In the suppression of the uprising and the destruction of the Warsaw Jewish ghetto in 1943, Soviet collaborators also took part - the so-called. "Herbalists". The one on the far right is the herbalist. He has a “SD” badge, an old black SS uniform of the 1932 sample of the year and uncharacteristic for Germans from the SS shoulder straps of Ober Wahman. In the background a Polish firefighter
The head of the SS, Heinrich Himmler, visited the occupied Minsk in the 1941 year of August in order to check the implementation of the “new European order”. After talking with the brigadeführer Arthur Nebe, the commander of the Einzatzgruppa group “B”, the guest was offered a chance to have a good time “Teutonic”. Himmler had never seen mass executions before - for the dear guest they decided specifically to arrange such a spectacle the next morning.
In the morning, in the presence of the General of the Police, fon-dem Bach-Zalevsky, the couple left the city, where a mass execution took place (one source mentions hundreds of Jews, the other about Soviet prisoners of war, but this is not important). As the pit filled the corpses, Himmler felt bad and vomited ...! Bach-Zalevsky noticed this and sympathetically said that the firing squad, these executioners are also shocked by this sight, they say, this hard work. “Look into the eyes of these people. They have no nerves for the rest of their lives. We grow neurotics and barbarians here! ” Himmler addressed the executioners with a patriotic speech, and promised the commanders to think about the problem.
The problem was solved in two ways. First, gas began to be used in mass killings; now the executioner should not have shot directly at his victim. Secondly, so that people with valuable "Aryan blood" still did not spoil their nerves, Soviet collaborators could be attracted to the dirty work. For the first time, this was demonstrated by the Ukrainian “Western” nationalists, who staged a bloody massacre in the captured Lviv in 1941 year. Then in the mass Jewish pogroms the Balts distinguished themselves, wishing to curry favor with the new masters.
The course of the war showed that police units from Soviet collaborators can be used both for executions and for the protection of concentration camps. True, there were often nakhodochki ... For example, 152 th "Schutzmannschaft-Bataillone" ("Battalion of auxiliary police order"), consisting of the Crimean Tatars, from January 1943, guarded the concentration camp, located on the territory of the state farm "Red", where for 2,5 occupation 8 was destroyed thousands of inhabitants of the Crimea. Former prisoners of war, Senior Lieutenant of the Red Army V. Fayner recalled: “The mockery of prisoners of war ... had no limit. The Tatars volunteers forced (some prisoner of war) to point out that they were Jews, then ... betrayed the unfortunate, for which they received 100 marks. ” On the face of obvious lack of professionalism, bordering on the direct deception of the Germans.
"Travnik" in the rank of Ober-Wahman. Many cadets were all boys. Killing them was fun ...
For the protection of the concentration camps, however, collaborators were needed not only faithful, reliable, but also trained in escorting, shooting, recruiting informants and capos (supervisors without weapons from prisoners). The candidate had to be mentally balanced enough not to shoot himself during the service. And careful. After all, it was necessary not only to destroy the prisoner - it was necessary to get the maximum benefit from his death! So, only from Auschwitz for 6 weeks in Germany 222269 men's suits and underwear sets, 192652 sets of women's clothing, 99922 sets of children's clothes were distributed. More hair went on soft slippers for the crews of submarines, gold teeth were melted into ingots and handed over to the Reichsbank at the expense of the SS, glasses for new glasses for the Germans. These were very necessary people in the German “new European order” system. It was necessary to educate personnel ...
"Forge" elite protection
In the marvelous place of Travniki in 30 km from the city of Lublin in the territory of the former sugar factory, a specialized institution was sheltered, which trained professional supervisors from former citizens of the Soviet Union, mainly Ukrainians, to protect the Nazi concentration camps. The office was called SS Travniki Training Camp (Ubungslager SS Travniki).
Oriental pupils, trained guards in the craft, were called “herbalists” (trawniki-maenner), “askari” (askari) (“Askari” - soldiers of the auxiliary colonial troops of the German Empire at the end of the nineteenth and early XX centuries) or “guards” (wachmanner). Ukrainians "herbalists" were called in German "ukrainischen SS-Mannern".
The camp began operations in July 1941, initially as a camp for Soviet prisoners of war and civilians. The head of this camp was the Hauptsturmführer SS (captain) Hermann Höfle (Ho “fle). As of July 1941, there were 676 Soviet prisoners in the camp.
From September 1941 of the year to July 1944 of the year, until the very end of the German occupation, the camp was used as a training base for guards from Soviet collaborators. By the autumn of 1942, the remnants of Soviet prisoners died of starvation, but from June 1942 of the year until September of 1943, a training camp for Jews was established at the training camp. Here, the Jews worked for the benefit of German weapons, the inefficient were quickly sent to death camps. From September 1943, the labor camp in Travniki became a subcamp (branch office) at the Majdanek death camp.
So, in September 1941, the first set of “herbalist” guards from Soviet prisoners of war from the camp itself began. On October 27 SS Hauptsturmführer Karl Streibel (Streibel) became the head of the camp.
The camp was organized by the Inspectorate of concentration camps and guards (Inspekteur der Konzentrationslager und Wachverbaende), subordinated to SS Reisführer, the one who had been torn from the execution, and later the Inspectorate entered the SS Central Administrative Office (SS-WVHA). The guards themselves were not full eSeSovtsami, but only consisted in the service of the SD and the protection of the German concentration camps "Dead Head".
The training camp was located in several large brick one-story buildings. From September 1941 to September 1942 was trained around 2500 guards, most of whom were Soviet prisoners of war. They signed the pledge: "We, the military prisoners, voluntarily join the German SS units to protect the interests of Great Germany."
Soon, however, all the other prisoners of war, who had not become the Germans' servants, died of exhaustion, and the Jews began to arrive in the camp. Then, in the fall of 1942, volunteers began recruiting to train the hard craft of guards.
Volunteers were mostly young Ukrainians and came mainly from the western regions of Ukraine - Galicia, Volyn and Podolsk regions, as well as Lublin (also Ukrainians). In September, 1943, the SS, Gruppenführer SS Odilo Globocnik (head of the SS and the police in Lublin) reported on the 3700 “herbalist” guards trained in the camp. However, there is information about more 4750 identification numbers for guards from the Travniki camp, released at the same time. 1941-1944 total 5082 herbalists were trained.
In addition to "Ukrainian-zapadentsev" volunteers were Russian, Belarusians, Baltic and "Turkestan" volunteers. According to the source in Travniki, the citizens of the former Yugoslavia - Slovenes and Croats also studied. In any case, in 1943, Globocnik received permission from Himmler to recruit Russians. Although, again, we emphasize that the majority were just "Ukrainians". For volunteers who decided to faithfully serve the "new European order", the oath was like eSeSovskoy, ie They "fought" solely for the welfare of the Reich, not their nations.
Lithuanians from the disbanded 2 of the Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft-Bataillone (“Battalion of auxiliary order police”) can be considered a major replenishment. Part of the police of this battalion, after a bloody operation in Belarus in October 1941 - March 1942, arrived at concentration camp guards in April 1942, while others wished to serve in the Lublin area without special training.
The training camp consisted of two battalions under the command of the Germans: Untersturmführer SS (Lieutenant) Willi Franz and Obersturmführer SS (Ober Lieutenant) Johann Schwarzenbacher and Noncommissioned School Officer. The security guard training course lasted for about half a year and included the study of escorting and guarding of prisoners, physical training, and shooting. "Herbalists" had four titles of wachman, oberwachman, zugwachman, rotenwachman. The insignia was different from the SS - pure shoulder strap, one, two, three tags. The commander of the “herbalists” commanded the platoon, and the company was already German, for reliability.
The uniform of the "valuable workers" was, however, not so good. From the interrogation of Nikolai Malagon (one of the “herbalists”) from 18.03.1978: “At first we wore our own clothes, then we were given a Belgian uniform, later we were all given a special uniform: a black suit — pants and tunic, a black coat with a gray collar and cuffs, and black caps. We also got cockades with a skull and crossbones. ”
This refers to the form of the so-called. The “common SSs” of the 1932 model of the year are black uniforms (under which they wore a shirt and tie), which were no longer worn in the 1938 year and were transferred to the parade section. After the start of the war, it was generally decided to get rid of this formal black uniform, since she was supposedly “carried by rear rats”. Unnecessary form went on uniforms of various collaborators carrying police functions. For the “herbalists,” German symbolism was ripped off, the collar and cuffs were trimmed with a light green or light blue edging, and shoulder straps were applied to the title. Sometimes they were dressed in a gray SS field uniform.
In 1942, the camp in Travniki became a transit camp for Jews on their way to the death camps. The “herbalists” guards “filled their hands with this” - they began to train in the actions of relocating Jews from the Polish ghettos and ghettos in the western part of the USSR to the Polish death camps. In April 1942, the “herbalists” made a “selection” in the Sands ghetto (6 miles from Travniki) and escorted Polish, German and Austrian Jews doomed to death, who were no longer able to work in their transshipment camp in Travniki. Those doomed to death were locked in a barn for the night - by morning, she died of suffocation from 200 to 500 Jews. For reporting, their corpses were thrown into trucks and sent to Belzec, as well as the living. Throughout 1942, the Nazis eliminated Jewish ghettos during Operation Reinhard, deported Jews to death camps, and used herbalists. They were noted in the ghetto in Warsaw, Lublin, Lviv, Radom, Krakow, Bialystok, Chestochowa (Czestochowa).
Service certificate "herbalist" ...
... the nationality of "russe", although the surname (partially crossed out) ends in the Ukrainian manner. Note the date of birth - in 1942-1943 years. he was barely still 30 years old ...
In the summer of 1942, a Jewish labor camp was established at the Travniki training camp. It was adjacent to the training, they were separated only by a stone wall that surrounded the training camp, located on the territory of the former sugar factory. Small groups of Jews were exterminated for the purpose of training beginners. Also during the deportations and escorts, the German instructors demanded that the herbalists begin to kill single Jews, that is, they were "bound by blood." What a "herbalist" who personally did not kill the Jew!
Globocnik worried about the welfare of the Reich, so he was a thrifty master. In Travniki, beyond the fence of the training camp, a large transshipment warehouse of clothes of already killed Jews was arranged. Affected frugality of the Germans. These clothes, with a smell, dirty, torn, stained with excrement, the Jews were removed in the extermination camps before his death. From there, she was taken by trucks to the Travniki warehouse. In June 1942, special 20-40 Jews were selected from the Travniki labor camp for sorting, washing, and repairing the clothes of the deceased.
October 9 1942, Himmler ordered the elimination of all the ghettos and, for greater efficiency, to transfer production from them together with Jewish workers to labor camps. In the autumn of 1942, the production in the Miedzyrzec-Podlaski ghetto was eliminated, and the workers were transferred to the Travniki labor camp. 8 February 1943 of the Year Globocnik signed a contract with Fritz Emil from FW Schultz und Co. The firm "Schulz and Co" produced mattresses, mattresses and fur products, as well as repaired boots and soldiers' uniforms.
According to the draft contract “Schulz and Co”, the production would have had to be 4000 Jews in fur production and another 1500 in the production of brushes, which were supposed to come from the Warsaw ghetto to Travniki together with the equipment. Streibel was the main manager - he organized labor, distributed labor, received money for work (PLN 5 per man per day and 4 for a woman). Everyday, however, this work was done by the SS Hauptscharführer (Chief Feldwebel SS troops) Franz Bartezko or his deputy Sturmscharführer SS (Staff Feldwebel SS troops) Josef Napiralla (Josef Napieralla).
“Herbalists” in Treblinka. From the bottom, in the middle, sits a German in the rank of a Scharführer SS (Unter-Feldwebel) from the guard of SS concentration camps “Dead Head”, standing on the left “herbalist” in the rank of Ober-Wahman, the other two are zugwachmans
At the beginning of the SS, Jewish workers from the Warsaw ghetto at the Schults and Co enterprise in Travniki recruited messages and threats. However, even under the threat of being killed, the entire 448 Jews who were brought in on April 14 vehicles went to work. During the liquidation of the ghetto between February 15 and 30 on April, 17 men, 2848 women and 2397 children were delivered by force on 388 major railways and vehicles. On 1 May 5633 was a Jew in this labor camp. Two more major vehicles arrived from the Minsk ghetto after its liquidation in November 1943. In total, in the Schultz and Co concern in Travniki, on May 1943, 6000 Jews worked until the liquidation of the labor camp in November.
To improve productivity, Bartezko initially initiated relatively decent living conditions at the Travniki labor camp. He allowed illegal trade in food and alcohol, the formation of a music group by Jews and sometimes even a game of football !!! By winter, workers were given warm clothes. All this contributed, in the Germans' opinion, to better performance and, accordingly, brought the Reich victory closer.
However, for an attempt to escape, he was shot dead on the spot; the corpses were not cleaned for intimidation during 24 hours. Stealing raw materials or products for German companies flogged 25 lashes. Often, violators were transferred to another labor camp in Dorohucza, two miles from Travniki. Peat was mined there, the regime was much worse, they fed poorly.
In September, 1943, the Jews were finally decided to end. Travniki became subcampus (branch) of Majdanek. 3 November 1943, 6000 Jews from Travniki and camps in Dorohucza as part of a Jewish extermination operation were killed in Travniki. Then the killings continued. The last were sent to Maidanek 40 Jews, who were left to sweep the barracks of the guards, as well as sort the clothes of the murdered Jews. In May, the 1944 of the labor camp ceased to exist, only the training camp remained. The numbers of victims in Travniki are different: 6 thousand Jews killed, 8 thousand Jews and 10 thousand Jews. However, as mentioned above, at the very beginning many more Soviet prisoners of war died in Travniki.
Map of camps for January 1944 of the year with indication of the camp in Travniki
The Travniki trained at the training camp until July 1944, when Soviet troops approached Lublin. On July 23, Soviet troops liberated the Travniki - the remaining about 1000 guards fled in panic. They were not able to resist the raided troops.
Work "on the road"
At the end of the course, the herbalists were assigned to protect the death camps of Sobibor, Chelmno, Majdanek, Belzec, Treblinka and concentration camps - Auschwitz, Stutthof and others. There is evidence that the Ukrainians SS-Mannern were seen in Buchenwald. The geography of the objects suggests that the valuable “herbalists” were used only in Western Europe, while in the occupied part of the USSR policemen who were not trained in security skills were used to protect numerous small camps ...
In each concentration camp, the “herbalists” guards arrived in about 90-120, company. The rest of the guards were Germans from the units of the guard of the concentration camps of the SS “Dead Head”, from the regiments of which created the notorious division of the SS troops “Dead Head”. These guards were either already unfit for service at the front in the SS forces, or still too young — upon reaching the draft age they were sent to the front. Characteristically, the Germans were only 1 / 4 part of the protection. There was also a non-standard internal security of the prisoners themselves - “capo”. Usually, whenever possible, German criminals took the capo, although there were also Jews. They were given only batons. There were also the camp warden, the wardens of the blocks, the masters, and other minor servants of the prisoners. These are the "herbalists" were "friends."
The staff of the Sobibor death camp, in which, according to the official version, 250 thousand people were destroyed, comprised 20-30 people from the SS, many of whom had worked before in the Euthanasia program, and 90-120 security guards-Ukrainians of “herbalists”. Everyday “work” was dirty — most of the arriving Jews had to perish in the gas chambers. Under the shouts, shots in the air, beatings and scolding, the Jews fled to the "showers" and completely filled them. The small number of guards played a cruel joke with them on 14 in October on 1943 - a successful escape from 300 of Jews took place from Sobibor, the SS officers and several Ukrainian guards were killed by 11.
According to the description of the German officer SS about the "life" in the extermination camp Belzec, who was near Lublin. “Wet corpses from sweat and urine, with legs stained with excrement and blood, are thrown out. High in the air fly baby bodies. There is no time at all. Whips of Ukrainian overseers push prisoners from the funeral team. Two dozen dentists open their jaws with hooks in search of gold crowns. Other dentists break gold teeth and crowns with forceps and hammers. ” By the way, in August 1942 was used for the first time in this camp gas "cyclone-B".
According to the testimony of former prisoners: “... Every day ten or more thousand people of different ages were sent to the camp for destruction. On one day, the number of arrivals in Treblinka reached 24000. No outsiders were allowed into the camp, even the guards of the “transports” were left outside the camp. Wagons with victims were driven to the camp ramp by a special locomotive (on 20 cars at the same time). There, the SS team of camp camps, which numbered more than half-drunk German and Ukrainian thugs more than 300, "met the doomed".
"Herbalists" take Dutch Jews, camp Westerbork, 1943 year
The “herbalists” were very cruel to the prisoners and were killed with or without cause — even if the prisoner escaped, the guard was tried, but the guard who killed the fugitive received a reward.
There were "herbalists" and entertainment - what about without them? In 1944, the SS organized brothels for “foreign” guards. The fact is that part of the camps was located on the territory of the Reich, and the “herbalists” were forbidden to communicate with German women on pain of death. And how desirable, still young! For example, in the Buchenwald concentration camp for Polish “herbalists” from the Ravensbrück concentration camp for women, Polish women were forced into prostitution.
There were “Travnikov” and other more enjoyable entertainment. They were, in fact, the masters of the prisoners' lives, and it was possible to “entertain” them “perfectly”. According to an eyewitness, in early April, 1945 in the three camps of Buchenwald, the “Big”, the “Small” and the “Quarantine”, the inmates who had accumulated 80-90 thousands began to evacuate from the approaching enemy deep into the Reich. They began to select Jews first, they were supposed to be transported by train, to which they still had to be reached on foot. The war seemed to be ending, the Germans were afraid of revenge and became very “humane” to the prisoners — the sick, according to an SS doctor assurance, transportation was given.
Further, an eyewitness account is the road to Weimar, where the cars were waiting for Jews.
“On April 6, in the morning, all the prisoners were kicked out of the hangars to the camp gate. Recalculated 3 times, formed 2 columns. 16 hundreds were in our "transport", and another two thousand - in the second ...
We left the camp as soon as the sturmführer, the head of the “transport”, appeared on the two-wheel cart. The column was tightly surrounded by an armed SS convoy. Some guards had shepherd dogs. Among the guards were two Ukrainians. Wearing black uniforms, they talked merrily in their own language ...
... The chain of escorts around us grew denser as our ranks dwindled.
I don’t know: did the Ukrainian escorts want to prove that they deserve their black uniforms, or because they became bored, but they came up with “entertainment” - to set the dogs on prisoners walking in the back rows. Imitating the Ukrainians, the SS also began to "have fun." Because of these “funs”, a panic began in the column: people were afraid to be in the back rows and be stung by dogs, to get on the cart Fear drove everyone forward, the sick and the weak begged them not to overtake, not to leave behind, but the column picked up the pace, leaving behind more and more victims.
The SS were pleased, they liked the novelty, especially the Sturmführer. "Patriots of Ukraine" - the more ... pleased!
Those who were bitten and fallen, still alive and dead, indiscriminately piled onto the platform. Weighted higher and higher, like firewood, in the shape of a pyramid. And so that the "pyramid" did not fall apart, people were fastened to the cart with wire. The heads of the dead shook, while the living still looked plaintively at the people walking in the column.
When we approached the village, the peasants fled towards us and, pointing to the scarführer towards the glow from the fire, moved into the forest. A cannonade was heard from a distance, and the Sturmführer was the first to rush off on his cart to the same forest. But the prisoners could not escape, many fell from fatigue. The SS did not dare to shoot at those who fell in the forest. But the Ukrainians, these two traitors of their people, did not stop even here to finish off unarmed, proved their loyalty and “heroism” by smashing the heads of people with a rifle butt so that there would be no witnesses to their “feats”.
In 1944, for one million prisoners there were 45 thousand guards, of whom 35 thousand consisted of SS men from the “Dead Head”, and the rest were mainly employees of auxiliary units formed from representatives of the population of the occupied countries: the police and “herbalists”. "Travniki" operated on the territory of Poland and the Reich.
In addition to guarding the camps, in April 1943, the “herbalists” participated in the suppression of the uprising and the destruction of the Warsaw Jewish ghetto. In the source they are called “Ascars”; they indicate the guards by nationality who arrived from the Travniki camp - Ukrainians, Latvians, Estonians, Slovaks and Croats.
"Travnik" Ober-Wachman (foreground) in the Warsaw Jewish ghetto. April-May 1943 of the year. Photos from the German "memorable" album
The operation to destroy the Warsaw ghetto, during which the Jewish uprising took place, began on April 18. To participate in the operation, the Germans identified 2000 people from the SS, 234 German gendarmes, 367 Polish policemen, 337 "Askar", 35 Gestapo men, and, in addition, sappers and gunners from the garrison stationed in Warsaw. In the Polish part of Warsaw, just in case, another 7000 police and SS officers were alarmed, and in the Warsaw District they were put on alert to 15 000 people.
At the end of 1944, part of the "herbalists" of the Ukrainians joined the 14-th Grenadier Division of the SS troops, others remained in charge of the RSHA until the end of the war.
The destruction of the Warsaw Jewish ghetto. In the foreground "herbalist" Ober-Wahman
If you believe the source, then at the end of the war a team of “herbalists” burned the corpses of the German victims of the Dresden bombing! Thus, without dirty work they did not remain ... Truly, "the right people"!
"Travnik" - a Jew
Amazingly, one "herbalist" was a Jew! October 26 1949 was arrested by the Soviet authorities by a certain Gutgary Shmil Grigorievich, born 1920, non-partisan, a Jew by nationality (it was not only clear that he was a “full” Jew or “mishling”, i.e., one parent each).
In the Soviet documents about him it was written like this:
“He is accused of treason. Being on the front of the Patriotic War, in 1941, he destroyed the Komsomol card, threw down his weapon and went over to the Germans.
Being in a prisoner of war camp in the mountains. Biala Podlaska (Poland), presented himself as a Volksduech, after which he was sent to the SS training camp in Travniki. For three years he served as an adjutant and translator of the German language under the camp commandant, took an active part in the mass extermination of civilians and brutally beat prisoners. In September, 1944, with the approach of Soviet troops, fled to the West. ”
Shmil G. was executed. I wonder how this “herbalist” felt when he killed the Jews? However, perhaps he did not associate himself with the Jews.
Curse for ages
Many former guards fled from retribution in the United States, Canada and Latin American countries, in every possible way hiding their past, put on a mask not of concentration camp guards, but collaborators with weapons in their hands fighting the “Stalinist criminal regime”, became “victims of communism” who needed political asylum, etc. However, the press is shaken by revelations, even in our days. As they say, such atrocities do not know the statute of limitations.
Most recently, in August 2007, the media reported on the deportation of 92-year-old Lithuanian Vladas Zayonkauskas from the United States. This subject was found to have received training in the Travniki training camp, as part of this unit took part in an operation to exterminate the Jews in the Warsaw ghetto in 1943. The Lithuanian himself denied the accusations and said that he was a bar employee at the Travniki training camp and did not participate in military operations.
According to him, during the war he served as a sergeant of the Lithuanian army (obviously, he served in the Lithuanian army before joining the USSR, and then continued his service in the Soviet Lithuanian corps). Once captured, he was sent to a concentration camp, where he worked in the kitchen and in the dining room. When Zaynkauskas immigrated to the US in 1950, he reported that he worked in a village in Lithuania until 1944, and then fled to Germany from Soviet troops and then to Austria.
According to a report, the Brooklyn Federal Court considered the case of a certain 83-year-old Ukrainian, Yaroslav Bilyanyuk, accused of being a former security guard at the Travniki camp, hiding his past. The court could deprive Bilyanyuk of citizenship and deport him to his homeland, where, in theory, he should have been awaiting trial.
“Herbalists” Zugwachman and Ober Wahman in the action of the destruction of the Warsaw Jewish ghetto
Without waiting for the verdict, the former guard died at his home in Queens. Bilyanyuk is buried in the Ukrainian Catholic cemetery of the Holy Ghost in Orange County, New York. The Justice Department was about to deprive Bilyanyuk of citizenship for the fact that when he entered the US half a century ago, he had hidden his participation in mass repressions and executions of prisoners. According to the former ministry employee Jonathan Dreammer, the data collected in the Bilyanyuk case "prove that he participated in the horrific crimes of the Nazis," and his death "unfortunately saved him from the triumph of justice, which he had avoided for so many years."
In the same Queens, it turns out, there lived another security guard, previously exposed. In June, 2004, an immigration judge in the United States, the state of Manhattan, decided to deport Yakiva Palia to Ukraine. It was found that the Ukrainian Paly served as an armed guard of the Travniki labor camp. But his participation in the destruction of Polish Jews and other Nazi war crimes was not proven, but he himself said that in 18 years he was forced to work for the Germans.
Paly arrived in the US from Europe at the start of the 1950s and hid his past from US immigration authorities. Before retiring, Paly worked as a draftsman, retired, suffered two strokes, in spite of which he was courting Alzheimer's suffering wife, Maria, with whom she lived 43 of the year. The US authorities tried to deport him, but ... neither Ukraine, nor Poland, nor Germany agreed to accept the former guard of the German concentration camp, whom it was too late to judge ...
In 2007, Paly gave an interview: “Listen to me, 84 of the year. I'm not going anywhere. Is that in the cemetery. There is no country that would accept me. ” So he stayed in the USA. According to the Manhattan lawyer, Paly is considered to be in the process of deportation until he dies, i.e. he is deprived of citizenship and certain rights, such as voting and moving freely in the United States.
Private detective Steve Rambam, exposing hiding criminals
Interestingly, many Jewish organizations crave revenge and even hire private detectives to search for war criminals, including collaborators - “herbalists” who killed Jews. The search is conducted even in our time, when they are already in 85-90 years! Private detective Steve Rambam, with a group of assistants, scoured Canada and found 170 war criminals. According to Steve: “Canada turned out to be such an earthly paradise for these scum that they behaved quite naturally with us. They were not afraid of anything. In addition, they apparently had a desire to remember the past, to share the past. By the way, this is the fault of all the terrorists with whom I have met. I met with former policemen 62, and only four refused to speak. I know that there are thousands of war criminals in Canada. Do you really think that the Canadian Royal Mounted Police does not know about them? Or can not cope with them better than me? If desired, they could be delayed in one day. You don’t need to look for them: many war criminals under their names appear in telephone directories. But the Canadian government prefers not to touch them, considering this problem to be political. But what does politics have to do with it? Thousands of murderers live with impunity on the territory of a democratic state. ”
"Herbalists" have fun playing the balalaika
"Ivan the Terrible"
This was the nickname of the Ukrainian “herbalist” from the Treblinka death camp in 1942-1943. The nickname was given to him for his particular cruelty, sadism. After the war, his tracks disappeared. In 1977, in the United States, a certain Ivan Demyanyuk, a Ukrainian immigrant from the USSR, was arrested and charged with collaborating with the Nazis. The Ukrainian was expelled to Israel and was sentenced to death there in 1988, because it recognized (7 witnesses) guard "Ivan the Terrible."
Yet in 1993, the Israeli Supreme Court overturned the sentence and released Demyanyuk, because there was evidence that he was not a “Ivan the Terrible” guard. Demyanyuk returned to the United States, where he was again granted citizenship. Nevertheless, the investigation into his case continued: new evidence (including trophy documents kept in the USSR) of Demyanyuk’s collaboration with the Nazis was found, although the Treblinka concentration camp did not appear in the materials anymore.
Demyanyuk, according to the investigation, was nevertheless a “herbalist”, but he was not “Terrible” and served not in Treblinka, but in the Sobibor, Maydanek and Flossenburg camps. In this case, he was threatened with deportation for false information when obtaining a visa. In 2002, Ivan was again deprived of his American citizenship, and in 2004, his complaint was rejected. Now Demjanjuk, without citizenship, is living out his life in the United States.
The defendant himself stubbornly denies his Nazi past, claiming that he served in the Red Army, was captured in 1942 year, and remained in prisoner of war camps until the end of the war. In the United States, Demyanyuk, who lived in a suburb of Cleveland, worked at the automobile plant of the Ford Corporation.
Interestingly, in 2004, he turned 84, i.e. back in 1945, the formidable guard was a 25-year-old young man ...
Crematorium kiln in the death camp. 1945 year
In total, over the period from 1979, more than 68 of former Nazis of different nationalities, including former USSR citizens, were deprived of their American citizenship and expelled from the United States. Now 170 people are still under investigation. It is characteristic that the US authorities, finding out that if a “political refugee” turned out to be a Nazi executioner and was guilty of killing many people, can only deprive this subject of American citizenship and send him home for “trial on the spot”. Those. the US court itself will never judge such a criminal, unless of course he is not guilty of the death of US citizens ...