COMBAT COUNTER-TERRORISTIC MACHINE
V.M. Nevolin, D.G. Kolmakov (Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Ural Design Bureau of Transport Engineering")
Raran. Actual problems of protection and security. Armored vehicles and weapons. Proceedings of the Eleventh All-Russian Scientific Practical Conference. Tom 3. NPO Special materials. SPb, 2008. C.123-127.
The last 20 years have become a time of significant change in the socio-political situation in the world. With the collapse of the Warsaw Pact, the bloc standoff ended, and the likelihood of a global armed conflict using nuclear weapons weapons faded into the background. At the same time, other threats escalated and came to the fore. Among them are terrorism and separatism. Against this background, regional armed conflicts became more frequent, a characteristic feature of which was the conduct of hostilities in the city, in suburban areas and in mountainous areas with the active use of a large number of fairly modern anti-tank weapons, heavy artillery (mortars, artillery pieces), and often armored vehicles . The fighting in Iraq and Chechnya clearly showed the absence in the armies of economically and economically developed countries of special combat armored vehicles (BBVs) capable of conducting effective combat operations with irregular armed formations in the new conditions. Meanwhile, according to experts, the likelihood of such conflicts on the basis of political, economic, religious, ethnic, territorial and other contradictions in the near and medium term remains quite high . Therefore, in a number of states, including the Russian Federation, quite active work has been carried out over the past five to ten years to adapt the existing BTT, including tanks, to the conditions of warfare in the village and in the highlands, and to create special, for the most part, wheeled vehicles. However, despite some successes achieved in this direction, so far in almost all countries involved in the development of such equipment, it has not been possible to create a special combat vehicle capable of effectively solving assigned tasks in new combat conditions. The only machine capable of effectively solving these combat missions at present is the tank support combat vehicle (BMPT), developed by the FSUE “UKBTM” and preparing to be put into serial production at the FSUE “PO Uralvagonzavod” (Fig. 1, 2, 3) . Its distinguishing feature is the combination of powerful multi-channel weapons, unique to armored vehicles, capable of hitting all kinds of targets on the battlefield and a modern all-weather, all-day fire etching system with all-round armor protection. At the same time, this combat vehicle inherited small dimensions and mass from the T-72 base tank. In addition, in comparison with the German “Leopard-2” PSO, the French “Leclerc” AZUR kit or the American “Ambrams” modernized under the TUSK program, the BMPT looks more preferable due to its much smaller overall dimensions and better maneuverability, since its armament at turning the tower does not go beyond the hull, and the pointing angles make it easy to hit targets on the entire height of urban buildings (from basement to upper floors of buildings). High performance characteristics allow the use of BMPTs as a multi-purpose vehicle both for providing direct fire support to tanks and for counter-terrorism and peacekeeping operations. Therefore, it is no coincidence, almost immediately, from the moment of its first demonstration at the arms exhibition in Nizhny Tagil in 2000 that the BMPT attracted close attention from specialists from leading countries producing armored vehicles - the USA, Germany, France, and Israel.
Nevertheless, despite its unique capabilities, the BMPT, as a combat counter-terrorism machine, according to the authors, has:
a) a complex and expensive fire control system (LMS);
b) an armament complex not sufficiently balanced for solving the tasks of combating illegal armed formations;
c) excessive range on the highway (at least 550 km);
d) the presence on the product of systems and equipment that are not relevant in the performance of counter-terrorism and peacekeeping operations (the OPV system, etc.).
Consider the possible options for combat counter-terrorism machine, which can be developed on the basis of BMPT
Option 1. This option (the conventional name of the machine BKM-1) is a modification of BMPT and involves the installation of a simplified, more adapted to the new conditions of warfare, the sighting and observation complex, equipment of the MSA and armament (Figure 4). The experience of combat operations with the participation of armored vehicles during counterterrorism operations indicates that the speed of movement of combat vehicles is low, and shooting is usually carried out from a place. In light of this, the use of such a complex and expensive instrument as a multi-channel gunner's sight, which has an independent 2-x planar stabilization of the visual field, is considered unreasonable in the authors' opinion. In addition, the specificity of the special operations shows that for the successful implementation of combat missions it is quite enough less expensive and complex sight. Therefore, instead of a multi-channel gunner's sight, it is proposed to install a low-level television sight (or a combined optical-electronic sight) with independent single-plane stabilization of the visual field, or a similar, but unstabilized sight. A panoramic sight for CCM is certainly needed, since it provides a circular view for the crew, which, under the conditions of combat in the city, significantly increases the possibilities for detecting and hitting targets. However, it seems expedient to use it, like the gunner’s sight, on a BKM with a single-plane stabilization of the visual field, or unstabilized. Taking into account the above, it will be quite logical for the system to stabilize the main armament to also perform a single-plane one. All this will lead to the need for simplification, including the equipment of the JMA. Taking into account the fact that up to 70% of the cost of modern BTT models is the cost of a fire control system, it can be stated unequivocally that the proposals put forward to simplify the sighting and observation complex and the equipment of the control system BKM-1 will reduce the cost of the product as a whole, while maintaining the tactical and technical characteristics characteristics at the required level, and thereby increase its attractiveness for domestic and foreign customers.
In order to optimize the complex of weapons for special operations, it is proposed to replace the guided missiles with armored containers with unguided missiles (C-8) with high-explosive fragmentation or volume-detonating warheads (CU). At the same time, the armament block consisting of two 30-mm 2-42 cannons and an X-NUMX-mm PKTM machine gun paired with them is borrowed from BMPT. The turret modified in this way is mounted on a tank corps, also refined (with installation of AG-7,62D course grenade launchers) similar to the BMPT corps.
The experience of fighting in the North Caucasus, in Iraq and Afghanistan showed that the main means of destruction of armored vehicles, including tanks, in irregular formations are reactive anti-tank grenades, anti-tank graname gunners (RPG), rocket-mounted infantry flame-throwers RPO-A “Bumblebee”, infantry and sniper weapons, including large-caliber weapons, as well as anti-tank mines, radio-controlled (RVU) and improvised (IED) explosive devices. Speaking about melee weapons, I would especially like to note that there is a high probability of using an illegal armed formations in the short and medium term RPGs with tandem combat units. Moreover, such samples are currently developed both in our country, abroad and abroad. Examples include domestic RPG-7 with PG-7ВР, PI1Г-27 "Tavolga" grenade, RPG-29 "Vampire", German RPG "Panzerfaus-3" and Swedish RPG AT12-T . No less dangerous during special operations, mainly during patrols and when escorting columns of motor vehicles and armored vehicles, are mines. RVU and IED directional with a striking element of the type "shock core". RVU was most actively used in Chechnya and Iraq. In Iraq, IEDs and at the present time remain the most effective means of combating coalition forces. So, if in 2004 they caused about 30% of the total number of soldiers and officers killed in this country, in 2006-2007. the share of losses from the VCA was 80% .
Based on the above, it seems advisable to install on BKM-1 a set of protective equipment in the following composition:
- forehead projection of the hull and turret - the VDZ “Relikt” complex, including a removable module on the upper front part of the hull;
- on-board projection of the hull - rubber-fabric screens with DZ "Relikt" and additional fabric screens similar to BMPT, latticed protivokumulyatny screen in the area of engine exhaust;
- feed projection of the hull and turret - lattice protivokumulyativnye screens.
The experience of combat use of armored vehicles during the counter-terrorist operation in Chechnya showed that the installation of aerosol curtains on threatened areas reduces the loss of BTT several times. Therefore, it is proposed to install a 902A type smoke screen installation system using “Purga-3” launchers (50 mm caliber) on the product. This will allow to place on the product a larger number, compared with SDR of the TSHU-1 complex, the number of PUs with an increase in the veil production sector.
To improve the mine resistance (ICP) at BKM-1, it is proposed to introduce measures already implemented at BMPT in the department of management. install racks (pillers), and on the bottom of the machine additional protection, which can be made in the form of a removable module. In addition, in order to reduce the likelihood of an explosion on an RVU, it is proposed to install a radioelectronic suppression system (CRED) of the “Pelena-6” type, developed by KOBRA CJSC (Vladimir). This complex showed high efficiency when operating on various samples of motor vehicles and armored vehicles during the counter-terrorist operation in Chechnya . To ensure stable radio communication with other machines, the crew members of the BCM are equipped with a special helmet, developed by the above company, providing communication at a distance of at least 200 m with the RVU blocker operating. To ensure the protection of the upper projection of the product from cumulative PTSV above the hatches of the commander and the grenade launchers, additional armor screens with DZ containers are installed.
In order to enhance the crew’s ability to monitor the environment, it is proposed to introduce an outdoor video surveillance system at BKM-1. In addition, it seems advisable to install a telephone on the product, to ensure communication with departments. interacting with CCM. The installation of the phone, according to the authors, will contribute to a better orientation of the crew in the context of urban combat and the selection of priority objectives.
Taking into account the specifics of the use of CCM, it seems appropriate to significantly reduce the fuel stock carried on the product. According to the authors, the power reserve in 200 km (against 550 on BMPT) will be sufficient for the proposed car.
This will reduce the volume of transportable fuel at BKM-1 compared to BMPT by 2,7 times. At the same time, about 80% will be under reliable protection in the body of the product, part in the armored compartments (similar to BMPT), and the remaining 20% - outside the product in the armored compartment, providing protection against small arms fire, including from the upper hemisphere. The proposed event will significantly reduce the vulnerability of BKM-1 and increase ammunition course grenade launchers.
In order to maintain mobility and maneuverability at a high level of BKM-1, which is an important factor during combat in the city, a power plant with an B-92СXNNXX engine of 2 hp power is installed on the product.
Taking into account the possibility of using illegal armed formations during combat operations within the city or in mountainous areas, artificial obstructions or barricades on BKM-1, mounting points for a TBC-86 tank mounted bulldozer intended for clearing the area should be provided. As an option, the possibility of installing an original built-in armored dozer blade on the product (instead of the standard one), intended not only for clearing the area, but also an additional means of protecting the frontal projection of the hull, can be considered.
Option 2. This option (the conventional name of the machine BKM-2) is more simplified compared to the first version of the version of the combat counter-terrorist vehicle and involves installing the BKM-1 turret on the tank hull without modifying the latter for mounting course automatic grenade launchers. Based on this, BKM-2 has significant differences from BKM-1. For example, the set of security tools on BKM-2 is installed in the same composition and similarly to BKM-1. However, in order to install on-board screens with a remote "Relikt", there should be a revision of the fenced shelves, in the rear part of which, in the armored compartments, a diesel generator set, a KREP lock and some fuel are placed. Part of the systems and assemblies (collective protection system, batteries) remain in their regular places in the housing, and part (OPV system), similarly to BKM-1, is removed from the product. In order to increase the survivability of the product, the front right and left fuel tanks installed in the hull are placed in armored compartments.
On the BKM-2, as well as on the BKM-1, there should be places for the installation of a bulldozer TBS-86 to ensure clearing the area from debris and barricades. In addition, similarly to BKM-1, the possibility of installing an original built-in armored dozer blade on a product can be considered.
Summarizing the above, it can be argued that the proposed variants of the combat counter-terrorism machine are the most optimal variants of the anti-aircraft missile defense system thanks to the FCS adapted to the specific conditions of the battle, the weapons complex, as well as the high level of protection. BKM-1 and BKM-2 will be able to conduct effective hostilities with illegal armed formations in various conditions, such as: in urban areas, in mountainous areas, when escorted by convoys of road and armored vehicles and when patrolling. At the same time, in the opinion of the authors, such machines, after minor modifications, can be in demand during peacekeeping operations, including in the framework of the CSTO. Moreover, the intensity of such operations tends to increase.
1. “Military Industrial Courier” № 46, 2007 g., P. 12.
2.The catalog “Weapons of Russia 2006-2007” edited by А.М. Moscow: Moscow, Military Parade LLC, 2006 g., 1030 p .; “Foreign Military Review” No. 8, 1995 g, s.20 -24.
3. “Foreign Military Review” №2, 2008, s.39.
4. Promotional materials of CJSC KOBRA (Vladimir).