September 8 Moscow celebrates City Day. And it would be very appropriate to recall that the territory of our capital was the most ancient settlement, which arose two and a half thousand years ago (5-4 centuries. BC. E.). It was located on the site of the current Filevsko-Kuntsevsky Park. Archaeological excavations have shown that it was a very powerful settlement, protected by arcuate shafts and ditches. During the excavation of the settlement, remains of pottery, bronze women's jewelery, sickles, grain graters, cereals, and pink-spit were found. The 3 wide road led neatly paved with smoothly rolled stones led to the top of the ancient city fortress. She spiraled around the slopes of the hill, and along it stretched a groove for drains.
“Of particular interest is the system of fortifications of the settlement,” we read on the local history site “Park Fili”. - Terraces on the slopes were aligned in the mainland in the early period stories fortifications, their edges were reinforced with stonework and powerful weaving from stakes with a diameter of 7 - 11 cm, protecting the terrace from erosion and creep. Such a system of anti-landslide weavers of a similar design has been used in the Moscow region up to the present. ” (“The Ancient Settlement -“ Cursed Place ”)
Note - "to the present"! It turns out that the Moscow region was settled in the deepest antiquity, and not some wild tribes there, but highly cultured builders of powerful and beautiful fortresses. This fortress is still lucky, but how many such sites remains buried and unknown? But, worst of all, there are almost no written sources about this antiquity. Although they should be in huge quantities. It seems that we were robbed, leaving some - yes, relatives, and loved ones - but only possessions.
Let's take at least our Russian chronicle "The Tale of Bygone Years", which is considered the basis for all historical studies on the history of Ancient Russia. On the rule of the "first" Russian princes, it speaks terribly. Even about Vladimir the Holy, who baptized Russia, and then - it was written somehow really quite obscenely small. And about what happened in the second half of his reign, in the period from 998 to 1015, nothing is written at all. And is this an accident? No, obviously, someone's skillful “scissors” worked here. It is known that in Russia, quite often, various foreign adventurers of all stripes felt very at ease. That there is only one company of German “enlighteners” (A. Schlozer, G. Bayer and others) who concocted a false “Norman theory” through the 18 century and made it the official historiosophical doctrine of the Russian state! And even if only the Germans are Normanists. (There is a lot to be remembered here. For example, the adventurer Paisius Ligarida, who was an agent of the Latin West and most actively aggravated the tragic religious schism in Russia.)
According to the Norman theory, the Russians borrowed their statehood from the Scandinavians, or rather, the latter implanted it here with their iron hand. In the future, this theory was rewritten in every way, offering a variety of versions - hard and soft. Well, where one thing is, there is another thing - serious, academic researchers began to study the influence of various peoples on the Slavs and came to the conclusion that our ancestors borrowed a huge number of the most important words. Are you good enough to see, from the Iranians we took the following words: “God”, “paradise”, “lord”, “hut”, “ax”, “lizard”, “chalice”, “grave”, “wine”. From the Germans - "prince", "knight", "regiment", "armor", "helmet", "shaft", "voivode". From the Celts - "servant", "pit", "cage", "cow". From Latin - "bath", "cat", "mill", "chamber", "ax". And this is only a small fraction, and so some transfers would be enough for a voluminous journal article. It seems that the pro-Slavs were completely without any idea, and they learned all the words from their neighbors. At the same time, it rests on the verbal similarity, but somehow forgotten is the fact that the linguistic community of Indo-European peoples takes place. Formerly, we all made up a single law, from where the striking resemblance actually came.
Yes, very often our historical science has followed and is following the idol of many “sovereigns of the minds” - the West. The West itself had its origins in antiquity and its barbarous Celto-German periphery, and could not tolerate the fact that the "backward" Russia-Russia has no less, or even deeper roots. They leave in Scythian and praskifsky antiquity, because the Scythians were our ancestors. And among them we can single out the pre-Slavic element, which, at a certain point in time, dominated all of Scythia. It is about chisels, Scythians-farmers, who differed from Iranian nomadic nomads.
By the way, the history of Europe itself is in many ways Scythian. For example, how many people know about the archaeological culture of the fields of burial urns, which belongs to Eastern, Scythian cultures? It originated in 13 c. BC er and for several centuries spread over the vast expanse from the Danube to the Pyrenees and the North Sea. Its carriers reached the British Isles, where they left their mark on the local culture. It is significant that the Irish (Celtic) saga of Goidel Glas (Goidel Green) tells about the long-standing migration of ancestors from “Scythia”. Or take, for example, the famous megalithic monument Stonehenge - according to established legends, it was built by Scythians. Moreover, experts believe that this structure has a “pre-Celtic” origin.
And what about the Celts? They began their grand expansion later, faced with the Scythians. Especially this confrontation escalated in 6. BC e., covering Central Europe. And already in 3 c. BC er the Gauls broke through the Carpathians, seizing the land, which is now called Galicia (this is very symbolic, given the local anti-Russian sentiment). They were not allowed to go further, but they still weakened Scythia, which, in many respects, led to its fall under the blows of the recently allied Sarmatians. It turns out that once the whole of Europe was inhabited by our ancestors - the Scythians. And only then we were ousted from there by the then Europeans, among whom are the Celts. About the confrontation of the latter with Rome, anyone knows, at least some diligent schoolboy. (At least, he knew - until the collapse of the education system.) But the centuries of the Scythian-Celtic wars remained a grand “white spot” of ancient history.
However, as much more. And this, in many respects, is the result of a long cultural-historical war of Western civilizers that has been going on for thousands of years, and they have imposed their own view of ancient history on the whole world and on our people. Moreover, much is not just distorted, but also destroyed. Here you are, such a question - ancient authors say that the Scythians had excellent laws written on copper tables, but where are these tables? And where, in general, their written records, which simply could not be - with such a lawmaking? Roman author Pompey Trog argued: "The Scythian tribe was always considered the most ancient, although there was a long debate between the Scythians and the Egyptians about the antiquity of origin ... The Scythians prevailed over the Egyptians and always seemed like people of more ancient origin." Herodot talked about the Scythian king Anacharsis, who the Hellenes included in the council of the seven greatest sages. There is evidence of Scythian letters to Asian rulers (in particular, to Darius). Diogen Laertsky mentions verses in the 800 lines written by the Scythian sage Anaharsis.
That is, the Scythians had their own writing, but for some reason they “did not reach”! What is this, some kind of caprice of nature, some kind of annoying accident? No, as Stanislavsky said, "I do not believe." We have obviously stolen much and much, both in the direct and figurative sense.
The presence of writing among the Scythians is indirectly confirmed by the existence of a developed urban culture. Scythians had numerous and powerful cities. Ancient authors almost do not write about them, moreover, Herodotus denied their very existence. Although it is obvious that the "father of history" meant the Scythians-nomads. At the same time, he described the huge (4400 ha) city of Gelon in the land of Budino, who were in Scythian orbit. (Many historians consider Budinov to be a Slavic ethnopolitical entity.) In addition, Herodot wrote about the Cimmerian city of Portman on the Don. And the Scythian cities of Karkinitida and Kardes mentioned Hekatei of Miletus.
But, of course, the richest information is provided by archaeologists, who have excavated many Scythian settlements. Researchers pay attention to the territory of “the settlement of Scythian plowmen (farmers) of Herodotus, which most experts consider to be basically Slavs and places between the middle currents of the Dniester and the Dnieper, as well as in the middle course of the Vorskla. Judging by the latest data, the Middle Pela basin should also be included here. ” (V. Yu. Murzin, R. Rolle "Scythian cities").
“It is in this region that a significant number of sites of ancient settlements and settlements are concentrated,” the authors report. - So, only on the territory of the Kiev-Cherkassy local version of this ethnocultural array, which stretched along the right bank of the Dnieper approximately 380 km, recorded 64 settlements, including 18 settlements. The settlements considered in size, design features of fortifications (earthen ramparts with wooden structures), layout, often quite complex, and other characteristic features stand out noticeably against the background of similar monuments of neighboring territories. This statement is all the more true if one considers the presence of three giant settlements in the Ukrainian Forest-Steppe. We mean the Big Khodosovsky, Karatulsky and Belsky settlements. Belsk ancient settlement, located on the high right bank of the middle reaches of the river. Vorskla is a complex system of fortifications - Eastern, Western and Kuzeminsky, united by a common shaft and moat of the Great Volsky settlement. Area more than 4000 ha, total length of shafts about 35 km. The Karatulsky settlement, which is located south of Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsky, is a complex of ramified ramparts and ditches, with a total length of 74 km, spanning the interfluve of the Dnieper, Trubezh and Supoi. The area of the settlement is approximately 17 x 25 km. And, finally, the Great Khodosovo Settlement (Kruglik). Located on the southern outskirts of Kiev and has an area of over 2000 hectares, surrounded by two horseshoe-shaped ramparts with a total length of about 12 km. However, MPKuchera believes that in ancient times there were ramparts that united not only the Great Khodosovsky, but also the Khotovsky and the Little Khodosovsky settlements of the Scythian era into a single system. In this case, this complex of fortifications is not inferior in scale to neither Belsky nor Karatuly ”. It turns out very symbolic - it turns out, Kiev had its predecessor, which existed even before our era! How can you not remember the Kuntsevo site of ancient settlement!
Of course, the greatness of Scythia did not originate from scratch. Its appearance was preceded not even by centuries, but millennia of development of the most powerful, but, alas, forgotten cultures. One of these cultures was Srednestogovskaya archaeological culture, which was established as far back as 5 in thousand BC. er in the forest-steppe between the Dnieper and the Don.
Srednestogovtsy were farmers and herders, and they were the first in the world to tame the horse, which was the most important contribution to human culture as such. In addition, they invented the wheel, which was another major turn in human life. “... For the time being, there seems to be no material remains of wheels in the monuments of the Middle-Aged culture,” writes I. Rassoha. - However, clear images of wheels and chariots on the Stone Grave under Melitopol are known. These images are convincingly dated precisely to the Eneolithic era, and they directly relate to the archaic period of the Middle Ages culture. Yes, and the finding of wheels in the Humelnitsa culture also serves as an indirect confirmation of the invention of the wheel earlier in the Middle-Eastern culture, since only there could the wheel be combined with developed horse breeding. This date coincides with the date of the first Indo-European invasion of the Balkan Peninsula ... Thus, the wheel appeared in Sumer somewhere on 500-1000 years later than in Eastern Europe. ” ("Ancestral home of the Rus")
On the basis of Srednestogovskaya culture, the Yamnaya culture arose, named after the type of burial: the dead were laid in a pit, over which a barrow was erected. This cultural and historical community is spread over the vast expanses from the Urals to the Dniester, and from the Caucasus to the Middle Volga region. Yamtsy were, first of all, cattle-breeders, while also engaged in farming and handicraft activities. Researchers talk about “fairly developed silica processing, the same can be said about bone processing (including for jewelry). In the process of making stone artifacts, a drilling and grinding technique was used. The overlap of the graves of stone-treated slabs and wooden slabs, anthropomorphic steles and wooden carts testify to the skills of working with stone and wood. Pottery, weaving, weaving were developed. ” (Ivanova S.V. “Social structure of the population of the Yamna culture of the North-Western Black Sea region”)
Pompey Trog wrote that the Scythians had dominion over the whole of Asia three times. The first period lasted one and a half thousand years and "Assyrian King Nin put an end to the payment." This data is confirmed later by the 5 historian. n er Pavel Orosy: "For 1300 years before the founding of Rome, the king of Assyria Nin ..., rising from the south of the Red Sea, in the far north, devastated and subdued Evksinsky Pont." And here it is easy to determine the time limits. “Comparing the dates (the founding of Rome - 753g. BC), we can assume that the Scythians dominated Asia in 36-21вв. BC, that is, in the early Bronze Age, - notes N. I. Vasilyeva. “But this time is the period of Yamna culture and its immediate predecessors, the time when the arias of the southern Russian steppes settled in all directions to the south, creating new kingdoms!” (“Great Scythia”)
The Middle and Yam culture is the same great Aryan empire. And by the Aryans here it is necessary to understand a single then still people who will give life to the Slavs, Indians and Iranians. They were the original, the very first Scythians. They, in fact, meant Pompey Trog, when he wrote about the first rule of the Scythians in Asia. As is obvious, we are talking about the state of the yamtsev, which was then at the zenith of its power. It is significant that this rule was recalled already at the beginning of the 17 century by Andrey Lyzlov in his “Scythian history”, where he claimed that the Scythians “Small and Great, the second and greatest part of the world, had the courage and possession of it from one and a half thousand years: the king of Egypt - even before the ages and the states of Nin the king of Assyria. "
Later, on the basis of Srednestogovskaya and Yamskoy cultures, other Proto-Scythian and Scythian cultures will arise. Ultimately, all this inheritance will go to Russia - Kiev, South, and then Moscow, North. However, it should be noted here that the foundations of North Russia were laid long before Kiev itself. “The Legend of Slaven and Ruse” (“1679 Chronograph of the Year”) tells about the powerful outcome of our ancestors from the Black Sea region, which was in the orbit of the most ancient Scythian cultures, and about the creation of cities (Slavensk Velik) in the Novgorod North.
So, our distant ancestors inhabited the current Great Russian lands at the beginning of 2 thousand BC. eh? Yes, just so, N. I. Vasilyeva and Yu. D. Petukhov pay attention to the fact that “just at the end of III - beginning of II millennium BC. er a huge array of territories of Central and Eastern Europe was occupied by so-called cultures of “cord ceramics”, which revealed a great unity. The common “lace ceramics” included the southern Azov-Black Sea territory and the northern forest territory; it stretched from the Baltic to the Kama basin. The impulses of the formation of a community of “lace ceramics” emanated from the south, from the southern Russian steppes ... This means everything was as it is written in the chronicles: the Russians came to the northern forests from the steppes of Great Scythia in the Bronze Age, and they belonged to Eastern European cultures ceramics ”(2200 – 1600 years. BC. E.). Announcement of the chronicle of the first Russian "cities", founded at the beginning of the II millennium BC. e., does not contradict the data of archeology: the then fortified centers, like the South Ural Arkaim, can be considered ancient settlements. ” ("The Eurasian Empire of the Scythians").
This remarkable observation must be supplemented - with an indication of the Fatyanovo culture, which was one of the divisions of the culture of corded ceramics (it is also called “the culture of battle axes”). This culture occupies the vast spaces of Ivanovo, Novgorod, Moscow, Tver, Smolensk, Kaluga, Kostroma, Ryazan, Tula, Orel, Nizhny Novgorod and Yaroslavl (Fatyanovo) regions. Strictly speaking, this is the territory of Moscow Russia, which will arise only after three thousand years! So deny after this cyclical history. Moreover, it should be noted that the representatives of the Fatyanovo culture were dominated by the Y-haplogroup R1a, which indicates their proximity to modern Slavs.
Fatyanovo culture-pottery of the era of corded ceramics (d.Fat'yanovo, Danilovsky district Yaroslavl.obl.)
So here! And about all this we have the most fragmentary data! Logic tells us that there has not been without malicious intent. This is regrettable, but do not despair. Much, for sure, is hidden away - and it will definitely return to its owner, the Russian people.