“For those who survive this time, I ask only one thing - remember! Do not forget neither good nor bad. Patiently collect testimonies of all who died for themselves and for you. ”
Did you know what the September 8 date is memorable for? On this day in 1958, at the fourth congress of the World Congress of Journalists in Bucharest, it was decided to establish the International Day of Solidarity for all workers in this difficult and sometimes very dangerous profession. In International Day of Journalists' Solidarity, there are many solemn gatherings, congresses and conferences all over the world, which are attended by representatives of the press from many countries and publications. The objectives of travel to such meetings are different, however, first of all, it is a great opportunity to share experiences, to feel cohesion and unity with colleagues "in the shop", as well as to receive an award and with it recognition for their dedicated work. By the way, 8 September in America is the presentation of the Pulitzer Prize, the most prestigious in journalism award.
However, why was September 8 chosen as the International Day of Solidarity of Journalists? It was on this day in 1943 that a wonderful journalist, journalist, critic, writer, anti-fascist, patriot and author of one of the most dramatic pages of World War II, Czech Julius Fucik, was killed in one of the German prisons. Despite the terrible torture of the Gestapo, he remained devoted to his ideals until his death, showing his comrades in misfortune a model of resilience and courage.
“Do not be afraid of enemies, because they can only kill; do not be afraid of friends - after all, they can only betray; be afraid of indifferent people, because it is with their silent consent that the most terrible atrocities in the world are committed. ”
Julius (or Julius) Fucik was born in Prague on February 23, 1903 in the family of a steel mill worker. According to some historians, the real date of his birth is February 22, but Soviet propaganda intervened in the hero's biography, changing it into historical documents for one day, thus tying it to a famous holiday. The childhood and adolescence of the future writer was similar to the fate of thousands of his peers. When Yulek was ten years old (in the summer of 1913), his family moved to Western Bohemia in an old town called Pilsen, where the boy continued his studies. In 1914, Julius successfully graduated from elementary school and entered a real school (an analogue of a secondary educational institution).
The beginnings of the writer and journalist began to appear in Fucik at an early age. For example, already at the age of twelve, Julius made an attempt to publish his own newspaper called Slovan or Slav. In addition, he was very fond of theatrical performances, worked in the local drama group and played in the amateur theater. And after participating in the May Day march of workers from the Skoda plant in 1918, Julius Fucik became actively interested in politics. In 1919, he was already a member of a joint committee of students in secondary and higher education institutions and workers. At the same time, his satirical poems were published in the Prague magazine Nebojs or Fearless. And soon Julius filed a written request for his renunciation of the church, plunging his relatives into a state of shock.
"How amazing a person is - he can endure the most unbearable!"
Young Julius seriously carried away by socialist ideals. In the 1920 year, a seventeen-year-old boy became a member of Pravda, the editorial and publishing team of the Pilsen group of left-wing Social Democrats. And in it, he served as editor in the field of theater and literature.
In May, the 1921 of the radical wing of the “Social Democrats”, seeing that Soviet power was consolidating in Russia and the proletariat firmly following the path of building socialism, decided to create the Czechoslovak Communist Party (CPC). Julius Fucik was among the first to join it. In the autumn of the same year, he moved to Prague and, as a volunteer student, entered the faculty of philosophy of the oldest Charles University in Europe.
It should be noted that the Czechoslovak society at that time was for the most part bourgeois, and therefore the police were not going to close their eyes to the new party. The communists were constantly under pressure, and the most active of them were arrested and thrown into prison. However, this did not stop the Czech communists, who firmly believed that their cause was right.
After graduating from the Faculty of Philosophy, Julius fully devoted himself to the development of concepts of socialist realism. By this time, he was already "sick" of the Soviet Union. In his own words, Fucik’s main desire was to “wake up self-consciousness in the ranks of the proletariat,” and also convey to the masses the successes of their colleagues in the country of the Soviets. In order to achieve this goal, a group of young Communists decided to start publishing their own newspaper, called Rude Pravo or Krasny Vybor. Fuchik became its editor and one of the first correspondents. His essays and reports are outstanding examples of party journalism of the time.
“Only individuals can morally decompose, but the people never!”
The following years of Julius Fucik were devoted to active writing, he gradually became the main journalist of the revolutionary press. In 1923, Fuchik prepared theater reviews for the progressive magazines Pramen and The Socialist. In 1925, continuing to write articles for Rude Pravo, began editing a new revolutionary magazine for workers and students Avangard. In 1926, Julius accepted an invitation to become one of the editors of the Kmen information magazine. And on November 4 of 1928, the first issue of Fuchikov’s socio-political and literary weekly journal Tvorba (literally “Creativity”) was published, which he edited (intermittently) to 1938. In February 1929, the historic fifth congress of the Czechoslovak Communist Party took place, electing a new leader - consistent Stalinist Klement Gottwald. At the meeting, Fuchik actively supported the implementation of the Bolshevik line.
In May, a writer on a working delegation of five people first visited Soviet Russia for 1930, for which he had long been particularly sympathetic. The actual purpose of the trip was to tell compatriots about the life and achievements of the Czech community, which founded its own cooperative, Intergelpo, not far from Frunze in 1925. The delegation led by Julius Fucik, after staying in Moscow, traveled to Central Asia, on the way getting acquainted with the Turkestan-Siberian highway. Fuchik liked absolutely everything in the USSR. While living in Central Asia, he contrived to send reports to his native Czech Republic, and on returning home he broke out with an extensive cycle of colorful artistic essays.
In March, 1931 th at the sixth congress of the Communist Party, Julius took the most direct part in the discussions that were being held, about which he later wrote a report - "Congress of the front." And in May of the same year, the first chapters of his book on a trip to the Soviet Union were published: “In a country where our tomorrow is already yesterday”. Because of this work, released in the 1932 year, Fuchik came under the scrutiny of the police, but they did not manage to find a worthy reason for the arrest.
In September, the popular journalist 1932 was drafted into the army, and exactly one year later, after demobilization, he was imprisoned for speaking on the Soviet Union. A few weeks later he was released, and he immediately went into hiding, hiding under the name "Dr. Maresh." In October, when the entire communist press was banned, Fuchik, under the guise of an independent body of printing workers, published the Gallonoviny newspaper. In February, 1934 of the year he visited Vienna, where he witnessed with his own eyes the uprising of local workers against the fascists, and in July, after learning about the events of the "night of the long knives", he traveled to Munich. On these journeys, a completely different world, the nationalist, opened up to the eyes of the shocked journalist. After a short time, Julius’s emotional reports began to appear in various communist newspapers about what brings the world the worst form of imperialism — fascism. And so the authorities of Czechoslovakia (potential allies of Hitler) could no longer be demolished. In August, a few days before the final decision was made to arrest him, Fuchik managed to leave the country. Of course, he chose the Soviet Union as his place of exile, going here as a correspondent for “Rude Pravo” with the consent of the Central Committee of the CHR. In the USSR, Julius enthusiastically comprehended the subtleties of party building, absorbed communist ideology and wrote reports. In July, 1935, he, as a delegate of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, took part in the work of the Seventh Comintern Congress.
In May, 1936 of the year he returned to his homeland and, after moving to the village, he continued working at Rude Pravo and Tvorbe. At the same time, there were some disagreements between Julius and his party comrades. It should be noted that at the end of the 1930s many Czechoslovak communists had a very negative attitude towards the internal policy of Joseph Vissarionovich. In some details, they even anticipated future repression. Fuchik endured more than one battle, defending the leader of all nations and trying to justify his theses on the merciless extermination of traitors.
“Russian Bolsheviks say that a good underground worker is one who has held the underground for two years. But if they were threatened with failure in Moscow, they could hide in Petrograd, and flee from Petrograd to Odessa. They could be lost in cities where there are more than a million inhabitants and where nobody knew them. And we only had Prague, Prague and only Prague, in which you are known to half the city, and the enemies can gather a whole flock of provocateurs. ”
In July 1937, Julius Fucik, by decision of the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the HR Committee, became a member of a special commission created to prepare for the celebration of the twentieth anniversary of the October Socialist Revolution. In the summer of 1938, on the eve of the Munich conspiracy, the writer published a small pamphlet, “Will the Red Army come to the rescue?”. In the same year (July 30), he married his longtime lover - Augusta Koderzhicheva, who remained in history as Gusta Fuchikova. However, family happiness ended very soon, on September 23 a general mobilization was announced in the country, and Fuchik, among other reservists, was sent to the fifth infantry regiment. And the following year, fascist Germany occupied Czechoslovakia.
The Communist Party in the country was banned, all its members went underground. Hourly awaiting arrest, Fuchik and his wife were in the village of Khotimezh. Here, 15 March, Julius began work on the autobiographical book Generation to Peter. Realizing how easy it is to find him in a small village, in the summer of 1940, he decided to leave his wife with his parents, move to his friends in Prague and start acting.
"A hero is a person acting at a decisive moment in the interests of human society."
Throughout his conscious life, Julius was a staunch anti-fascist. During the occupation of Czechoslovakia under a pseudonym, he published a whole cycle of patriotic essays and essays. Having established contact with the first underground Central Committee of the CHR, he became an active member of the local Resistance Movement, carried out various party instructions, wrote colorful articles, urging people not to surrender, to remain under the yoke of the fascist invaders.
After the liquidation of the first underground Central Committee in February 1941 of the year, Fucik, Cherny and Zika created the second underground Committee of the HRC. Fuchik became the head of all secret publications, publishing in them his appeals to the people. From the pen of the group of writers headed by him constantly went anti-fascist essays, supporting the morale of compatriots and calling to start a fight with dictators and tyrants of the Third Reich. And in February 1942 of the year under the editorship of Julius in the underground was published the Constitution of the USSR, the second edition of the "History of the CPSU (b)".
Unfortunately, the fascists also understood perfectly the whole threat that the activists of the Resistance Movement presented to them. In April, the Nazis, thanks to the help of one of the agents implanted in the underground, got on the trail of opposition leaders. On July 11, Julius Fucik and six other members of the liberation movement were captured by the Gestapo in a safe house. It is still not clear for what reasons Fuchik, having heard the Nazis breaking into the apartment, did not use the guns that were with him. In 1942, the last survivor of the six said that Fucik wanted to shoot himself and thus avoid captivity, but he could not. Considering how much of the history was revised in the nineties in the Czech Republic, this is most likely a slander. However, the underground writer was captured and imprisoned in a cell under the number 24 in Pankrats Prison in Prague.
“Many people think that time in prison is slow. No, no, no. Perhaps it is because of the fact that a person counts here every hour, it becomes clear to him how short they are, how short days, weeks, the whole life are. ”
Initially in prison, Fucik refused to give any evidence to the investigators. However, in those terrible days, many famous figures of Czech culture, Fucik's friends in publishing and the Resistance fell under the suspicion of the Hitlerites. It was about that time that he wrote: “They take a person, add him to the rest of the suicide bombers, take him out of town and execute him. The next day it turns out that his namesake had to be shot. In this case, the namesake is executed. And everything is in order. " In order to divert the threat from his comrades, and, perhaps, to alleviate his torture, Fuchik began to tell the Gestapo carefully thought-out mythical versions of his underground activities involving fictional characters. Thanks to this “game”, he managed to divert attention (save lives), many comrades and colleagues.
“The prison is not a funny place. However, the world is darker outside the cameras. Friendship lives in the cells, and some other! ”
Being imprisoned, Julius Fucik wrote his most famous autobiographical work detailing the life of ordinary freedom fighters, called Reportáž psaná na oprátce, which can be translated as “Reporting with a loop on the neck” or “The word before execution”. The famous line from it: “I loved you, People. Be vigilant! ”, Later will fly around the whole world, becoming the slogan of people who have dedicated their lives to the fight against fascism. These words, cast in cast iron, will show off at the Prague house that houses the Gestapo.
The story of the creation of the book is amazing. Being subjected to inhuman torture, Fucik, who was awaiting death, wrote it in pencil on paper sheets, which were brought to him by a prison guard, a certain Kolinsky, a Czech by nationality. Not being afraid to cooperate with the prisoner, he secretly removed the written sheets from prison. Get to know the fascists about this, at least a concentration camp would be waiting for him.
Work on the book was more than a year. The last lines of the “Report” were written on 9 on June 1943 of the year before the writer was sent to Berlin. Fucik's wife was at that time in a concentration camp, but after liberation she managed to meet with Kolinsky. She did a great job, managing to collect a lot of her husband’s prison notes, which were kept by completely different people. And Fuchik 10 June went on his last journey - to Germany, in a place called Bautzen, which is not far from Dresden.
“All superficial and minor, everything smoothing, weakening or embellishing the main features of the human character here fall away, being carried away by the death whirlwind. Only the simplest, the very essence remains: the traitor betrays, but the faithful will remain faithful, the philistine despair, the hero will fight. Each has weakness and strength, fear and courage, hesitation and firmness, dirt and purity. In this place of the two there was only one. Or or".
In August, the Nazi court was held on 1943 in Berlin over Julius Fucik. He was accused of "high treason", which consists in creating an underground organization that advocates the restoration of his native country. Only once, Julius suddenly threw the words of the judicial senate into the face of the judicial senate: “Death to fascism!”. When he was asked for what reason he spoke against the Reich, if history itself proved that Moravia and the Czech Republic have been part of the Great German Empire since ancient times, Julius Fucik answered: “You yourself know perfectly well that this is not true. You juggle with facts and falsify history the way you want it. ” 25 August The Freisler People’s Court of Justice, the same chamber that dealt with the July 20 conspiracy case of July, sentenced Fucik to death. After that, he was transferred to the notorious death row prison on the outskirts of Berlin - Pletzensee.
In the evening after the trial, the prosecutor came to the writer's cell in order to announce the date of execution of the sentence - September 8. Fuchik remarked: “Your office is in a hurry. You are afraid that the Russians will not come to Berlin before you destroy all the prisoners? ” Until the very last breath, the Czech patriot did not stop assuring his executioners that the Soviet Union would win the war. It is not for nothing that the fascists called the Czech communist the "red devil." His faith in the future of retribution, vitality, the forces of an organism that has experienced many beatings and other “charms” of the Gestapo seem to be inhuman.
Early in the morning on the appointed day they came for him. The guards did not ask anything, pulled Julius from the bed, threw off the shackles and commanded to undress. Fucik jumped to his cellmates and, shaking hands with them, quickly said: "Hello comrades." The guards dragged him off and took the writer out of the cell. Legend has it that, rising to the scaffold, he sang the "Internationale." The Nazis beat him, trying to silence him, but the song was heard by prisoners from the nearest block and picked it up ... In 4 hours 55 minutes Fucik life was cut short.
"Death is simpler than I think, and the characters do not have a radiant halo."
Relatives of Fucik asked to give them a body to be interred. However, the Gestapo in Prague reported to Germany that this should not be done in any case, since unrest could begin. However, having deprived the writer of a grave, the Nazis were only able to delay the popular uprising. Humiliated and crushed residents of Prague stood on the barricades on May 5, 1945. People’s anger was universal, everyone took to the streets - women and men, adolescents and children, old people and old women. And the Red Army came to their aid, erasing the Nazis from Czech land. First soviet Tanks entered Prague from the side of Smikhov, the area in which Fucik spent his childhood. Of course, a coincidence, but still symbolic and noteworthy.
After the end of the war, the tombstone with the simple inscription "Julius Fucik" was set up in one of the halls among the nameless gravestones of unknown heroes who died for their homeland on the Vitkov mountain in Prague's Pantheon, where the ashes of the founders and prominent figures of the Communist Party of Great Britain rest in peace. And in 1945, the last book of the Czech patriot was published - “Report with a noose around his neck”. A documentary-artistic story about the heroism of the participants in anti-fascist resistance in occupied Czechoslovakia, Fucik’s thoughts about the meaning of life and the degree of responsibility of each person for the future of the world are one of the most outstanding works of social realism. The book was translated into eighty languages, and its author was posthumously in the 1950 year received the International Peace Prize.
Julius Fucik did not live to see the end of the war and could not see the young faces of those who survived and achieved victory. When in the 1947 year, hundreds of young men and girls from many countries gathered on the streets of Prague, Gusta Fuchikova’s wife instead looked at these harsh faces. In that year, at the Prague Festival, a huge number of young heroes met the deadly battle with fascism on various fronts: Bulgarian Georgi Georgieva, Italian Almo Bertolini, Dane Lyudoln Arns, Frenchman Alphons Antony Sonzet and many other Soviet, Polish, Yugoslavian, Slovakian youths, Polish Alfons Antoni Sonzet and many other Soviet, Polish, Yugoslavian, Slovakian youths, Alfons Anthony Sonzet and many other Soviet, Polish, Yugoslavian, Slovakian youths. . Among them could go in columns and Fuchik ...
In his homeland after the war, Julius became a national hero, an ideological symbol. Squares, streets, schools, factories, theaters, parks of culture and recreation, and metro stations were named after him. During the existence of the Soviet bloc, his biography and works written by him were included in the school curriculum of Czechoslovakia. Julius Fucik Street appeared in many cities of the Soviet Union, there was a museum in Tashkent named after him, and a monument was erected in Pervouralsk to the writer. However, after the fall of socialism and the “Velvet Revolution”, an outstanding member of the anti-fascist movement suddenly lost its popularity, and its cult was debunked. The new government jumped out of his pants in an attempt to erase from the consciousness of citizens the memories of communism. All references to the hero disappeared with lightning speed, for example, the Fuchikova metro station in one instant became known as Nadrazhi Holesovice. The new generation, which grew up on his books, regarded Fucik’s actions as a patriotic system of insurgents of the time transferred to paper. However, the worst thing is that attempts have been made to revise the assessment of Julius’s personality from a negative point of view. In particular, there were "researchers" who announced his collaboration with the Gestapo and the authenticity of the legendary "Report ...".
Whatever Julius Fucik was, he fulfilled his duty to the end, giving the people hope, faith and confidence in the victory over the Nazis. And it is very inhuman to kick the name of a person who many years ago was martyred. His followers, who created the Society for the Memory of Julius Fucik in 1991, stood up for the writer. Their goal is to defend the historical truth of all Czech patriots who fought to build a socialist society. And in 1994, a group of historians under the leadership of Frantisek Janacek, having studied the documents of the Gestapo, did not find any evidence of Fuchik's betrayal of any of the underground workers. Examination of the manuscript in the forensic center also confirmed the authorship of “The Word Before Execution”.
“The obligation to be human will not end with this war.”
Established in Prague in the seventies of the last century, the Fucik monument in 1989 was dismantled and collected dust in the warehouses of the Art Gallery. Thanks to the efforts of thousands of people, Czech and foreign writers and journalists, who made financial donations and wrote a petition for the return of the monument, the authorities agreed to its restoration. After exactly one hundred and ten years since the birth of Julius Fucik, the monument was erected at the Olshansky cemetery in Prague not far from the graves of the Red Army men.