Military Review

Red Terror To the 95 anniversary of the beginning of one of the most tragic periods in the history of Russia

61
Red Terror To the 95 anniversary of the beginning of one of the most tragic periods in the history of Russia

5 September 1918, the Council of People's Commissars issues a resolution on “red terror”, which the Soviet government allegedly launched in response to counter-revolutionary terror. The “last straw” was an attempt on V.I. Lenin, which led to his severe wound.


Responsibility for the conduct of terror was assigned to the All-Russian Emergency Commission and "individual party comrades," who made every effort to toughen the repression. So, already 17 September, the chairman of the Cheka, F. E. Dzerzhinsky demands that local commissions “speed up and complete, that is, eliminate unsolved cases.”

1. Not so simple

It is not possible to calculate the exact number of victims of the red terror, although researchers are trying to clarify this issue. For example, the Western historian R. Conquest names the number in 140 of thousands of people shot. And his Russian colleague, OB Mazokhin, who relies on archival materials, considers it possible to talk about 50 thousands of victims.

It should be borne in mind that the scale of repression often depended on local authorities. For example, in Petrograd in the fall 1918 of the year 800 was shot by a man, whereas in Moscow 300 was shot. (In addition, not all the dead and injured were innocent victims or political opponents of the Bolsheviks. Among those who fell under the "red spit" were many criminals - murderers, robbers, rogues, etc.)

The punitive apparatus of the famous All-Russian Emergency Commission (VChK) was not created immediately. It is significant that local bodies of the Cheka began to be formed only by decision of March 22 of 1918. And they were not engaged in massive repression. Thus, the Petrograd Cheka from 1 March to 6 June examined 196 cases, most of which were associated with speculation (102) and banditry. And only 18 cases were of a political nature, and even then 10 of them were stopped due to lack of evidence, and 3 was closed under an amnesty.

The Bolsheviks at first behaved quite liberally. They released from imprisonment all the royal dignitaries whom the “democratic” Provisional Government had imprisoned there (in particular, the head of the St. Petersburg security department A. Gerasimov). The attitude of the participants in various conspiracies was very liberal.

So, after the discovery of the conspiracy of V. M. Purishkevich, the participants were given some very ridiculous dates. Purishkevich himself received four years of community service, and in the spring of 1918, he was finally forgiven (after which he fled to the white South).

The standoff, however, was growing, and from all sides. The agrarian-food policy of the Bolsheviks caused special rejection, the peasants stubbornly did not want to give up the bread. Thus, in January-September, 1918 of the year, 7309 was killed by protesters. In total, 15 thousands of people died at the hands of the rebels. Only in July, the opponents of the Bolsheviks destroyed the Soviet workers 4110.

But the Bolsheviks did not sit with their arms folded, the flywheel of red repression was deployed on the ground. Especially got the officers. Thus, the chairman of the Sevastopol Revolutionary Tribunal, Yu. Gaven, boasted that 500 officers had been shot on his initiative. Or here are the memoirs of the S.L. Petrova: “We took all the workers of our factory to anti-Socialist-Revolutionary demonstrations ... We were not shy then - they drowned inveterate enemies in barges on Lisie Nos ...”

Of course, one cannot ignore the fact that among the Bolsheviks, including the Chekists, there were different opinions regarding terror. One of the leaders of the Cheka, MI. Latsis wrote: “We do not conduct war against individuals, we are exterminating the bourgeoisie as a class”. But colleague Ya.H. Peters, in an interview with the Menshevik newspaper Utro Moskvy, said: “As for the shootings, I must say that, contrary to popular belief, I’m not at all so bloodthirsty as they think. On the contrary, if you want to know, I first raised a cry against the red terror in the form in which it appeared in Petersburg. ”

2. Who was the most zealous?

All the leaders of the Bolsheviks bear responsibility for the extremes of revolution and terror. However, each contribution was different - someone tried more, someone less.

It seems that the most radical position in this matter was occupied by Ya.M. Sverdlov, canonized in his time by Soviet historiography.

At the 5th All-Russian Congress of Soviets, with a report to the Congress on the activities of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (July 5 1918), he called for a "mass terror" that should be carried out against "counter-revolution" and "enemies of Soviet power" and expressed confidence that "all labor Russia will respond with full approval to the extent of the shooting of counter-revolutionary generals and other enemies of the working people. ” It is curious and revealing that the congress approved his doctrine, however, the mass terror itself did not turn around then. Obviously, within the Bolshevik leadership, not everyone supported the “terrorists”.

Sverdlov in May 1918 held two important posts - the chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the secretary of the Central Committee, heading the entire party apparatus. Yakov Mikhailovich himself considered himself the leader of the entire party. So, the documents are preserved under which Sverdlov signs as the “chairman of the Central Committee”. Party documentation testifies to its steady rise, which was accompanied by a weakening of Lenin's position. “It is Sverdlov who reads instead of Lenin at the Moscow city party conference 13 in May,“ Theses of the Central Committee on the current political situation, ”notes the historian Yu.M. Felshtinsky. - In the minutes of the meeting of the Central Committee of 18 May Sverdlov in the list of those present in the first place. The meeting of the Central Committee of 19 in May - the complete triumph of Sverdlov. He is entrusted with absolutely all party affairs ... Lenin was given only one assignment at this meeting ... It is not possible to trace the further growth of Sverdlov's influence ... according to the protocols of the Central Committee, since the protocols from May 19 to September 16 of 1918 were not found. Obviously ... because the position of Lenin looked in them in an extremely unfavorable light. About this there is only fragmentary information. Thus, the Central Committee 26 discussed the issue of drafting the Constitution of the RSFSR for approval at the 5th Congress of Soviets. The Central Committee acknowledged the work on the draft preparation unsatisfactory, and Lenin, supported by some other members of the Central Committee, proposed "removing this question from the order of the day of the congress." But "Sverdlov insisted that this question remain." ("Leaders in Law")

3. Strange attempt

There is reason to believe that it was Sverdlov who was involved in organizing the assassination attempt on Lenin 30 August 1918. Then, by his order, Lenin was sent to the Michelson plant without protection. And it looks especially strange, if we consider that before that, in the city of Petrograd, the head of the Cheka there, MS, was killed. Uritzky.

And here is another oddity, Sverdlov ordered to take F. Kaplan, who allegedly fired at the leader, from the prison of the Cheka and to place her in his personal prison, which was under his Kremlin office.

And he gave the order for her execution, although he had no rights to it. Attention is drawn to the haste with which Kaplan was executed. No expert examination (forensic and ballistic) was carried out, no one even thought to question witnesses and victims. In addition, it is very doubtful that Kaplan was the one who shot Lenin, because this woman was almost blind. She simply could not make an accurate shot, while Lenin, after the assassination attempt, asked: “Have they caught him?”. That is precisely "his", and not "her."

So, a man shot at Lenin? And here it is necessary to recall that in the attempt on the leader were involved two Social Revolutionary militants - G. Semenov-Vasilyev and L. Konopleva. In 1921, at the trial that was conducted over the Social Revolutionaries, the authorities officially recognized that it was they who were preparing the attempt on Lenin. And the most piquant is that these individuals have worked in the Cheka since the beginning of 1918. Thanks to their intelligence work, all the work of the combat organization of the Social Revolutionaries was paralyzed. The conclusion suggests itself - the attack against Lenin was organized by the leadership of the Cheka.

By the way, the chairman of the Cheka, Dzerzhinsky was in a very trusting relationship with Sverdlov. "Iron Felix" was ready to fulfill almost any request of Yakov Mikhailovich. When the latter asked to hire his young relative GG Yagoda (the future chairman of the OGPU and the People's Commissar of the NKVD), Dzerzhinsky not only made him an employee of the Cheka, but immediately assigned a new task to the new employee. Berry was instructed to resolve the issue of a certain Lopukhin, who played an important role in exposing the provocateur Azef. Berry decided that he could be released abroad. Lopukhin was released, but he never returned, for which Yagoda was only scolded. At the same time, Dzerzhinsky did not even check the data on Yagoda, who attributed 10 years of party experience to himself, and was an anarchist before 1917.

The tandem of Sverdlov and Dzerzhinsky otter wounded Lenin from power, having done everything so as not to “disturb Lenin” for as long as possible.
The leader confidently went on the amendment and on September 1 took part in the meeting of the Central Committee. It was not included in the plans of the conspirators, and Sverdlov achieved the creation of Lenin’s country residence in the village of Gorki. There he was transported, away from the authorities - “to recover”. Incidentally, it is characteristic that the terror itself began long before the above-mentioned decree of the Council of People's Commissars. He announced himself Sverdlov 2 September 1918 of the year. And already September 3 Petrograd Cheka shot 500 hostages. Thus, Sverdlov clearly demonstrated that he was the master, and not the chairman of SNK Lenin.

4. Taming the zealous

But Lenin, despite his injury, was still on the mend. Ilyich was extremely concerned about the ambitions of his zealous colleague, and besides, he was afraid that his left-wing “experiments” would cause irreparable damage to the Bolsheviks. Relying on other disgruntled people, perhaps even Trotsky, Lenin began to “correct” his comrade-in-arms. So, the 6 of November was officially terminated by the “Red Terror”. In November, by the decision of the VI All-Russian Congress of Soviets, the committees of the poor (combats) hated by most peasants, whose creation began in June-August, that is, at the moment of strengthening Sverdlov’s positions, were abolished. (Kombedy carried out a grandiose redistribution of property in the countryside, depriving the wealthy peasants of 50 millions of dessiatines of land - more than landowners had.) In addition, the “extraordinary revolutionary tax” was abolished. And in January of the following, 1919 introduced a surplus. Now they began to determine at least some kind of ceiling of state requirements, but earlier there were no norms, and the food detachments could take away all the bread from the peasants.

Sverdlov, nevertheless, continued his leftist "bend." They adopted the notorious directive of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee of January 14 of 1919, which ordered "to conduct mass terror against the rich Cossacks, exterminating them all polls; conduct a merciless mass terror against all Cossacks who took any direct or indirect part in the struggle against Soviet power. " So began the storytelling, which cost tens of thousands of lives.

However, Sverdlov did not have long to rule. He did not live to the VIII party congress (March 1919 of the year), dying, according to the official version, from the Spaniard (flu).

There was a steady rumor that angry workers who had beaten Sverdlov during one of the rallies acted as “Spanish”.

And there is a version based on the study stories his illness, according to which Yakov Mikhailovich was treated very “unconventionally”, which in no way contributed to his recovery, rather, on the contrary. And who was behind such an "unconventional" medicine, one can only guess.

At the party congress, Lenin very talentedly portrayed grief and grief over the "departed comrade." But the annoyance of the deceased nevertheless broke through - Vladimir Ilyich told the delegates that Sverdlov had taken on too many party and state concerns.

Then Lenin reduced the importance of the Secretariat, putting his minor figure at the head, E.D. Stasov, who was rigidly subordinated to the Politburo. At the same time, Lenin put the Tver peasant M.I. Kalinin. The center of power finally moved to Sovnarkom.

5. Another terror

Finally, we should not forget about the white terror. Critics of the Soviet government somehow do not like to talk about him, often claiming that this is supposedly an invention of the Reds. However, the leaders themselves and the participants of the White movement recognized that this was the case.

A.I. Denikin in "Outlines of the Russian Troubles" wrote: "There is no peace of mind, - every day - a picture of theft, robbery, violence throughout the territory of the armed forces ... I must say that these agencies (counterintelligence - A. Ye.) Covered the territory of the South with a dense network, were sometimes hotbeds of provocation and organized robbery. Counterintelligence of Kiev, Kharkov, Odessa, Rostov (Don) was especially famous in this respect. ”

But the military minister of the Kolchak government, A.P. Budberg: “The degenerates who arrived from the detachments boasted that during punitive expeditions they had given the Bolsheviks to the Chinese for massacre, after cutting the prisoners' tendons under their knees (“ not to run away ”); they also boast that they buried the Bolsheviks alive, with the bottom of the pit carpeting with the insides released from the burrowed ones ("so that it was softer to lie"). "

By the way, 24 in November 1919 of the Year Special Meeting under Denikin adopted a law under which all those who contributed to the Soviet power were subject to the death penalty "participated in the community, called the Communist Party (Bolsheviks), or other society that established the power of the Soviet of Workers., Sol. and cr. deputies ". “Thus,” the historian Yu.I. notes. Semenov - the death penalty threatened not only all members of the Communist Party, of which there were more than 300 thousand people, but also all workers who participated in the nationalization of factories and factories, etc., were part of trade union organizations, etc., to all the peasants who participated in the division of landed estates and their processing; everyone who served in Soviet organizations, fought as part of the Red Army, etc., i.e. to the majority of the population of Soviet Russia ”(“ The White Case Against the Red Case ”).

It is obvious that the terror (any) of the civil war was and is not so much a manifestation of some kind of evil as a tragedy, reflecting the severity of the contradictions inherent in the country.
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  1. Denis
    Denis 9 September 2013 08: 21 New
    -9
    The Bolsheviks at first behaved quite liberally
    Not long they pretended to be
    1. Ded_smerch
      Ded_smerch 9 September 2013 09: 59 New
      10
      yes, on the other hand, they did nothing, they wanted to cooperate and help, and the damned komunyaki killed from idleness.
    2. alicante11
      alicante11 9 September 2013 10: 15 New
      +6
      They did not pretend, they were just romantics. But they were quickly lowered from heaven to sinful earth.
      The picture is complete nonsense, by the way, and about 20 million, not to mention the "best minds", especially for 1917-1923.
      In general, the "red terrorists" paid in full for their villainy - from comrades Beria and Stalin.
      1. Denis
        Denis 9 September 2013 15: 27 New
        -2
        Quote: alicante11
        They did not pretend, just romance was
        If they are romantics, then they are very bloody. Such a marvelous romanticism with a chainsaw, or rather with a Mauser
        "Red terrorists" paid in full for their villainy - from comrades Beria and Stalin.
        And they did not destroy the fifth column, and their spread rot, of course, because of justice
    3. sdv68
      sdv68 9 September 2013 13: 27 New
      +3
      Swim fine. The numbers are not impressive. Learn about coFALSEnitsyn. Or the "istorega Petrov" with his XNUMX million repressed under Stalin.
      1. FATEMOGAN
        FATEMOGAN 9 September 2013 15: 10 New
        +1
        Quote: sdv68
        You swim fine. The numbers are not impressive. Learn about Solzhenitsyn. Or the "istorega Petrov" with his XNUMX million repressed under Stalin.


        Do not bother everyone, if not for Stalin, then these, Lenin, Sverdlov (Yakov Mikhailovich), Uritsky (Moses Solomonovich), Trotsky (Leiba Davidovich Bronstein) and hedgehog with them, would tear apart and destroy Russia as such.

        1. sdv68
          sdv68 9 September 2013 16: 36 New
          -1
          Quote: FATEMOGAN
          Do not bother everyone, if not for Stalin, then these, Lenin, Sverdlov (Yakov Mikhailovich), Uritsky (Moses Solomonovich), Trotsky (Leiba Davidovich Bronstein) and hedgehog with them, would tear apart and destroy Russia as such.


          It is possible that this is so. But if Lenin were not carried, then the USSR would not exist, and Stalin, as his leader, too.
          1. FATEMOGAN
            FATEMOGAN 9 September 2013 17: 07 New
            +4
            Quote: sdv68
            It is possible that this is so. But if Lenin were not carried, then the USSR would not exist, and Stalin, as his leader, too.


            If not for Lenin and the hedgehog with them, maybe there would have been no Stalin, but there would have been no fratricidal civil war with 10 million victims, the "dispossession" of the Glodomor throughout the south of the country - 7 million victims from Kazakhstan to Ukraine, the destruction of churches, etc. and so on .. If Lenin with his bronsteins won, there would be no Russia and Russians as a single people, so, in my opinion, Stalin appeared in spite of the fate that they were preparing for Russia. Russia was lucky that Stalin appeared, otherwise one does not even want to think what would become of Russia without him, after the color revolution called the October Revolution.

            1. sdv68
              sdv68 9 September 2013 17: 50 New
              +4
              Quote: FATEMOGAN
              If not for Lenin and the hedgehog with them, maybe there would have been no Stalin, but there would have been no fratricidal civil war with 10 million victims, the "dispossession" of the Glodomor throughout the south of the country - 7 million victims from Kazakhstan to Ukraine, the destruction of churches, etc. etc..
              You mix everything together.

              1. The civil war (like terror) was not launched by Lenin, but by those who tried to warm their hands in troubled times.

              2. The dispossession of money began not with Lenin, but with Stalin. And in those years it was quite correct.

              3. Famine (rather than famine) was in the early 30s and in countries where the Bolsheviks never had power. For example, in Poland.http: //za.zubr.in.ua/2009/11/30/3776/
              1932 Polish newspaper "New hour":

              "In the Hutsul region, the number of starving farms reached 88,6% ... In March, about 40 villages of Kosivsky, 12 villages of Naddvirnyansky and 10 - of Kolomia counties went on a full hunger strike ... People swell from starvation and die on the go. Hunger in villages "Redundancies, Old Gvizdtsy, Ostrovitsy. Typhoid and tuberculosis quickly spread with hunger."

              1932 Lviv newspapers report that in the Carpathian region, the population of Western Ukraine lives in terrible poverty. There are villages in the Kalush Voivodeship where entire families die out of hunger. After the ban by the Polish government to engage in woodworking in a lean year, the Hutsuls did not have any means of subsistence. The Polish government did not provide any help to the starving.

              1932 Polish newspaper "Power":

              "In Zdunska Wola, a peasant brought to the fair to sell his 18-year-old son, in order to save the rest of his family from starvation with the proceeds of the money. He asked for him only 50 zlotys."


              It was Lenin who did not allow the Provisional Government to finally tear Russia apart, and with the formation of the USSR, they began to collect the territory of the Republic of Ingushetia back.
              1. FATEMOGAN
                FATEMOGAN 9 September 2013 19: 18 New
                -1
                Quote: sdv68
                . It was not Lenin who started the civil war (like terror), but those who tried to warm their hands in troubled times.


                What kind of company does it have names? Clearly, from your words it turns out that the extermination of the Russian people was going on, and Lenin, as the head, stood in ignorance, on the sidelines. It is clear that a whole clique of Sinoistic Russophobes, led by Lenin and Bronstein, worked there, for a long time the revolution was called the Jewish revolution.

                Quote: sdv68
                2. The dispossession of money began not with Lenin, but with Stalin. And in those years it was quite correct.

                As early as November 8, 1918, at a meeting of delegates to the committees of the poor, Lenin declared a decisive line to eliminate the kulaks: "... if the fist remains untouched, if we do not defeat the world-eaters, then the king and capitalist will inevitably again." [5] By decree of June 11, 1918 committees of the poor were created, which played a large role in the fight against kulaks, led the process of redistributing confiscated land on the ground and distributing confiscated equipment, food surpluses seized from the kulaks. "The great crusade against speculators with bread, fists, world-eaters, ... the last and decisive battle for all fists-exploiters" already marked its beginning. [6] 50 million hectares of kulak land were seized. Speak Stalin began ????

                Quote: sdv68
                3. Famine (rather than famine) was in the early 30s and in countries where the Bolsheviks never had power. For example, in Poland.http: //za.zubr.in.ua/2009/11/30/3776/


                The famine, not famine, because when mothers ate their children in the south of Russia, at that time the grain was intensively exported abroad and this is a fact. And here we see the Polish famine of 30 years, when we talk about the famine in 20 th. The famine in Russia in 1921-1922 (better known as the Famine in the Volga 1921-1922) is a mass famine during the Civil War in Russia in territories controlled by the Bolsheviks. It is known as famine in the Volga region, due to the fact that the regions of the South Urals and Volga region suffered the most long-term and massive. The peak of the famine occurred in the fall of 1921 - the spring of 1922, although cases of mass starvation in certain regions were recorded from the fall of 1920 until the beginning of the summer of 1923. According to official statistics, the famine swept 35 provinces (Volga region, Southern Ukraine, Crimea, Bashkiria, partly Kazakhstan, the Urals and Western Siberia) [1] with a total population of 90 million people, of whom at least 40 million were starving (according to official Soviet data - 28 million [1]).

                The number of victims of hunger was about 5 million people !!!

                And finally, see you.



                1. sdv68
                  sdv68 9 September 2013 21: 32 New
                  +1
                  Quote: FATEMOGAN
                  What kind of company does it have names?
                  There is. I thought you'd guess it yourself. KALchak, Wrangel, Denikin, Yudenich, and the rest of the leaders of the white movement, who betrayed the last Russian tsar in February-March, and after October decided to snatch a "piece of Russia" for themselves.

                  Quote: FATEMOGAN
                  On November 8, 1918, at a meeting of delegates to the committees of the poor, Lenin declared a decisive line to eliminate the kulaks.
                  The "world-eating fist" is not an invention of the Bolsheviks. They earned this nickname even under the tsar. so what are you wondering? They (after the landowners) had the best arable lands, which were nationalized by the "land decree".


                  Quote: FATEMOGAN
                  The famine, not famine, because when mothers ate their children in the south of Russia, at that time the grain was intensively exported abroad and this is a fact.


                  That is, from your words, in Europe (where was the sale of children) there was also a famine? Europeans will be surprised when they hear a loud thought above.

                  As for exports, firstly, google for the "golden blockade", and secondly, look at the real export figures before writing nonsense:

                  1. FATEMOGAN
                    FATEMOGAN 10 September 2013 02: 08 New
                    +2
                    Quote: sdv68
                    There is. I thought you'd guess it yourself. KALchak, Wrangel, Denikin, Yudenich, and the rest of the leaders of the white movement, who betrayed the last Russian tsar in February-March, and after October decided to snatch a "piece of Russia" for themselves.


                    Again Lenin and the hedgehog with him have nothing to do with it, again he is a poor fellow on the sidelines with Parvus, conducts peaceful conversations and whites cut and kill.

                    Quote: sdv68
                    The "world-eating fist" is not an invention of the Bolsheviks. They earned this nickname even under the tsar. so what are you wondering? They (after the landowners) had the best arable lands, which were nationalized by the "land decree".


                    Another cliché, fist-world-eater, well, just train the propaganda campaign on a carbon copy, and nothing that people kept working from dawn to dawn, these were working people, the so-called now middle class, from whom everything was forcibly taken away. Once your comrades will come to you, they will call you with a fist, take away an apartment, a car, money, food, load them into echelons and drive them to Siberia or the Kazakh steppes, let's see what you sing.

                    Quote: sdv68
                    That is, from your words, in Europe (where was the sale of children) there was also a famine? Europeans will be surprised when they hear a loud thought above.


                    It is necessary to have a snack and read to study, where I wrote the sale of children in Europe and their famine ????

                    Quote: FATEMOGAN
                    The famine, not famine, because when mothers ate their children in the south of Russia, at that time the grain was intensively exported abroad and this is a fact. And here we see the Polish famine of 30 years, when we talk about the famine in 20 th. The famine in Russia in 1921-1922 (better known as the Famine in the Volga 1921-1922) is a mass famine during the Civil War in Russia in territories controlled by the Bolsheviks. It is known as famine in the Volga region, due to the fact that the regions of the South Urals and Volga region suffered the most long-term and massive. The peak of the famine occurred in the fall of 1921 - the spring of 1922, although cases of mass starvation in certain regions were recorded from the fall of 1920 until the beginning of the summer of 1923. According to official statistics, the famine swept 35 provinces (Volga region, Southern Ukraine, Crimea, Bashkiria, partly Kazakhstan, the Urals and Western Siberia) [1] with a total population of 90 million people, of whom at least 40 million were starving (according to official Soviet data - 28 million [1]). The number of victims of hunger was about 5 million people !!!


                    Read it again and think it helps.
                    1. FATEMOGAN
                      FATEMOGAN 10 September 2013 02: 09 New
                      -1
                      Quote: sdv68
                      As for exports, firstly, google for the "golden blockade", and secondly, look at the real export figures before writing nonsense:


                      In 1928, harvesting absorbed about 15% of the harvest, in 1930 their share jumped to 26% and continued to grow in subsequent years, reaching 33% in 1931 and 34,1% in 1933. This is the average for the country, in the grain-growing areas, such as some regions of Ukraine or the North Caucasus, the state already confiscated almost half of the crop in 1931-1932 [1], despite the fact that in 1931 a number of grain-producing areas were affected by drought. Grain export abroad in 1931 even increased: 48,4 million centners in 1930 and 51,8 million centners in 1931. In the end, as a result of the annual repeated export of grain from peasant farms, collective farms and state farms during 1930-1932 , the village was left without bread.
                      Or do you think people did not starve and did not die like flies by millons, by chance, while millions of tons of grain went beyond the cordon. what was going on, not from Google, I know firsthand that grandmothers, heaven reigned them, told a lot about what was going on in the Kuban.
                    2. sdv68
                      sdv68 10 September 2013 19: 46 New
                      0
                      Quote: FATEMOGAN
                      It is necessary to have a snack and read to study, where I wrote the sale of children in Europe and their famine ????


                      So I wrote this on this page.

                      1932 Polish newspaper "Strength":

                      "In Zdunska Wola, a peasant brought to the fair to sell his 18-year-old son, in order to save the rest of his family from starvation with the proceeds of the money. He asked for him only 50 zlotys."


                      Nothing that there were then Bolsheviks in Poland.

                      On the topic of hunger. Have you heard about lean years? So 21-22, 32-33 and 46-47 years, which most of all worried about the Soviet regime, were also just lean. That's just "there is a nuance."
                      21-22 - Volga Famine. There is no food surplus. There are no collective farms. NEP is. There is hunger.
                      +32 - Collective farms have not yet earned normally. Millions of victims.

                      Western Ukraine



                      +46 - Post-war crop failure. Collective farms normally coped with their task, which the NEP could not cope with. As a result, the catastrophe of the early 20s and 30s was avoided. The famine was, but went much milder than the previous two.
                2. Kostya pedestrian
                  Kostya pedestrian 10 September 2013 09: 57 New
                  0


                  Such statements are worthy of a person who does not respect both his own and the traditions of his close neighbors. The same thing was taken to me by an incredible stench, then they were eating feces during the blockade and eating corpses. Do you know the history of the monument in Treptow Park in Berlin?

                  But the Zionists are a broad concept, and there is no need to transfer the crime or the behavior of a handful of religious fanatics inherent in any nation to the whole people.

                  Personally, Trotsky, a Jew, returned Russianness to the Russians, and restored our ancient tradition of winning, no matter what - what resulted in the complete defeat of the "victorious" Japanese in the east and the British colonial attempts in the west.

                  And the development of the International in general could change history for both Russians and Europeans; prevent world war 2.

                  So, even under the USSR, in the Bahamas or Gold Coast, we could have rest respected people, and not sit behind the "iron curtain" until the unfinished iron crosses on offshore have improved their health, undermined by our valiant Red Army and Navy "

                  And the most important thing is that the Bolsheviks not only respected science, but also sought to create all the conditions for gifted people, whether it be Russian or Uzbek, despite the signs in the class like under Peter the Great!
      2. Denis
        Denis 9 September 2013 15: 28 New
        0
        Quote: sdv68
        The numbers are not impressive.
        What about the letters?
        With numbers too much, and saying this ... Have you read?
        1. sdv68
          sdv68 9 September 2013 16: 32 New
          0
          Quote: Denis
          What about the letters?
          With numbers too much, and saying this ... Have you read?
          And these "letters" are nothing more than a fake roaming the Internet for a long time. Quite sensibly it is disassembled here http://wiki.istmat.info/the myth: we_must_turn_russia_in_desert
      3. KEKS44
        KEKS44 9 September 2013 16: 14 New
        -2
        Quote: sdv68
        Learn about Solzhenitsyn

        Solzhenitsyn then did not please you?
        1. sdv68
          sdv68 9 September 2013 16: 33 New
          -2
          Solzhenitsyn then did not please you?


          And you see this camp informer turns on. Remind him of his "figures of repression"?
          1. KEKS44
            KEKS44 9 September 2013 21: 15 New
            -2
            I do not know if you are a snitch or not, you know better. But he is a great writer, there would be more of them.
            1. Denis
              Denis 9 September 2013 23: 30 New
              -1
              Quote: KEKS44
              he’s a cool writer, if there were more
              It double-sided!
              Beautifully and competently put together talent phrases, but put the truth into them ...
              It’s more complicated. It was read by Pikul, but are there many stories in those historical novels?
              And Leonid Brezhnev's book "Small Earth" was also written by a very talented person, who would know
              1. KEKS44
                KEKS44 10 September 2013 11: 39 New
                -1
                So each person has his own truth. He, who clambered around the camps and exile and felt on his own skin all the delights of owls. authorities - one, in people like sdv68 - another! After reading his books, I tend to believe what is written.
            2. sdv68
              sdv68 10 September 2013 19: 49 New
              -1
              Quote: KEKS44
              And he’s a cool writer, more of them.


              The writer is just useless. The archipelago barely mastered, so clumsily written. And here LIAR HE IS ACCESSIBLE.
              1. KEKS44
                KEKS44 10 September 2013 20: 37 New
                0
                Ignorant you are first-class, that's for sure!
                1. sdv68
                  sdv68 11 September 2013 10: 26 New
                  -1
                  Quote: KEKS44
                  Ignorant you are first-class, that's for sure!
                  And you feel the exam-Internet education.

                  Solzhenitsyn's press conference in Paris, April 10, 1975

                  - Do you name 50-60 million dead Russians, is it only in the camps, or including military losses?
                  - More than 60 million dead are only internal losses of the USSR. No, not war I mean, internal losses.


                  (Solzhenitsyn A. Journalism. Articles and speeches. Paris, 1989. P. 180 second pagination)
                  1. KEKS44
                    KEKS44 11 September 2013 13: 13 New
                    -1
                    And you feel a strong pet-hardening and one-sided judgment. A sort of activist low-level party member. I learned that the Soviet government is good and everything else is bad. You are not even trying to understand the opposite point of view, such as - I SAID A CAST IRON, MEAN A CAST IRON. You need to be a fool to take these numbers seriously and give them as an example. It must be treated as a writer, and not as a historian. Although, talking with you, that against the wind need to cope.
      4. Denis
        Denis 9 September 2013 16: 25 New
        0
        Quote: sdv68
        Learn about Solzhenitsyn
        The gift, the hotly defended life, really wanted to destroy it
        1. sdv68
          sdv68 9 September 2013 17: 52 New
          -2
          They find fault with spelling when there is nothing more to complain about.
          1. Denis
            Denis 9 September 2013 23: 21 New
            +1
            Quote: sdv68
            They find fault with spelling when there is nothing more to complain about
            To numbers when they cannot read letters
            I'm talking about it
            1. sdv68
              sdv68 10 September 2013 19: 50 New
              -1
              Quote: Denis
              To numbers when they cannot read letters
              I'm talking about it


              Chukchi is not a reader.

              Quote: sdv68
              And these "letters" are nothing more than a fake roaming the Internet for a long time. Quite sensibly it is disassembled here http://wiki.istmat.info/the myth: we_must_turn_russia_in_desert
    4. starshina78
      starshina78 9 September 2013 20: 58 New
      -1
      Every government has the right to defend itself. And she takes advantage of it. You and I live now and do not know anything about what was happening then. Only from Lenin's articles, historical works of scientists, books written by participants in those events on both sides. And everyone interprets it as it is convenient and beneficial to him. We can stick to one author or another and believe him. People of my generation taught history. according to Soviet textbooks, and therefore for us the "red terror" is the response of the Bolsheviks to terror against the Bolsheviks, and that this is correct. Young people who have grown up now will interpret this in their own way. And everyone will be right.
  2. ia-ai00
    ia-ai00 9 September 2013 09: 25 New
    +6
    Yes, now Russia is also led by "the best minds" such as Chubais, Levanov, Mendel ...
    1. KEKS44
      KEKS44 9 September 2013 21: 48 New
      0
      So you lead, maybe you can do better.
  3. TS3sta3
    TS3sta3 9 September 2013 09: 27 New
    -5
    Koenigisser - killed Uritsky, for this murder in August 1918 of the year in Petrograd, 10000 people were shot.
    1. Ded_smerch
      Ded_smerch 9 September 2013 09: 58 New
      +4
      oh just for one kill?
    2. sdv68
      sdv68 9 September 2013 13: 25 New
      0
      Quote: TS3sta3
      for this murder in August 1918 in Petrograd, 10000 people were shot.
      Why not 10 million?
  4. Internal combustion engine
    Internal combustion engine 9 September 2013 09: 46 New
    +7
    What really our ancestors vilify in vain. We ourselves are now not a step away from the sea of ​​bloodshed that Putin’s reforms of introducing capitalism are preparing for us. Sometimes I can’t kill a fly because it’s a pity, but my hand won’t flinch when the massage of fat cats and cats begins. And who will remember then what our grandfathers-great-grandfathers did not do there.
  5. malikszh
    malikszh 9 September 2013 10: 09 New
    +7
    then there was a war, a civil war, they killed and white also killed, during the Second World War, the Germans also killed several civilians for one soldier, and now this will happen in case of war! War is bad people become animals and packs of kills!
  6. creak
    creak 9 September 2013 10: 18 New
    +7
    And in Crimea, after the evacuation of Wrangel’s troops, the employee of Lenin Roza Samuilovna Zalkind (Zemlyachka) distinguished himself in terms of terror and Bela Kun, who fled from Hungary after the defeat of the revolution, who later became a victim of repression ... Although, unfortunately, there were enough stiffness on both sides, like any civil war, be it France, Spain or Russia ...
  7. Letterksi
    Letterksi 9 September 2013 10: 18 New
    +9
    "Got it" with their red and white terror. Instead of a modern consolidation and explanation of the current state of affairs, they use the rotten topics of a century ago to split society into modern reds and whites. How they love to rummage in our old dirty linen!
    1. cumastra1
      cumastra1 9 September 2013 16: 06 New
      +2
      Whoever remembers the old is out of sight, whoever forgets the old is both out. The generation of revolution and counter-revolution lies in the grave, it is necessary to let go of their dead (no matter what murderers, rapists and cannibals they are). But as Bulgakov said "... always remember the social revolution"
    2. bya965
      bya965 9 September 2013 17: 05 New
      +1
      "Got it" with their red and white terror. Instead of modern consolidation and explanation of the current situation ...

      Someone said, "The story told by words is a lie." But I am “Ivan remembering” and I don’t step on the same rake twice. Let me remind you of the pre-Christian RUSSIAN proverb:
      "Whoever remembers the old will have an eye out, and whoever forgets, both!"
  8. Sukharev
    Sukharev 9 September 2013 10: 24 New
    +6
    Do not forget that then it is not now. And that after the First World War and the revolution, people were brutalized. The issues were resolved very simply: there is no person, there is no problem. Tear off the heads ready to kill for the idea was full. I don’t think it could be otherwise. And blaming some specifically of the parties for all sins is a stupid and despicable thing.
  9. Crang
    Crang 9 September 2013 11: 01 New
    +4
    The author - but nothing that the White Terror began before the White ones, i.e. white "gentlemen officers" the first started to scoff at the civilian population as fascists? Why don't you mention it? Or "the winners write history"? You haven't won yet.
    1. tilovaykrisa
      tilovaykrisa 9 September 2013 11: 04 New
      -2
      It is important not who started it first, but who finished it.
  10. bya965
    bya965 9 September 2013 11: 01 New
    +5
    I have many Jewish friends, but I am Russian and the TRUTH is dearer to me.
    One Jew Radomyslsky (Uritsky) was killed by another Jew, Kanegiser. Moreover, Kanegiser was from a wealthy Jewish family. This young student came to the head of the Petrograd Cheka to play chess. It was after one Jew killed another that the Red Terror was declared to the Russian population and my ancestors, Cossacks.
    I apologize if I offended anyone, but I have few relatives left after that. The tail is canine.
  11. revnagan
    revnagan 9 September 2013 11: 05 New
    +1
    To be fair, I’m waiting for an article on white terror. Although there has already been an article on this site, and the number of victims of white terror in it has exceeded the number of victims of red terror by an order of magnitude. Nevertheless, I believe that these two articles should be close to. So it will be fair.
    1. sdv68
      sdv68 9 September 2013 13: 31 New
      0
      Here is a link to an article on white terror http://telegrafua.com/social/12700/
  12. KG_patriot_last
    KG_patriot_last 9 September 2013 11: 48 New
    +1
    The bloodiest wars happen when ideas clash ...
  13. Proud.
    Proud. 9 September 2013 11: 48 New
    +4
    One-sided article: If you describe that period of time (the political and social situation in Russia after two revolutions), then you can’t describe events one-sidedly.1. Not so simpleThat's it. Who was the most zealous?Incorrect question.On September 5, 1918, the Council of People's Commissars issued a decree on the “Red Terror,” which the Soviet government launched allegedly in response to counter-revolutionary terror.What does it mean, “supposedly?” And what happened before September 1918? Was there no execution by the cadets of 300 people of the 56th reserve regiment? October 28, 1917, in the Kremlin? Or there was no Rogovsky, with his Ministry of State Order Protection? Or did they not cooperate White generals with the Germans who invaded the Ukraine and the Crimea? With the Turks in Transcaucasia. With the British and French in Murmansk and Arkhangelsk. With the Japanese and Americans, in the Far East. The Kolchak behind the Ural stone, probably still frighten children. " they went to power in order to hang, but they had to hang in order to come to power "... - Kornilov's words. “It would be a mistake to think that throughout this year (1918) we fought on the fronts for the cause of the Russians hostile to the Bolsheviks. On the contrary, the Russian White Guards fought for OUR cause,” Winston Churchill later wrote. Such articles are provocative. To achieve civil reconciliation, real, we must stop blaming everything on one force. There was a terrible Civil War. Yes, it was. Everything. Point.
  14. Drosselmeyer
    Drosselmeyer 9 September 2013 12: 49 New
    +2
    I thought it would be an interesting article, but it turned out to be a collection of rumors of perestroika overgrown with moss. And yes, referring to the so-called "historian" R. Conquest, in our time bad manners. 50 million people died in him and in the Gulag. If you don't know the topic, then it's better not to write at all.
  15. The comment was deleted.
  16. sdv68
    sdv68 9 September 2013 13: 23 New
    +2
    Comparison of the number of victims of red and white terror speaks for itself.

    First, let's see what the cost of the Red Terror cost Russia - http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krasniy_terror

    According to Robert Conquest, total judgments of the Revolutionary Tribunals and extra-judicial meetings of the Cheka in 1917-1922. 140 thousand people were shot.

    The researcher of the history of the Cheka, O. B. Mozokhin, based on archival data, criticized this figure. According to him, “With all the reservations and exaggerations, the number of victims of the Cheka’s organs can be estimated at no more than 50 thousand people”. Also, based on a study of the minutes of meetings of the Extraordinary Commissions, he noted that sentences of capital punishment were the exception rather than the rule, with the majority of those executed being executed for ordinary crimes


    Those. the total number of victims of red terror is calculated in numbers from 50 to 140 thousand people

    Now consider the results of the White Terror - http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Terror_(Russia)

    According to the liberal historian V.V. Erlikhman from the "white terror" about 300 thousand people died. This number includes victims of extrajudicial killings of the white forces and governments (approximately 111 thousand people), as well as the victims of foreign invaders and interventionists and the victims of national border regimes that arose as a result of the collapse of the Russian Empire


    As you can see, the data is from a completely liberal wiki.

    Total we have from 50 to 140 thousand - red terror, and about 300 thousand white.

    How do I speak? NoComments
    1. creak
      creak 9 September 2013 15: 45 New
      +1
      No archival data will ever give a complete picture of what was happening in the country during the Civil War, especially in the vast expanses of Siberia and the Far East where, along with regular troops, both small atamans and large ones — Semenov, Annenkov, Ungern, partisan detachments are white and red and simply of an incomprehensible orientation. For today, historians cannot come to a consensus on the total number of victims of the civil war, so any data is estimated ...
      1. sdv68
        sdv68 9 September 2013 16: 40 New
        0
        You are confusing the red terror declared 95 years ago (for which the Cheka was responsible) with a gangster outbreak on the ground.
  17. sdv68
    sdv68 9 September 2013 13: 35 New
    -1
    By the way. On the theme of White Terror, the famous ELEPHANT was recalled - http://stepanov-karel.livejournal.com/186076.html

    The result of the activities of the real founders of the Solovetsky camp: "According to incomplete estimates of researchers of the civil war in the North, about 52000 people passed through prisons, concentration camps and hard labor, that is, up to 11% of the total population. According to official data from the authorities, about 4000 people were executed by military courts." (Golub P. "White" terror in the North of Russia).
  18. Committee
    Committee 9 September 2013 13: 37 New
    +2
    And Yevgeny Roizman "won" the election of the mayor of Yekaterinburg. Why "won" in quotes? Because 30% of the townspeople voted, and 70% ignored this "game" of democracy.
  19. Forest
    Forest 9 September 2013 14: 46 New
    +1
    “During the years of Trotskyist leaderism, a rampant of lawlessness, cruelty and inhumanity unfolded in the country, which was officially called the“ Red terror. ” mass arrests and general executions. "
  20. Denga
    Denga 9 September 2013 15: 29 New
    0
    Something the topic of "crunching of French rolls" and "Russia that we have lost" has not been disclosed, and how many hundreds of millions of people were eaten and killed by the Bolsheviks.
  21. serge
    serge 9 September 2013 17: 26 New
    0
    To assess the size of the "red", or rather the Jewish terror, the easiest way is to turn to statistics, they exist.
    The population of the Russian Empire in 1917 was 163 million people.
    The population of our country in 1922 is 136 million people.
    Total simple number of losses of the Russian population during the genocide - 27 million people.
    Given that someone is still from 1917 to 1922. born, real losses are much greater.
    The Russian intelligentsia and the educated class as a whole were almost completely destroyed.
    The Russian ruling class was completely destroyed - the aristocracy, landowners, large property owners. The prosperous stratum of the peasantry was completely destroyed. In fact, only the peasantry and the Jewish ruling elite remained in the country, replacing the destroyed Russian. In 1937-1939. after the Stalinist "coup" this elite was cleaned up, and by the Brezhnev years there was one overt or hidden Jew for every Russian in the ruling apparatus, but in the 90s the Jews completely seized power again with the help of mass information technologies, and genocide began again, but already creeping, no mass murder. Jews have mastered the new technology of genocide, and in 20 years the Russian population has decreased by 10 million people without war.
    The conclusion is clear - for the Russian people to live, the power in Russia must become Russian.
    1. fklj
      fklj 9 September 2013 17: 52 New
      +2
      Well, again, facts and fictions were mixed into a bunch. You can’t be so clear. History is an exact science. hi

      And with the last sentence I agree to all 100
    2. Proud.
      Proud. 9 September 2013 19: 19 New
      +1
      Quote: serge
      Total simple number of losses of the Russian population during the genocide - 27 million people. Given that someone is still from 1917 to 1922. born, real losses are much greater.

      It is worth considering the decline in fertility (in the light of the events), natural mortality, mortality from diseases. Emigration (1918-1922), according to various estimates from 1,5 to 3 million people. Loss of territories (was it taken into account?), Included up to 17 years to the Russian Empire - Finland, Poland, the Baltic States. Losses from intervention. In total, there were more than a million invaders in Russia - 280 thousand Austro-German bayonets and about 850 thousand British, American, French and Japanese. I repeat, the leaders of "White movement ", they invited them. The lost, killed, tortured in concentration camps, who died from wounds, hunger and epidemics, about 8 million. There were also material, from their activities, according to experts, 50 billion gold rubles.
  22. Mite27
    Mite27 9 September 2013 19: 27 New
    -1
    Given the current situation of the country, and at that time it was much worse, it would have been impossible to put things in order in the country otherwise, it would have been impossible. Stalin simply politicized economic thefts as crimes against the state, and the mess was incredible.
  23. grafrozow
    grafrozow 9 September 2013 19: 41 New
    0
    Red terror, white ... we won’t know the exact numbers, but after the reign of the Communists there was little left of the Russian Empire. Grandfather Lenin took revenge on his brother.
  24. Black
    Black 9 September 2013 20: 38 New
    -1
    Quote: serge
    To assess the size of the "red", or rather Jewish terror

    This is the key point! The Red Terror is the terror of world Zionism in an Orthodox country. Priests, intelligentsia, Cossacks, peasantry - pillars of faith, morality, memory were rooted out. and no revolutionary romance! - everything is clear and thought out.
    Nobody has ever brought more trouble to the Motherland, how much they were caused by the feeding ups of world Zionism and petty British imperialism.
  25. yuriy_dashkin
    yuriy_dashkin 9 September 2013 20: 39 New
    +5
    The article is clearly provocative, designed for "srach" along the white-red line .... Actually, it (the article) fulfilled its task - the srach happened. Just take the title of this opus - "The Red Terror .... the most tragic periods in Russian history." And where is the white terror in the title, which is mentioned in passing at the very end of the article? And, by the way, note that it becomes clear from the article that the Reds were just shooting, and such exotic things as “they buried the Bolsheviks alive, with a carved bottom of the pit with entrails released from the buried ones (“ to lie softer ”).” but the Bolsheviks look better even after reading this article.
  26. GUSAR
    GUSAR 9 September 2013 21: 16 New
    0
    When will he be buried?
  27. Black
    Black 9 September 2013 22: 09 New
    +1
    Quote: yuriy_dashkin
    Actually, she (the article) completed her task - the srach occurred


    I do not think that "Wed ..." is the super task of the article.
    No matter how much we return to the topic of the tragedy of the 20-30s, we will argue and fight to the point of full-blood dispute.
    Why7- because the Bolsheviks caterpillars swept through the memory of the people.
    and divided the people in such a way that no one succeeded.
    1. yuriy_dashkin
      yuriy_dashkin 9 September 2013 22: 46 New
      0
      And why, in fact, do we remember only the Bolsheviks with such an evil word? The Bolsheviks saved (albeit not by the most humane methods) Russia after the liberal "leaders" of the Provisional Government, after the Civil War, when the "whites" happily walked alongside the invaders (Americans, British, Japanese, etc.). It should be borne in mind that among the Bolshevik elite there were no people who had real experience in governing the state ... It seems to me that it is necessary, in the end, for people who are not indifferent to our common homeland to say to each other "forgive" and remember that this is our Motherland, this is our history, this is our life ...
  28. Denga
    Denga 10 September 2013 00: 31 New
    +1
    Quote: serge
    To assess the size of the "red", or rather the Jewish terror, the easiest way is to turn to statistics, they exist.

    Popular fun, which has long become a tradition, is to blame the Jews for all their troubles. I even remembered the old joke "If there is no water in the tap - the Jews drank the water. If there is water in the tap - So, the Jew pushed there" The rudeness of the tsars can not be discussed, because there is a lot of European blood mixed, Stalin, for example, was not a Slav, but a Caucasian, this did not stop him from building a superpower, Gorbachev was Russian from Stavropol, and Yeltsin was also Russian, but from the Urals. After Stalin's death, only a military jacket remained, after Yeltsin's death all the grandchildren with multimillion-dollar bills abroad. From this we can conclude that it is not so much the Russianness of the ruler that is important, but the love for his country and for the people of which he lives in it.
    And about the so-called red, or as some call it the "Jewish" revolution, then revolutions do not occur from scratch. Many of you who are on the Internet do not even want to go to the army. Under the tsar, people were forced to fight for interests that were incomprehensible to the common people. Now there is medical and social assistance, it was not under the tsar. Got a disability in a war or at a factory - free in all four directions. The tsar and the officials were more concerned with their own problems, whose common people they considered to be the rabble, they did not deign special attention. Therefore, workers' demonstrations were often simply shot. and when all these events reached critical mass, it all exploded. Despite the greater number of victims, we can say that they got off with little blood, for comparison, during the French Revolution, a third of the population of France died.
    And about the Russian intelligentsia and the military, many of them went over to the Reds. Others emigrated, and some of the emigrants came to Russian soil along with foreign invaders. Russia in the 20th century had a hard way and it withstood it with honor.
    1. Denis
      Denis 10 September 2013 00: 56 New
      0
      Quote: Denga
      Many of you who are in the internet do not even want to join the army
      In vain, the majority was, and who still
      And how about the sun?
      Got disability in war or at the factory - free on all four sides
      But facts or just rumors
      It now has medical and social assistance.
      That is generally nonsense, in them, those aids, you can already drown from affection
      Do not look at the editorials of newspapers, they lie there, do not believe them, baby
      true, she is nearby and around
  29. PKKA_BEPMAXT
    PKKA_BEPMAXT 21 September 2013 23: 33 New
    0
    Yard of the Kharkov gupchek (Sadovaya St., 5) with the conscious