Military Review

From Lublin to Gadyach

Traps European integration. Ukraine has already tried to "associate" with Europe.

From Lublin to Gadyach

Closer is the day of the signing of the Association Agreement between Ukraine and the EU. It is symbolic that this should take place in Vilnius - the former capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which picked up the lands of Western Russia after the Mongol-Tatar pogrom. It would be worth remembering those times when, figuratively speaking, we already found ourselves by the will of fate in Europe, to think: are the hopes of the naive East Slavic Westernizers justifying free European “happiness”?

In 1569, the big, loose and fond of drinking state, called the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, was in a state of deep crisis. In addition to Lithuania, it included White and Little Russia. However, there were no Belarusians and Ukrainians yet. As there was no Belarusian and Ukrainian languages. In the then documents, the ancestors of the Belarusians and Ukrainians were called “the Russian Christian people of Lithuania”, and the Russian ancestors were called the “Russian people of Moscow”. It was still well remembered that in the times of pre-Mongol Russia, all this was one people.

They were ruled in Lithuanian Rus by tycoons - in the present, oligarchs - princes Radzivilly, Ostrog, Vishnevetsky and Hodkevich. The nobility had almost no rights. Exactly, like many of today's business deputies who are hostages of the so-called party discipline and do not even dare to lift the tail. In fact, petty nobles were something like our 90's gangsters. The magnates, that is, the leaders of the gangs, gave them a little to get rich by plundering the small world, but they were kept in strictness. To know the place. The common people, however, lived in relative freedom - serfdom did not exist.

But Poland lay next to great temptation - a cheerful country where its magnates almost did not exist, as today its oligarchs, and the gentry kept themselves proud. They exploited mercilessly serfs, although they were the same Poles as they, and ruled the country, hotly discussing all the most important issues on the Sejm - no less violent than our present Verkhovna Rada.

Although Lithuania and Poland were considered separate states, they were ruled by one king from the Lithuanian Jagiellon dynasty - Sigismund II Augustus. This order started since 1385, when the local dynasty died out in Poland, and Sigismund's ancestor, Vladislav Jagiello, was invited to the throne.

Sigismund II Augustus strengthened the union with curses from the next world

But in 1569, the Jagiellons themselves found themselves in the situation of “endangered”. Sigismund II Augustus lived the age of childless. His beloved wife Barbara Radziwill was poisoned by the king’s mother, Bonn Sforza from the Italian ducal family. Angry mother-in-law fiercely jealous son to the Lithuanian beauty. Until his death, Sigismund remembered his spouse and even died in a room draped with black cloth in memory of his beloved. His mother, however, was also poisoned when she returned to her native Italy with a wagon train of silver exported from Polish estates. But this did not help the prosperity of the two states. It was obvious that after the death of Sigismund Augustus, they would have to go their separate ways, in connection with the suppression of the dynastic union, for completely natural reasons.

The situation was aggravated by the fact that in the east of Lithuania Muscovite Rus became stronger. Her Grand Duke Ivan Vasilyevich the Terrible declared himself king, and was even about to offer his candidacy for the post of Lithuanian prince and Polish king after the easily predictable death of Sigismund. Lithuania, among other things, also waged war with Moscow - sluggish, like the current trade "war" of Ukraine with the Russian Federation. Then the Muscovites will pull the Lithuanians out of something, the Litvin Muscovites will be thrown at the border on the loot. But there were more Muscovites, and they took over, invading the lands of the present Belarus, the noble cavalry and the Tatar troops.

The funny thing is that Poland at the same time stood aside and did not rush to the aid of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. They say that we have one king, but the states are different, and there is no common border between the free Polish people and the Russian kingdom. So why should we fight?

Death of Sigismund II Augustus. The king died three years after the Union of Lublin surrounded by astrologers

ON TWO TONES IMMEDIATELY. Sigismund Augustus, who was, nevertheless, still alive, despite this mess, implicated in international law, did not want to lose the Lithuanian crown during his lifetime. He liked to sit on two thrones at once. And the Lithuanian magnates, who risked losing their position, were pushing the king: you, our grand prince, among other things, do something - make the Poles raise their asses!

Sigismund rushed to the Poles: “Save!” Those answered: “Of course, we will help. Just let us make sure that after your death, Sigismund, the new king, we chose with the Litvinians in the general Diet, and let the Grand Duchy of Lithuania pass the Podolia, Volhynia and Kiev region to the Kingdom of Poland for the assistance rendered in the war with the Muscovites. Because we are European people, and just out of fraternal feelings, we do not fight - only for the benefit ”.

As you can see, no sincerity between Poland and Lithuania did not even smell.

In order to solve a painful question, in January 1569 of the year in the Polish town of Lublin opened the first common Polish-Lithuanian Sejm. The debate went until mid-August. If it were not for the harvest, they would sit endlessly. Only the need to return to the estate to look after the serfs, hastened the process. Lithuanian party leaders Nikolai Radzivill Ryzhy and Jan Chodkiewicz believed that the price for the union was excessive. The deputies from Lithuania (that is, from White and Little Russia, too), they simply showed a fist: be silent, if you dare to utter a word, we will crush you into powder when we get home! But they nevertheless secretly ran to the king and complained about two noble "bandits".

One fine night, Chodkiewicz and Radziwill simply fled to disrupt the work of parliament. Then Sigismund Augustus, contrary to all laws, issued a decree on the transfer of Kiev and Bratslav provinces from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the Kingdom of Poland. He was immediately deprived of several officials who refused to take the oath to the Polish Crown. Lithuanian nobility wanted to get the same rights as the Polish. She went over to the side of the king and the "Europeanisers." The magnates of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania - the princes of Ostrog, Vishnevetsky, Chartory, Sangushki headed by the thoughtful one Jan Chodkiewicz returned to the Sejm and sat in their seats in the upper house - the Senate. Chodkiewicz tearfully asked the king not to transfer them to the Polish Crown "for slavery and shame." It was evident that the magnates are afraid of losing what they still have.

1 July 1569, Lithuania and Poland united “as free with free as equal with equal”, but the lands of the present northern Ukraine were not returned to the Grand Duchy, arguing that the magnates did not have to leave the Sejm. Like, adopted laws have no retroactive effect. Poland promised not to offend the Orthodox, not to violate their rights, the Russian language was declared the official language of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Orthodox nobility was equalized with the Catholic, and they started a general war against Ivan the Terrible and even won it.

Lublin. In this Polish city, the Sejm roared in 1569, because of which Ukraine came to Europe

SIGNED AND PLUNED. However, immediately after the signing of the Union of Lublin, this “small European Union” - the newly created Commonwealth - immediately began to run into the rights of the Rusyns. In 1596, the Orthodox Church in Brest was subordinated to the Pope. In fact, in the general state of the rule of the Polish Catholic Party. One by one, the Vishnevetsky, Ostrozhsky, Sangushky, Chartory and other princes began to move from Orthodoxy to Catholicism. For them stretched small nobility.

The top of Western Russia became polished. The Radziwills accepted Protestantism and dreamed of regaining Lithuania at the time of independence. The peasantry of the Kiev region and Volyn, having fallen into serfdom for the first time, grumbled and fled to the Cossacks — to Ukraine — the border lands beyond Kanev and Cherkasy at the Wild Field. The result of the Union of Lublin was a series of Cossack uprisings. Nalyvayko, Shake, Ostryanitsa - the names of the leaders of these riots plunged into horror all of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Stubborn Poles did not want to retreat in their movement to the east. No less stubborn Rusyns did not want to give up. The Cossack, who knows no mercy, became the symbol of South Russia.

It all ended in 1648, in the Khmelnytsky region, and after it by the Flood - for Poland and the Great Ruin - for Ukraine.

Poison love. Stay Barbara Radziwill alive, would have cost without union

ABOUT THIRD FORGOT! The Union of Lublin was a union of two political gentry nations - Polish and Lithuanian. But in the Commonwealth there was also a third nation - Russian. With the same literary language as in Moscow and the same faith. It was he who was deprived as a result of the cunning maneuvers of the Polish elite. After the death of Bogdan Khmelnitsky in the 1657, there were two parties among the Rusyns - the pro-Polish and the pro-Moscow parties. The first believed that it was possible to agree with Warsaw on turning the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from a state of two peoples into a state of three. The exponent clerk Ivan Vyhovsky turned out to be an expression of this idea, having tricked into the position of hetman without any choice.

Vyhovsky was a lawyer and a nobleman who was captured by the Cossacks in 1648. Bogdan had almost no educated people. Even his colonels were half illiterate. And paperwork someone needs to do! In addition, Khmelnitsky felt for Vyhovsky also human sympathy. Bogdan was able to turn people to his best side. But after his death, his yesterday's comrades showed themselves in all their glory - after all, all the ruins of the ruins came out of the "nest" of Khmelnitsky. And Briukhovetsky, and Doroshenko, and Teter, and the Many Sinful!

Vyhovsky, having kidnapped a mace with the help of legal frauds (he declared himself “acting hetman” - literally “at that time hetman”), decided that it was time to return to Polish from Moscow citizenship. Naturally, he read all the documents of the Union of Lublin and offered the Poles the following gesheft: let us, apart from the Crown and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, select the third subject in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - the Principality of Rus, in which we will include all the lands controlled by the Army of Zaporizhzhya - Poltava, Chernihiv, Kyiv and Bratslav regions . Let the top Cossacks get the rights of the Polish gentry, and Orthodoxy return equal rights with Catholicism.

In the courtyard stood 1658 year. The troops of the Russian Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich occupied half of the Commonwealth. From the north to Poland, the Swedes were advancing. Naturally, in such conditions, King Jan Casimir easily agreed to the plan of Vyhovsky. The agreement on the new union, which was signed in the town of Gadyach (that is to say the name!), Was striking for its benefit for the Cossacks. What happened at Khmelnitsky indulges in everlasting oblivion - amnesty for all rebels! Metropolitan of Kiev and five bishops will become Polish senators. In addition, senators will be elected from the Orthodox gentry. Cossacks pay no taxes to Poland. Those of them who want the hetman, the king approve of the nobility. Getman Vyhovsky will be to death Kiev commander and general. But in the war of the king with Moscow, the Cossacks can keep neutrality, although in the event of an attack of the Moscow troops on the Cossacks, the king and the army are obliged to protect them. The title of Vyhovsky will be “Russian Hetman and the first senator of Kyiv, Chernihiv and Bratslav provinces”.

Jan Casimir and Ivan Vyhovsky easily signed this wonderful piece of paper. Only she hung in the air. The Polish Sejm refused to ratify such a treaty, considering it extremely disadvantageous. Swedes just repulsed. Muscovites pushed. So why negotiate with the Cossacks? Yes, and protect them anyway? The Polish elite did not want to share power with the "Russian nation". His children were full to "put on the uryady".

Vyhovsky signed a treaty from which Poland escaped

Despite the curse. Sly Cossacks immediately retreated from Vyhovsky and reproached the Moscow Tsar. The “at that time hetman” in his hands, instead of his trump cards, was left with only a vile Gadyachsky treaty, which in reality had no power. The former clerk and lawyer collected his possessions and, straight from the hetman's residence in Chyhyryn, gave a fly to Poland - not understood by anyone. All his subtle legal constructions turned out to be just an unattainable dream of an “Eurasian”, where until his death he would have been a “general” and would sit in the Senate. In gratitude for the services rendered, the Poles instead shot Vygovskiy as spent political material.

As if anticipating the fate of Rzecz Pospolita, its creator Sigismund II Augustus tried to strengthen her in his will with a curse: “The people who show no gratitude for this union and take the path of separation, let them tremble before the wrath of the Lord, which, according to the prophet, hates and curses those who sow discord between brothers. " As it is European, is not it?

However, neither curses nor intimidation helped the “European integrators” of the past. In their affairs there was no main thing - sincerity and love. And without these two components, buildings erected on the most tricky calculation pour in.
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. brewhouse
    brewhouse 14 September 2013 09: 51
    Brothers Ukrainians! Do not go on a rake!
    Remember Gogol:
    “And your hetman, and the colonels, what did you do?”
    “And now the hetman, roasted in a copper bull, is lying in Warsaw, and colonel’s hands and heads are being transported to fairs to be shown to the whole people.”
    1. Nicholas C.
      Nicholas C. 14 September 2013 09: 55
      Everyone likes Oles Buzina, but sometimes his historical articles are somewhat vulgar. For example, "The common people nevertheless lived in relative freedom - serfdom did not exist." Is it in Lithuania before the Union of Lublin? And nothing that first! But the printed document in Lithuania - the Privilege of Casimir of 1447 immediately speaks of this serfdom? Klyuchevsky

      Some kind of "Russian Muscovite people" invented, or even uses the term "Muscovite" - a word from the arsenal of the enemies of Russia, Austro-Hungarian and Polish anti-Russian propagandists.

      Serfdom in the Commonwealth was much more hard labor than the Romanovs later introduced in Russia. But at the time of the conclusion of the Union, serfdom was not in Russia. But it was in Poland and Lithuania. There, on the contrary, they were proud of the Charter of Liberties for the gentry. But the main thing was even different: the land in Russia belonged to the state (and the church) and was given to the nobles for use for the service, and they leased it to free peasants; but the land in Lithuania was the private property of magnates and gentry.

      Therefore, the possible accession of Lithuania to the Russian kingdom was perceived by the then oligarchs as a possible seizure of their property, moreover, more anti-popular Polish laws made it possible to enslave the people even more. In fact, the people of this union were then almost destroyed during the next one and a half centuries of continuous blood. But in Russia Rurikovich people would get freedom.
      1. kin
        kin 14 September 2013 16: 01
        Still, Privilee Casimir, most likely, is only the beginning of the process, stretching for a good hundred years. It is not about serfdom (in our understanding), but about the jurisdiction (judicial power) of the lords over dependent people. The process was continued, as is known by the laws of 1529, 1557 and 1566. Finally completed, according to experts, in 1588.
      2. Sirocco
        Sirocco 14 September 2013 18: 17
        Quote: Nikolai S.
        Therefore, the possible accession of Lithuania to the Russian kingdom was perceived by the then oligarchs as a possible seizure of their property,

        That's just your quote, and Ukrainian oligarchs do not want to reunite with Russia, although I made a mistake it is not Ukrainian oligarchs, these are parasites from the EU sitting on the neck of Ukraine.
    2. Ivan_Ivanov
      Ivan_Ivanov 14 September 2013 11: 02
      Now they are making thinner, much thinner.

      They draw candy wrappers, buy "hetman" and "colonels @?" For them, put their agents everywhere, and then very easily take away the wrappers handed out and everything that was bought for them.
    3. vostok1982
      vostok1982 14 September 2013 12: 53
      Yes, and then, in a few years, when the Ukrainian industry is destroyed, and the last design bureaus and research institutes are dispersed, one can safely ask: "Well, son, did your Poles help you?"
      1. RoTTor
        RoTTor 14 September 2013 14: 42
        But pensioners and state employees will get better: they will, like Western Ukrainian super-patriots living "from the border", and not from independent Ukraine, buy food and things half the price - at Polish prices.

        All young people will flee to the West to migrant workers - independently and without a convoy, unlike those whom the Nazis forcibly took out and under their protection.
        In a couple of decades, the final goal will be achieved. In Ukraine, pensioners will die out, teachers will die out - there will be nobody to teach. Wild field will remain from the former prosperous union republic - it will be possible to golf courses, all-European dumps, burial places of chemical weapons and radioactive substances, cattle burial grounds, reservations and so on. to arrange - as Brussels commands - under the nose of Russia, to her spite and to the detriment.
  2. Cristall
    Cristall 14 September 2013 10: 05
    Stormy surge of articles about Ukraine. Another one.
    And all with a clear hint .....
    How long ??????? laughing
    1. Orik
      Orik 14 September 2013 10: 32
      The one who laughs last laughs well. There is already an example of Bulgaria and other countries, so what is your laugh. Explain, I personally thought and believe that we are a single people, a single country, that it does not suit you.
    2. JIaIIoTb
      JIaIIoTb 14 September 2013 10: 47
      November is on the horizon.
      After, there will be no such articles. There will be loans from the European Union to "compensate" for losses from the downturn in trade with the vehicle (only all loans will have to be returned, with interest). I do not want to write further, since everything has long been chewed up.
      I think the surge will be in a year after the euro "integration". When everything falls into place in terms of understanding what is good and what is not.
    3. vostok1982
      vostok1982 14 September 2013 12: 51
      Until then, while in Ukraine there are Russian people, and those who consider themselves not Russian, speaks Russian. The border of Ukraine and the Russian Federation is the Berlin wall of our days.
      1. artem772
        artem772 14 September 2013 14: 44
        Unlike the Berlin Wall, nobody keeps you miserable in Ukraine. The path is open even to Yamal, even in the Amur region, even to Sakhalin.
        What is the problem ?
        1. xan
          xan 14 September 2013 19: 58
          Quote: artem772
          Unlike the Berlin Wall, nobody keeps you miserable in Ukraine. The path is open even to Yamal, even in the Amur region, even to Sakhalin.
          What is the problem ?

          Yes there is no bazaar!
          but only with their land
          not for you armless and stupid to leave
        2. svp67
          svp67 14 September 2013 20: 04
          Quote: artem772
          What is the problem ?
          So nothing. Citizens with Ukrainian passports are full of people there - people vote with their feet, for AUTHORITY Ukraine ...
    4. artem772
      artem772 14 September 2013 14: 42
      Chechen Surkov replaced Glazyev on the Ukrainian front of propaganda wink
      Waiting for new pearls laughing
      1. svp67
        svp67 14 September 2013 21: 30
        Quote: artem772
        Waiting for new pearls
        None of our politicians can compare in the amount of this good with your "Rada". That's where the "pearls" come from ... So, your own, "Maiden Ukraine" you will wait faster ...
      2. picnic
        picnic 14 September 2013 23: 42
        Unlike the Berlin Wall, nobody keeps you miserable in Ukraine. The path is open even to Yamal, even in the Amur region, even to Sakhalin.
        What is the problem ?


        The only problem is that the population is inexorably decreasing every year. And in ten years from now, only old grannies will remain in Ukraine, who cannot move on their own and who are retiring from the EU. And in 30 years (if, of course, Ukraine really falls under Geyropu) in this territory, the official language will be Romanian (Hungarian, Moldavian, Turkish, Arabic) to choose from.
        1. Glory333
          Glory333 15 September 2013 15: 14
          Ha! EU will pay someone a pension-keep your pocket wider.
  3. forevering
    forevering 14 September 2013 10: 59
    interesting article
  4. Arkan
    Arkan 14 September 2013 11: 22
    The article is very interesting. Western Slavs have not learned anything since then.
  5. knn54
    knn54 14 September 2013 11: 40
    The daughter of Dmitry Donskoy - Sophia was married to the son of Oleg Ryazansky - Fyodor.
    ORTHODOX Jagiello (after D.D.'s matchmaking refusal) married Jadwig, daughter of the deceased Polish king Louis, converted to Catholicism and voluntarily and unwittingly baptized his people ...
    1. smile
      smile 14 September 2013 13: 28
      Lithuanian princes - both Jagello, and Olgerd (Algirdas) and the rest repeatedly changed their faith for political reasons as clogged filters - at that time it was commonplace with them.
    2. xetai9977
      xetai9977 14 September 2013 13: 42
      Jagiello generally darted from side to side, robbed Russian wagons returning from the Battle of Kulikovo, swore allegiance to either the Polish gentry, or the Russian princes, fought with the Germans in the Battle of Grunwald ...
      1. smile
        smile 14 September 2013 16: 48
        Well yes. Now they call such a policy, took care of the interests of the country ... :))) Talented and tenacious, yyyy, he turned out to live at that time and with such a way of life ....
        1. xan
          xan 14 September 2013 20: 19
          Quote: smile
          Well yes. Now they call such a policy, took care of the interests of the country ... :))) Talented and tenacious, yyyy, he turned out to live at that time and with such a way of life ....

          talent didn’t help him - the descendants pissed away everything that is possible.
          but not so talented, but stubborn, loyal and stubborn Russians did not shy away from faith, did not cunning on trifles and did not depart from their political line. This is apparently the most important thing.
          1. smile
            smile 14 September 2013 21: 28
            His descendants have spoiled not only everything that is possible - generally everything ... :)))
            But I don’t agree with the rest:))) - if the Russian people were not talented - such a huge and powerful state would not be built - with such and such enemies. Yes, only the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at the time described by the article was numerically superior to us several times ... but the fact that they didn’t shy away was so our nature is not in our rules.
  6. Sergey Medvedev
    Sergey Medvedev 14 September 2013 11: 59
    This article is a stone in the garden of the leaders of our countries. And offended, for some reason, ordinary forum users. Or difficult? Maybe Yanukovych is here? Under which nickname?
  7. revnagan
    revnagan 14 September 2013 12: 53
    Quote: Sergei Medvedev
    Maybe Yanukovych is here? Under which nickname?

    PROFESSOR !!! laughing Can not be!!! laughing
    1. RoTTor
      RoTTor 14 September 2013 14: 47
      proXXXXfessor. It was touching to watch how he and his prison universities broadcast the benefits of education on September 1. In Ukraine, judging by it, it is only a burden and a hindrance.
      1. xan
        xan 15 September 2013 00: 40
        Quote: RoTTor
        proXXXXfessor. It was touching to watch how he and his prison universities broadcast the benefits of education on September 1. In Ukraine, judging by it, it is only a burden and a hindrance.

        and I saw on YouTube how he threatened a journalist directly at a press conference.
        All politicians know how to answer questions about personal well-being, apparently except for the professor. He has problems with IQ. And this prezik wants to squeeze something from the Kremlin! They see him through and through, like a sucker in poker.
  8. kin
    kin 14 September 2013 15: 57
    Dear author, somewhat emotionally and not quite accurately described the events associated with the Lublin Union. For those reading this article, it is advisable to check the facts, for example, on the timing of the conclusion of the union, the actual impact on it (conclusion) of certain actors, the reasons for not returning Podljashia, Volhynia and the Kiev region to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, etc. according to serious sources.
  9. Vityaz68
    Vityaz68 14 September 2013 19: 23
    GREAT RUSSIA 14 September 2013 21: 10
    Ukraine will lose more than it will gain from joining the EU. Ukrainian goods will not be able to withstand rivalry with European ones. Most Ukrainian companies will be uncompetitive against European ones, and this will lead to bankruptcy. But if Ukraine entered the CU, its goods would be of equal quality with goods from other countries (RUSSIA, Kazakhstan, etc.) and Ukrainian companies would benefit from this, but alas, there are liberals in the government. The only goods that can seriously compete with Europe are military equipment.
  11. msv
    msv 15 September 2013 00: 31
    I do not want to discuss the economic benefits for Ukraine from the association of Ukraine with the EU. I think they are not. And the Baltic is an eloquent example of this.
    But one of the first conditions of the EU will be the permission of same-sex marriage in Ukraine and the corresponding lessons of sexual education in schools.

    In general, I am sorry for the brotherly people.
      GREAT RUSSIA 15 September 2013 09: 10
      Although I am not a Slav, I also feel sorry for Ukraine. For the Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians are fraternal peoples.
  12. Glory333
    Glory333 15 September 2013 15: 11
    To begin with, in Poland, the Poles did not exploit the Poles, the gentry was very different from ordinary Poles, the gentry were dark-brown and brown-eyed, of course the gentry themselves did not at all consider themselves Slavs or Lithuanians calling themselves Sarmatians (descendants of nomads from Asia), the blue-eyed, fair-haired Slavs and Lithuanians considered the gentry as their slaves - smerds, slaves, mob, cattle ...
    (see Wikipedia "Sarmatism")
    An interesting fact: the Lithuanian princes Glinsky declared as their ancestor the temnik Mamaia from a noble Mongolian clan Kiyat - it is clear that they were proud of it.
  13. unknown
    unknown 15 September 2013 15: 29
    Not fraternal peoples, one people

    At one time, the Asian part of the Russian state was divided into three parts for the convenience of management and inheritance.
    Great Russia (Tarkhtaria - the country of Tarkh and Tara, the children of Perun), White Russia (Lithuania) and Little Russia (Poland).
    After the yoke of Zhmud, no Russian lands were collected.
    Tarkhtaro-Magols are Russians, or does someone seriously believe that the Volga-Volga Türks once worshiped Perun?
    And Zhmuds themselves stole the history of Lithuania (White Russia).
    How the history of Poland (Little Russia) was stolen by the gentry.
    By the way, the word gentry is translated as a gang of relatives hunting at the gentry (high road)
    And the territory of modern Poland itself was part of another Moravian state, with its capital in Prague.
    Therefore, the nobility has no relation to the creation of the People’s Sich (the so-called Rzeczpospolita).
    And they have White Russia (historical Lithuania) and Little Russia (historical Poland).
    And the historical capital of White Russia was Smolensk, and not Mensk at all. Today, someone can say that the inhabitants of Smolensk are brotherly people
    After the Great War, known as the Thirty Years and the demise of the state, the accession of the heretical Romanov dynasty, the myth of Kievan Rus and the yoke began to form.
    Bismarck and the Austrians came up with another myth-Ukraine (outskirts)
    And the Bolsheviks developed it.