Military Review

China Space Program and International Concerns

24
Currently, about fifty states of the world have their own space program and exploit their own space vehicles for various purposes. 37 states at least once sent their astronaut into orbit, but only a dozen of them have the ability to independently launch spacecraft without asking for help from third countries. At the same time, its founders, Russia and the United States, remain the undisputed leaders in the space industry. Nevertheless, the vigorous actions of other states in the foreseeable future may lead to the emergence of new large “players” in the space “arena”. First of all, the list of leaders in astronautics can be replenished by China, which is more than actively developing its rocket and space technologies.




In recent decades, China has been striving to get the title of a superpower, and one of the criteria of such a state is a developed space program. In addition, the developing economy is forcing the Chinese government to invest heavily in satellite communications and other aspects of civilian space exploration. As a result of increased attention from official Beijing, the Chinese space industry currently employs about 200 thousand people, and the industry's annual budget is equivalent to 15 billion US dollars.

Separately, it is worth noting the fact that in addition to real results related to the armed forces, the economy or technology, China imposes an ideological role on space exploration. In view of the end of the Cold War, Russia and the United States have long since not used space achievements as an ideological tool or a reason to compete with each other. China, in turn, has not yet passed the stage of competition with other states and therefore relies on ideological issues as well. This also explains the latest Chinese successes in the space industry.

The emergence in the global space industry of new players with great potential cannot but influence the general condition of the relevant part of the economy and industry. The emergence of numerous European and Chinese projects has already led to a change in the structure of the market of space-related services, such as the launch of commercial space vehicles, the creation of similar technology, etc. If China can fully enter this market, then we should expect new significant changes. However, so far Chinese cosmonautics is not in a hurry to make offers to foreign organizations, limiting itself only to work on the development of its space infrastructure.

The active work of China in the framework of its own space program is often a cause for concern. For example, for several years now, discussions have begun regularly on the possibility of unpleasant incidents caused by the actions of China. For example, according to one of the versions, China can place some nuclear weapons in space. The USA, Great Britain and the USSR signed an agreement back in the late sixties, which excluded such use of outer space. Later, several third countries joined this treaty, including China. Thus, from a legal point of view, the Chinese military cannot use the Earth’s orbit as a location for any weapons mass destruction. At the same time, concerns about a possible violation of the terms of the contract remain and remain the cause of disputes.

It is noteworthy that various opinions related to China’s military projects in space appear with enviable regularity. In this context, we can recall the discussion of the 2007 incident of the year, when a Chinese rocket hit a failed meteorological satellite FY-1C. During a successful attack, the device was at a height of more than 860 kilometers, which was the reason for the corresponding conclusions. The world has learned that China has, at a minimum, a working prototype of advanced anti-satellite weapons. During the previous decades, the leading space powers have repeatedly tried to create similar systems, but in the end all such projects were closed. Tentatively in the late nineties or early 2000th, China joined the United States and the USSR as the authors of the anti-satellite weapon project. The current state of the Chinese anti-satellite missile project remains unknown and therefore is cause for concern.

China, starting new projects in one area or another, constantly demonstrates its determination and readiness to go to the end. This feature of Chinese projects, combined with the ideological motives and general intentions of the country to become a superpower, leads a considerable number of experts to not very happy and positive conclusions. One of the consequences, including the Chinese, of activity in space was the European work on the creation of a “Code of Conduct in Outer Space”. In November-December, under the auspices of the European Union, a regular meeting of specialists from several countries will be held, who will discuss the current version of the draft Code and make the necessary adjustments to it.

The new international treaty should become a tool for regulating certain aspects of the use of outer space. First of all, it will affect military projects. In addition, it is planned to resolve the situation with space debris and create general recommendations for the disposal of spacecraft that have exhausted their resources. The last account has been hundreds over the past, and the number of various small fragments and fragments almost cannot be accurately counted. The “Code of Conduct in Outer Space” will not immediately get rid of existing problems, but is expected to reduce the increase in the amount of space debris, and then contribute to cleaning the orbits.

Whether China will join the new agreement and abide by its terms is too early to say. The new Code currently exists only in the form of a draft and it will take at least months, if not years, to prepare it. During this time, Chinese scientists and engineers can complete several new programs related to space exploration. Among them may be those who will have to close after signing the contract, which, under certain circumstances, will affect the very possibility of entering into an international treaty.

However, the conditions and peculiarities of the application of the Code, as well as the list of countries participating in this agreement, are questionable. In this regard, it remains to operate only the available information. Disregarding foreign concerns, China continues to implement its plans in the space industry. Probably, he is already engaged in military projects, and these projects concern not only satellite intelligence, etc. tasks.

To date, China is fighting for third place in the global space "hierarchy." Its main competitor in this business is the European Union. In this case, as follows from some of the features of the Chinese space program, the official Beijing does not intend to compete with the European space program. His goal is to catch up and overtake the leading countries in the face of the United States and Russia. Therefore, in the foreseeable future, China will continue to publish reports of its new successes and reduce the backlog of industry leaders, simultaneously making foreign specialists nervous.


On the materials of the sites:
http://lenta.ru/
http://ria.ru/
http://rus.ruvr.ru/
http://vz.ru/
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  1. Gur
    Gur 5 September 2013 08: 03 New
    +9
    Against the background of the fact that our space program of recent years has been a big opera, such a message is annoying. One industry of not many non-raw materials that earned money with brains can simply be blown away with such launches, and China can take the initiative and flip cars into wagons, if you want to fly into space, you want to launch fireworks. And like words like “what we have "" the old development was stolen, and there isn’t enough to do your brains ", too, they don’t. Russia needs to raise its butt, take the stealing bureaucrats for the butt, raise the national idea, education and move forward, catch up and overtake potential friends, and this already had to be done not even yesterday.
    1. Jurkovs
      Jurkovs 5 September 2013 15: 32 New
      0
      The highest demand for brain filling is the creation of multi-channel communication satellites. Here we have already lagged behind Europe and Japan, and China on foot to the moon. The creation of withdrawal tools is no longer an indicator.
  2. xetai9977
    xetai9977 5 September 2013 08: 03 New
    +5
    By the middle of the century, at the current pace of development, China will be not only the number 1 power in the economic field, but also in the military and space industries. While others are exhausting themselves in various political games, they methodically build up strength without "noise and dust"
    1. Trofimov174
      Trofimov174 5 September 2013 19: 30 New
      +2
      The key word "at the current pace", no one gives a guarantee that China will continue to develop so quickly and so long, in the end there are a lot of problems in the country, from the continuing, albeit shrinking, technological lag to separatism. Moreover, its growth will necessarily stop at the moment when the country begins to transition from an economy of cheap labor and stimulate domestic demand. And to do this in a country where 500 million live in poverty will be oh how not easy.
    2. Phoeniks
      Phoeniks 6 September 2013 10: 30 New
      0
      What is true is true! China is quietly catching up, and not only in space and in military equipment, but everywhere I remember last year or the year before when they wrote that they made a bathyscaphe and set a record for diving, we broke it, so if the Chinese go further this way, they will become super power No. 2020 already in 1. And we will sit in the opera with our pipes. Like we have super cool programmers yeah and where is our IT industry? Where is our software, our operating system, our office, our cool games - Americans start earning awesome loot games and everyone else where is our computer hardware? In our country there are only 2 pipes left, one is gas and the second is oil >>> it’s almost not needed anymore. So something like this.
      1. Phoeniks
        Phoeniks 6 September 2013 10: 52 New
        0
        yeah reassured his monologue "to again catch up with the Chinese" sad
  3. serge-68-68
    serge-68-68 5 September 2013 08: 09 New
    +6
    Lovers to laugh at the PRC! Where are you? Aw! Compare the budget of Chinese and Russian space?
  4. kartalovkolya
    kartalovkolya 5 September 2013 08: 59 New
    +5
    Yes, there is something to think about! Although there is nothing else to expect from China: if you want to be the first - be! And our leaders are apparently only engaged in cutting dough!
    1. Phoeniks
      Phoeniks 6 September 2013 10: 55 New
      0
      Yeah, I cut the little heart now I want to cut back on the costs of a type of harrow; not enough would put him and all those involved in life with a full 100% confiscation of property.
  5. Ivan79
    Ivan79 5 September 2013 09: 06 New
    +7
    Don’t say that, but the Chinese are slowly but surely doing their job. If they suddenly fall a rocket,
    then the "reprimand" will last 25 years probably ...
    1. pensioner
      pensioner 5 September 2013 11: 28 New
      +2
      Quote: Ivan79
      Don’t say that, but the Chinese are slowly but surely doing their job. If they suddenly fall a rocket,
      then the "reprimand" will last 25 years probably ...

      And without the right to correspond ...
  6. slavik_gross
    slavik_gross 5 September 2013 09: 19 New
    0
    Yes, somehow, this, everything is sad, remains, eat up that our government and GDP will take their heads.
  7. Suhov
    Suhov 5 September 2013 10: 25 New
    +3
    The Chinese are doing everything thoughtfully.
    They even develop capitalism under the strict guidance of the Chinese Communist Party.
    And they managed to take and combine everything best from two systems.
    Hence the success.
    yes
    We also tried to repeat their experience, but for some reason they took and combined only worse from two systems.
    Result:
    Our capitalism constantly present animal grin.
    And our socialism also regularly grins brutally.
    sad
    1. Trofimov174
      Trofimov174 5 September 2013 19: 49 New
      +3
      Quote: Sukhov
      And they managed to take and combine everything best from two systems.

      Rather, they made the transition from socialism to capitalism much milder than we do, there is only one name left from the Marxist-Leninist system in China.
  8. smprofi
    smprofi 5 September 2013 11: 18 New
    0
    hmm ... but that the article does not mention the "strange maneuvers" of the companions of the Hunhus?
    The satellite, Shiyan 7 (SY-7, Experiment 7), already had completed a series of orbital changes that put it close to one of the companion satellites with which it was launched - Chuangxin 3 (CX-3). Suddenly, however, it made a surprise rendezvous with a completely different satellite, Shijian 7 (SJ-7, Practice 7), launched in 2005.

    completely here:
    http://www.spacepolicyonline.com/news/surprise-chinese-satelllite-maneuvers-myst
    ify-western-experts
  9. serge-68-68
    serge-68-68 5 September 2013 11: 18 New
    +3
    Well, since our pranksters are silent, they don’t think I will help them a little:
    In In 2013, the Russian federal budget stipulated the allocation of 180,552 billion rubles under the item “space activities”. What the course will be ... Oh! 5,5 billion dollars ...
    Compare with the Chinese 15 billion, add to them inexpensive and, judging by the lack of emergency, skilled labor ... We get ... Somehow it's not funny ...
    1. loisop
      loisop 5 September 2013 12: 20 New
      +1
      It turns out fine.
      We, unlike China, do not need to build factories for the production of any near-space, training centers and other infrastructure. We already have all this, and for a long time. Got from the USSR. And for development available (!!!) you need significantly less than for lifting from "about zero" ..
    2. Kadavercianin
      Kadavercianin 5 September 2013 13: 36 New
      +1
      The lowest paid skilled workforce in China is tales. Of course, they do not receive European or non-American salaries, but they also do not cost a penny and work 5 hours a week for 8 hours, so the stories about cheap Chinese labor are only valid for low-skilled labor. Once, the boss took people to China to show how work should be done, such a silent one arrives, those whom he took with him later said that they seemed to be not from the Chinese, they came to work at 9:00 and left at 18:00 and figs, the bosses adjust to them, but these are engineers. How others did not see the work, so to speak, the authorities and managers have their own atmosphere.
      In addition, the Chinese are trying very quickly almost from scratch to create a full-fledged space industry, and preferably without spans and errors, well, so 15 billion. $ it is somehow not enough.
  10. nod739
    nod739 5 September 2013 11: 35 New
    +1
    Quote: Ivan79
    Don’t say that, but the Chinese are slowly but surely doing their job.


    the fact of the matter is that it’s not slow,
    go on the beaten road. and in 20-25 years as many “pioneers” have passed in 40-50 ... and at such a pace in 5-10 years they can surpass us in the number of launches, well, as a result and in the number of vehicles in orbit, and there’s a market out of knock legs, well, or stagger seriously
    1. loisop
      loisop 5 September 2013 12: 26 New
      -6
      Well, that is, the difference between technology development и copying other people's developments you can not see.
      Well, they still will not be able to overtake us - they will overtake. Besides technologies, you also need to have a resource, and they have the main available resource - cheap labor. And that’s all.
  11. Samy
    Samy 5 September 2013 12: 48 New
    +2
    Quote: loisop
    Well, they still will not be able to overtake us - they will overtake. Besides technologies, you also need to have a resource, and they have the main available resource - cheap labor. And that’s all.


    Firstly, not so cheap. Missiles will not be collected by peasants from rice fields. Secondly, they have a resource - powerful university centers, student training in the West and their indispensable return to work
    home, comparable salaries to specialists, the free provision of apartments by the state (and which apartments), the constant and steady development of the industry, the accumulation of personal experience in this matter and the rethinking of others. Do not take them as half-wits with sticks.
    1. loisop
      loisop 6 September 2013 12: 26 New
      0
      Well, that is, to build a dohulion of missiles (to catch up and overtake) ferrous metals (with mining, beneficiation, etc. parts) are not needed at all. Non-ferrous metals are not needed (also with their parts). No oil needed. Nothing at all needed. These are not resources. The right resources are the Chinese, yes. You just need to take more Chinese to train in the West and give each of them an apartment. And then the rockets themselves will appear, yeah. Out of the air.
  12. Kadavercianin
    Kadavercianin 5 September 2013 14: 10 New
    +3
    In China, it’s not necessary to create anything radically new in the next 10 years, to seize world leadership in the space sector, it’s enough to use the existing achievements, but they’re enough, for about 8-10 years they’ll have to really push forward something serious independent development, moreover, it is desirable in almost finished form, and before that it’s enough that they will receive cooperation from “joint” and “study”.
    There is really one historical and genetic nuance, if we turn to the historical realities of both 500 years ago and modern history, we get a strange feeling that Asians (Chinese, Japanese), maybe, because of the mentality, I don’t know, but their thinking not particularly adapted to the invention of something new, I hope this did not sound like rabid racism. Just if you look at scientific achievements and inventions, it is noticeable in what the Chinese and Japanese all skip this in the development of technologies and the search for new areas of application of certain technologies. See for yourself inventions of many robots, information technology, etc. they are not invented in Japan, but on the other hand, Japan is modifying them, rolling them in and finding a bunch of areas of application, and while itching around the world, this is already commonplace.
    So, how the Chinese space program will develop, this is still a question and a curious question, maybe they won’t lose interest in the stars, like we did in our time.
  13. saag
    saag 5 September 2013 18: 59 New
    +1
    A breakthrough in space will be when the nuclear tugboat is launched, China, by the way, can think of it, more precisely, steal, buy, copy RD-0410, which was once tested at the Semipalatinsk test site, there was a special stand there
  14. biglow
    biglow 5 September 2013 19: 32 New
    0
    While China lives on copying Soviet samples. There is nothing new, Even the spacesuit is a copy of Soviet ...
  15. Mosen6Ish
    Mosen6Ish 6 September 2013 10: 04 New
    0
    Quote: biglow
    but only a dozen of them have the ability to independently launch spacecraft without resorting to third countries for help


    It turns out a bit too much, I searched - it turned out, and Iran launches satellites, about how ...
    But being able to theoretically and practically different things.

    http://www.russianelectronics.ru/leader-r/review/doc/60076/