out of fraternal feelings, we do not fight - only for the benefit ”.
As you can see, no sincerity between Poland and Lithuania did not even smell.
In order to solve a painful question, in January 1569 of the year in the Polish town of Lublin opened the first common Polish-Lithuanian Sejm. The debate went until mid-August. If it were not for the harvest, they would sit endlessly. Only the need to return to the estate to look after the serfs, hastened the process. Lithuanian party leaders Nikolai Radzivill Ryzhy and Jan Chodkiewicz believed that the price for the union was excessive. The deputies from Lithuania (that is, from White and Little Russia, too), they simply showed a fist: be silent, if you dare to utter a word, we will crush you into powder when we get home! But they nevertheless secretly ran to the king and complained about two noble "bandits".
One fine night, Chodkiewicz and Radziwill simply fled to disrupt the work of parliament. Then Sigismund Augustus, contrary to all laws, issued a decree on the transfer of Kiev and Bratslav provinces from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the Kingdom of Poland. He was immediately deprived of several officials who refused to take the oath to the Polish Crown. Lithuanian nobility wanted to get the same rights as the Polish. She went over to the side of the king and the "Europeanisers." The magnates of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania - the princes of Ostrog, Vishnevetsky, Chartory, Sangushki headed by the thoughtful one Jan Chodkiewicz returned to the Sejm and sat in their seats in the upper house - the Senate. Chodkiewicz tearfully asked the king not to transfer them to the Polish Crown "for slavery and shame." It was evident that the magnates are afraid of losing what they still have.
1 July 1569, Lithuania and Poland united “as free with free as equal with equal”, but the lands of the present northern Ukraine were not returned to the Grand Duchy, arguing that the magnates did not have to leave the Sejm. Like, adopted laws have no retroactive effect. Poland promised not to offend the Orthodox, not to violate their rights, the Russian language was declared the official language of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Orthodox nobility was equalized with the Catholic, and they started a general war against Ivan the Terrible and even won it.
Lublin. In this Polish city, the Sejm roared in 1569, because of which Ukraine came to Europe
SIGNED AND PLUNED. However, immediately after the signing of the Union of Lublin, this “small European Union” - the newly created Commonwealth - immediately began to run into the rights of the Rusyns. In 1596, the Orthodox Church in Brest was subordinated to the Pope. In fact, in the general state of the rule of the Polish Catholic Party. One by one, the Vishnevetsky, Ostrozhsky, Sangushky, Chartory and other princes began to move from Orthodoxy to Catholicism. For them stretched small nobility.
The top of Western Russia became polished. The Radziwills accepted Protestantism and dreamed of regaining Lithuania at the time of independence. The peasantry of the Kiev region and Volyn, having fallen into serfdom for the first time, grumbled and fled to the Cossacks — to Ukraine — the border lands beyond Kanev and Cherkasy at the Wild Field. The result of the Union of Lublin was a series of Cossack uprisings. Nalyvayko, Shake, Ostryanitsa - the names of the leaders of these riots plunged into horror all of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Stubborn Poles did not want to retreat in their movement to the east. No less stubborn Rusyns did not want to give up. The Cossack, who knows no mercy, became the symbol of South Russia.
It all ended in 1648, in the Khmelnytsky region, and after it by the Flood - for Poland and the Great Ruin - for Ukraine.
Poison love. Stay Barbara Radziwill alive, would have cost without union
ABOUT THIRD FORGOT! The Union of Lublin was a union of two political gentry nations - Polish and Lithuanian. But in the Commonwealth there was also a third nation - Russian. With the same literary language as in Moscow and the same faith. It was he who was deprived as a result of the cunning maneuvers of the Polish elite. After the death of Bogdan Khmelnitsky in the 1657, there were two parties among the Rusyns - the pro-Polish and the pro-Moscow parties. The first believed that it was possible to agree with Warsaw on turning the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from a state of two peoples into a state of three. The exponent clerk Ivan Vyhovsky turned out to be an expression of this idea, having tricked into the position of hetman without any choice.
Vyhovsky was a lawyer and a nobleman who was captured by the Cossacks in 1648. Bogdan had almost no educated people. Even his colonels were half illiterate. And paperwork someone needs to do! In addition, Khmelnitsky felt for Vyhovsky also human sympathy. Bogdan was able to turn people to his best side. But after his death, his yesterday's comrades showed themselves in all their glory - after all, all the ruins of the ruins came out of the "nest" of Khmelnitsky. And Briukhovetsky, and Doroshenko, and Teter, and the Many Sinful!
Vyhovsky, having kidnapped a mace with the help of legal frauds (he declared himself “acting hetman” - literally “at that time hetman”), decided that it was time to return to Polish from Moscow citizenship. Naturally, he read all the documents of the Union of Lublin and offered the Poles the following gesheft: let us, apart from the Crown and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, select the third subject in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - the Principality of Rus, in which we will include all the lands controlled by the Army of Zaporizhzhya - Poltava, Chernihiv, Kyiv and Bratslav regions . Let the top Cossacks get the rights of the Polish gentry, and Orthodoxy return equal rights with Catholicism.
In the courtyard stood 1658 year. The troops of the Russian Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich occupied half of the Commonwealth. From the north to Poland, the Swedes were advancing. Naturally, in such conditions, King Jan Casimir easily agreed to the plan of Vyhovsky. The agreement on the new union, which was signed in the town of Gadyach (that is to say the name!), Was striking for its benefit for the Cossacks. What happened at Khmelnitsky indulges in everlasting oblivion - amnesty for all rebels! Metropolitan of Kiev and five bishops will become Polish senators. In addition, senators will be elected from the Orthodox gentry. Cossacks pay no taxes to Poland. Those of them who want the hetman, the king approve of the nobility. Getman Vyhovsky will be to death Kiev commander and general. But in the war of the king with Moscow, the Cossacks can keep neutrality, although in the event of an attack of the Moscow troops on the Cossacks, the king and the army are obliged to protect them. The title of Vyhovsky will be “Russian Hetman and the first senator of Kyiv, Chernihiv and Bratslav provinces”.
Jan Casimir and Ivan Vyhovsky easily signed this wonderful piece of paper. Only she hung in the air. The Polish Sejm refused to ratify such a treaty, considering it extremely disadvantageous. Swedes just repulsed. Muscovites pushed. So why negotiate with the Cossacks? Yes, and protect them anyway? The Polish elite did not want to share power with the "Russian nation". His children were full to "put on the uryady".
Vyhovsky signed a treaty from which Poland escaped
Despite the curse. Sly Cossacks immediately retreated from Vyhovsky and reproached the Moscow Tsar. The “at that time hetman” in his hands, instead of his trump cards, was left with only a vile Gadyachsky treaty, which in reality had no power. The former clerk and lawyer collected his possessions and, straight from the hetman's residence in Chyhyryn, gave a fly to Poland - not understood by anyone. All his subtle legal constructions turned out to be just an unattainable dream of an “Eurasian”, where until his death he would have been a “general” and would sit in the Senate. In gratitude for the services rendered, the Poles instead shot Vygovskiy as spent political material.
As if anticipating the fate of Rzecz Pospolita, its creator Sigismund II Augustus tried to strengthen her in his will with a curse: “The people who show no gratitude for this union and take the path of separation, let them tremble before the wrath of the Lord, which, according to the prophet, hates and curses those who sow discord between brothers. " As it is European, is not it?
However, neither curses nor intimidation helped the “European integrators” of the past. In their affairs there was no main thing - sincerity and love. And without these two components, buildings erected on the most tricky calculation pour in.