Military Review

American experienced tank XM803 (1971 year)

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In the mid-1960s, the United States, together with Germany, designed a promising new main battle tank MBT-70. The new machine was supposed to replace the M60 tank and surpass the T-64 in service with the USSR. MBT-70 embodied quite a lot of original technical solutions for that time. The tank turned out to be relatively successful but had one very significant drawback - the high cost. In this regard, in September 1969, the US Department of Defense revised its attitude to this program, and on January 20, 1970 the project was discontinued. Both the US and Germany continued independent work on the main combat a tank - American XM803 and German Leopard II.




In the United States, after completing work on the MBT-70 in 1970, the army proposed that the US Congress military committee allocate funds to continue work on the next generation tank. As a basis, it was proposed to use MBT-70. The “simplified” version was assigned the XM803 index. Since the main reason for abandoning the MBT-70 project was the high cost of the vehicle, the main efforts were aimed at simplifying and cheapening the new tank.

In the tank XM803 was saved layout MBT-70. The front compartment of the tank served to accommodate the fuel tank, separated by an airtight armored barrier from the combat compartment. In the tank there was no separate department of management, the driver, like other crew members, was located in the tank turret. In this case, the driver had a separate rotating capsule inside the tower. Rear engine compartment located.

The hull and the hull tower largely repeated the MBT-70. Since the entire crew was located in the tower, it was quite large. The tower had a cylindrical closed basket, which in fact was a fighting compartment. In the XM803 tank, as in its predecessor, there were no habitable compartments outside the turret basket. Tower XM803 tank had some differences. For example, due to the fact that the command transmitter for anti-tank guided missiles was moved from the left side of the turret to the gun mask, the number of different grooves decreased, which simplified its design and reduced the cost of manufacturing the turret.



The main weapon of the XM803 tank was a XM150 E6 rifled tank gun of the 152 mm caliber, which was also the launcher for the Shillelagh guided missile system. The gun was stabilized in two planes and equipped with an automatic loader. To improve the reliability of the automatic loader improved the company "General Motors". With the main gun was paired machine gun M73 caliber 7,62 mm. Gun ammunition was 50 shots, machine gun - 6000 ammunition. On the left, on the tower of the MBT-70 tank, there was a remote-controlled retractable 20-mm gun. However, to make the XM803 cheaper, the Americans replaced this gun with a 12,7-mm M85 machine gun with a remote control mounted on a thumbnail carriage. The ammunition of the machine gun M85 was 900 ammunition.

The tank was equipped with a fire control system with a laser range finder, an electronic ballistic computer, and atmospheric sensors. They were able to reduce the total cost of the tank, including by combining the commander of the day and night sights into one in the panoramic sight (the construction is simpler and the cost is lower).

On the XM803 was installed 12-cylinder V-shaped diesel Continental AVCR-1100-3 with turbocharging. The engine at 2800 revolutions per minute gave out the power of the 1475 hp, but for greater reliability it was lowered to 1250 hp. The transmission and hydropneumatic suspension with variable ground clearance remained virtually unchanged, the only thing that the suspension lost one of the hydraulic shock absorbers to facilitate maintenance and reduce the cost.




But, despite all the efforts of the designers, the cost of the main battle tank XM803 dropped by only 100 thousand dollars. After long debates in November 1971, the committee submitted to Congress a proposal to stop financing the XM803 project. The main arguments were again unreasonably great complexity and high cost of the tank. The proposal of the military committee Congress supported. At the same time, during the discussion of this issue, it was recognized that it was necessary to continue work with a view to replacing the M1980 tank in the 60s. The final decision on the minimization of work on XM803 was taken in 1972 year.

Despite the fact that only one main battle tank XM803 was built and tested, the developments on it were used when creating the main battle tank M1 Abrams.

Performance characteristics:
Crew - 3 person;
Combat weight - 51,6 t;
Length with a gun forward - 9385 mm;
Body length - 6832 mm;
Case width - 3696 mm;
The height of the anti-aircraft machine gun - 3244 mm;
Clearance - changeable from 150 to 635 mm;
Type of armor - aluminum and steel cast and rolled, protivosnaryadnaya, exploded;
Armament:
XM150E6 gun caliber 152 mm, ammunition - 50 shots;
Twin machine gun M73 caliber 7,62 mm, ammunition - 6000 cartridges;
M85 anti-aircraft machine gun caliber 12,7 mm, ammunition - 900 cartridges;
Scopes stabilized daytime, active night periscopic, laser range finder;
Engine - AVCR-1100-3 diesel 12-cylinder, V-shaped, with turbocharging;
Engine power - 1475 l. with. (reduced to 1250 hp);
Specific power - 28,6 l. s./t;
Suspension type - hydropneumatic individual
Ground pressure is 0,91 kg / cm;
Overcoming rise - 30 grad .;
Breakable wall - 1,09 m;
Overcoming ditch - 2,80 m;
Overcoming ford:
with preparation - 2,2 m;
with OPVT - 4,88 m.

Prepared by materials
http://raigap.livejournal.com
http://www.dogswar.ru
http://armoredgun.org
http://rove.biz
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11 comments
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  1. The comment was deleted.
  2. Kars
    Kars 9 September 2013 09: 34 New
    +2
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    1. Kars
      Kars 9 September 2013 09: 35 New
      +1
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    2. Kars
      Kars 9 September 2013 09: 37 New
      +1
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      1. loft79
        loft79 9 September 2013 09: 46 New
        +1
        Greetings to Kars.
        A question. You do not accidentally have a diagram of a tower "basket", otherwise you are very interested
        separate rotating driver capsule inside the tower.
        1. Kars
          Kars 9 September 2013 09: 59 New
          +1
          Is that so.
          The layout of the XM803 turret appears at the upper right and the turret
          armor assembly is depicted at the lower right. Below is a drawing
          of the turret basket


          And the question is - was the first photo in the article this morning?
          1. loft79
            loft79 9 September 2013 10: 19 New
            0
            Quote: Kars
            Is that so.

            Not a very clear diagram (. How did the driver function there? Controls, observation devices? In theory, the basket rotates with the turret, therefore the driver's capsule should also rotate while remaining "directed" along the axis of the tank's movement. Something like this. Maybe you know?

            Quote: Kars
            And the question is - was the first photo in the article this morning?

            I don’t know. I recently looked here.
            1. Kars
              Kars 9 September 2013 11: 36 New
              +1
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            2. Kars
              Kars 9 September 2013 11: 39 New
              +2
              The driver's station in the XM803 can be seen above and at the right.
              Note the ammunition stowed behind the driver's seat in the latter view.
              1. loft79
                loft79 9 September 2013 12: 37 New
                +1
                Thanks for the circuit. hi
                I also unearthed something.
                http://www.fprado.com/armorsite/mbt_70.htm
                "Instead he was placed with the rest of the crew in the seemingly oversized turret, in a contra rotating cupola that was geared to keep him facing forward."

                The driver’s capsule did rotate in the opposite direction to the tower to be oriented in the direction of travel. It could also be oriented backward when reversing.

                True, not the XM803 but the MBT-70, but the essence is one.
            3. ulyakinmariupol
              9 September 2013 12: 28 New
              0
              The driver's capsule was the same as on the MBT-70
    3. Kars
      Kars 9 September 2013 09: 37 New
      +1
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  3. NOMADE
    NOMADE 9 September 2013 10: 11 New
    +3
    Interesting article! I did not know about this tank. 152 mm gun (as far as I understand, and rifled), sooo impressed! Interestingly, the charges are unitary or separate? Ammunition - 50 pcs., Impressive for this caliber. The very idea and advantages of placing a crew in a tower are not entirely clear .., but it is interesting to hear the opinions of specialists. Judging by the size, the tank turned out to be compact. according to ideas and booking should be up to standard! At first glance, this tank looks more successful than Abrams.
    1. Max otto
      Max otto 9 September 2013 11: 07 New
      +1
      Quote: NOMADE
      The very idea and advantages of placing a crew in a tower are not entirely clear ..,

      I'm really not an expert, but placing a driver in a tower dramatically increases his chances of survival in case of damage to the tank, isn’t it? And then in his present chances to get out of the tank the least, especially on the Soviet T-64, without the help of the crew from the tower, if it is impossible to open his hatch, he is doomed.
      1. NOMADE
        NOMADE 9 September 2013 16: 25 New
        +1
        Quote: Max Otto
        Quote: NOMADE
        The very idea and advantages of placing a crew in a tower are not entirely clear ..,

        I'm really not an expert, but placing a driver in a tower dramatically increases his chances of survival in case of damage to the tank, isn’t it? And then in his present chances to get out of the tank the least, especially on the Soviet T-64, without the help of the crew from the tower, if it is impossible to open his hatch, he is doomed.

        thanks for the information, heard about it, but still! :-) I wonder what are the ballistic characteristics of the gun? a fairly thin barrel wall is visible in the photograph, which hints at a low initial velocity of the projectile, as well a relatively small barrel length .., as a result, the gun is closer to the howitzer. But this is a personal opinion, I can be very mistaken, although this tank is very attractive and interesting!
  4. sub307
    sub307 9 September 2013 11: 17 New
    0
    Curious car.
  5. nightingale
    nightingale 9 September 2013 11: 31 New
    0
    yes ... amers tried all the layout options with a round tower before coming to the abrash. I wonder why they abandoned her.
  6. _KM_
    _KM_ 9 September 2013 11: 31 New
    0
    How much I watch stories about creating cheaper equipment - everything ends the same way. As a result, a machine or weapon system is created that is more expensive than the original version.
  7. Denga
    Denga 9 September 2013 15: 41 New
    0
    I would like to believe that our Armata will not differ for the worse from the T-95, like the XM803 from the M1A1.
  8. dvvv
    dvvv 9 September 2013 17: 40 New
    0
    Quote: Denga
    I would like to believe that our Armata will not differ for the worse from the T-95, like the XM803 from the M1A1.

    - will be ... not even trying to discuss ...