Military Review

Solar drone can seriously press satellites

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The American company Titan Aerospace has demonstrated a prototype of its solar-powered UAV, which, according to the manufacturer, can stay in the air for up to 5 years. This unit will cruise at an altitude of about 20 thousands of meters and take photographs of the surface or perform the role of an atmospheric satellite. Developers from Titan Aerospace are ready to fly their first aircraft in the 2014 year. It is worth noting that their concept may have a promising future.


Traditional space satellites today are doing quite well with their duties, but they have a number of drawbacks. For example, the satellites themselves are quite expensive, their launch into orbit also costs a considerable amount of money, moreover, they can not be returned back if they have already been commissioned. But the American company Titan Aerospace provides an alternative to space satellites, which will be spared from all these problems. The unmanned high-altitude aerial vehicle called “Solara” is designed to operate as an “atmospheric satellite” —that is, to perform autonomous flights in the upper layers of the Earth’s atmosphere for quite a long time.

The company is currently working on two models of the Solara drone. The first Solara 50 has a wingspan of 50 meters, its length is 15,5 meters, weight is 159 kg., The payload is up to 32 kg. The more massive Solara 60 has a wingspan of 60 meters, it can carry up to 100 kg. payload. The tail of the device and the upper wings are covered with 3 with thousands of solar cells that allow you to generate up to 7 kWh of energy during the day. At its cruising altitude in 20 000 meters, the atmospheric satellite will be above the cloud level, which means it will not be influenced by weather factors. The collected energy will be stored in the onboard lithium-ion batteries in order to power the engine, autopilot, telemetry systems and sensors at night. It is assumed that the atmospheric satellite will be able to work fully offline, being in the upper atmosphere of the Earth before 5 years, and then return to earth, so that its payload can be returned, and the device itself can be disassembled into spare parts.

Solar drone can seriously press satellites

It is reported that the cruising speed of the unmanned vehicle will be of the order of 100 km / h, and the operational radius - more than 4,5 million kilometers. According to experts, the drone for the most part will fly in circles over a certain part of the earth's surface. Such applications include tracking of objects, observation, mapping in real time, as well as monitoring of weather, agricultural crops, forests, places of incidents, and in general practically any tasks that an ordinary low-altitude satellite can handle.

On top of that, Titan Aerospace experts say that every UAV can provide 17 cellular coverage immediately thousands of thousands of square kilometers of the earth’s surface, communicating with more than 100 ground towers. Currently, Americans have already conducted tests of reduced models of atmospheric satellites and are hoping to release full-size versions of the Solara 50 and 60 devices later in the 2013 year.

According to preliminary estimates by experts, multispectral imaging of the earth's surface using Solara devices will cost only 5 dollars per square kilometer: this is just 7 times lower than the rates for satellite data of comparable quality. In addition, such drones will be able to provide telecommunications services for a locality in 30 km radius, which is quite comparable with a modern metropolis like London or Moscow with most of their suburbs. Under normal conditions on the territory of megacities in such a system, there is no need yet, but the company believes that their drones can be useful either in the case of emergency situations or in underdeveloped states. Titan Aerospace says that the well-known computer corporation Google, which can use them as part of its own Internet Africa project, has become interested in their Solara unmanned vehicles.


The use of mobile high-altitude vehicles (aerostats or airplanes) for radio broadcasting was proposed quite a long time ago, but the practical application of this idea was hampered by the lack of suitable power sources. The batteries were too heavy, and the solar cells lacked efficiency. The first experimental aircraft, equipped with solar batteries, were designed and built by NASA in 1990-s, it was then that these aircraft and received the unofficial designation - "atmospheric satellites".

To date, two things strengthen Solara as an atmospheric satellite. The first is the height of its flight. The device is designed to fly at an altitude of more than 20 000 meters, which allows it to be almost above all possible atmospheric phenomena. The device hangs over the clouds and a variety of weather conditions, where the environment and wind, as a rule, are fairly stable or at least very predictable. Being at this altitude, the order of 45 000 square kilometers of the earth’s surface immediately hits the field of view of the drone. Therefore, a cellular base station installed on Solara could replace the 100 of such stations on the surface of the Earth.

The second very important thing is that the device is powered by solar energy. All available surfaces on the wings and tail of the drone are covered with special solar panels, and lithium-ion batteries are mounted in the wings. During the day, Solara is able to generate an impressive amount of energy, which is enough to leave a charge in the batteries, which would be enough for the rest of the night. Since the solar-powered unmanned aircraft does not need refueling, it can be airborne for up to 5 years. At this time, he can either circle above one place, or (if you want the device to make long-distance flights) get the opportunity to fly a distance of the order of 4 500 000 kilometers with a cruising speed of slightly less than 60 nodes (about 111 km / h). In this case, the five-year period of flight of the device is due only to the life cycle of some of its components, so there are all the prerequisites to ensure that this drone could be in the sky much longer.


Equally important is the return of the device. If something goes wrong, you can always bring it back, saving the payload and the unit. Solara also promises to be much cheaper than classic satellites, although the manufacturer has not yet been in a hurry to disclose prices for its new product. The launch of such devices into mass production opens up new possibilities for humanity like the regional Internet or Google Maps with real-time maps. At the same time, the appearance of the Solara drone does not mark the end of the era of space satellites, although it gives us a choice of a larger number of alternatives.

Information sources:
-http: //gearmix.ru/archives/4918
-http: //aenergy.ru/4126
-http: //lenta.ru/news/2013/08/19/solar
-http: //nauka21vek.ru/archives/52274
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  1. tronin.maxim
    tronin.maxim 3 September 2013 08: 43 New
    +9
    Admittedly, the idea is good. If it still will be all of the composites then this is a serious tool for solving the tasks.
    1. Aryan
      Aryan 3 September 2013 10: 22 New
      +1
      I don’t care, but sorry for my descendants who will be afraid to look into the sky
      and see in the sky not the sun and stars, but a threat
      I do not want them such a "punishment of heaven"
    2. Sirocco
      Sirocco 3 September 2013 13: 59 New
      +3
      Quote: tronin.maxim
      Admittedly, the idea is good.

      Max agrees with you, but there is one thing, but this aircraft will not replace the real satellites in low Earth orbit. In all other respects, the thing is good, especially for reconnaissance, but, as always, this device will be used for military purposes. So, as always, with good intentions the road to Hell is bridging.
      The device is designed to fly at altitude more 20 meters, which allows him to be practically above all possible atmospheric phenomena.
      Can anyone answer the question of how high planes fly with thrust??
      1. No_more
        No_more 3 September 2013 17: 12 New
        +1
        There is a record of a similar project NASA Helios 29,5 km. I honestly doubt the necessity and effectiveness of the propeller at such heights. Most likely the device at such heights will be uncontrollable, but these are more engineering / technical problems than fundamental ones.

        The direction is extremely promising, like orbital planes, but alas, we do not hear about the development of this direction. I'm afraid we firmly believe in rockets.
        1. xetai9977
          xetai9977 14 September 2013 13: 19 New
          +3
          I agree, a promising direction.
      2. Windbreak
        Windbreak 3 September 2013 21: 24 New
        0
        Quote: Sirocco
        Maybe someone will answer the question of how high aircraft fly with a thrust ??

        The Grob Strato 2C is the highest altitude manned propeller-driven aircraft, reaching an altitude of 18552 meters.
    3. aviator46
      aviator46 4 September 2013 00: 41 New
      0
      And I had two questions.
      How to take the “screws” on a train of 20 km. and how to provide battery heating when
      temperature -60,70 degrees.
      1. Login_Off
        Login_Off 4 September 2013 03: 48 New
        0
        And where will the device take so much energy to power the repeaters? The article provides an example with a base station of a mobile operator. Has anyone seen equipment there, and in particular batteries for an uninterruptible power supply? Who will slaughter them? What is the area of ​​solar panels needed? And what will be the weight of the device then?
  2. Zerstorer
    Zerstorer 3 September 2013 08: 50 New
    +1
    Well, as I understand it, this is not even a demonstrator. The idea of ​​atmospheric satellites is quite interesting, although their great vulnerability should be recognized.
  3. habalog
    habalog 3 September 2013 08: 58 New
    +1
    "+"
    An interesting solution. I would like to see a working option in action.
    On the border of the Troposphere and Stratosphere (~ 20km), temperatures are minus (-50 / -40). It is quite suitable.
    We will observe smile
  4. ramsi
    ramsi 3 September 2013 09: 32 New
    +4
    and an airship in this role would not be more practical?
    1. atk44849
      atk44849 3 September 2013 09: 47 New
      0
      in certain situations, they will pose a threat to passenger airlines.
  5. desertfox
    desertfox 3 September 2013 09: 58 New
    0
    Who cares, more detailed information about the solar-powered device, 14 hours in the air.
    http://fpv-community.ru/index.php?showtopic=198
  6. Veles25
    Veles25 3 September 2013 10: 04 New
    +5
    .................
  7. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 3 September 2013 10: 17 New
    0
    These things should be cheap. They are very cheap, because in terms of strength it is even inferior to an airplane from a notebook sheet, at least from any composites it is not molded. But 20 000 still need to climb! In addition, about the lack of atmospheric phenomena - this is another question. Satellites are good at being predictable. But in general, of course, a wonderful spy, it is not for nothing that Google is so interested. I think it’s worth building for us, especially since such work does not present the slightest problems.
    1. Just Vasilich
      Just Vasilich 3 September 2013 10: 44 New
      0
      Mikhail-3: ... in terms of strength, it is inferior even to an airplane from a notebook sheet, at least from any composites it is not sculpted.

      Exactly, is this design friendly with sopromat? What operational overload will it be designed for? 50-60 meters the wingspan, and up to 20000 meters you need to get through all sorts of turbulences, ascending and descending flows of dense layers of the atmosphere.
    2. desertfox
      desertfox 3 September 2013 14: 35 New
      +3
      everything is normal with durability)
      pictured wing of a modern sports glider:
      1. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 3 September 2013 19: 43 New
        +1
        Yes, yes ... from the model. Weak jump on a full wing? Oh breaks? Well, yes, the length of the lever plays a role ... Huge wings, very long and very light. That is very weak. In addition, the solar battery cannot be bent, so ... In general, the contraption will collapse like a package, it is worth the serious wind to take up on it. If one such sail out of three reaches working height, it will be a success.
      2. Locksmith
        Locksmith 3 September 2013 23: 55 New
        0
        Quote: desertfox
        pictured wing of a modern sports glider:

        This glider has an electric motor under 5 kW and a speed under 300 km.h wink , therefore, such a strong one, and that one with a scale of 60 meters will fall in love with a sickly and delicate one, as soon as it is pulled over 20 km without breaking it, you will need to look, and the thrust of the screw for 20 km is completely different from 3-8 km , it is necessary to spin the motor very strongly, and this is superfluous energy and again weight and reliability, electric motors do not live for long at 30-40 thousand rpm, they do not hold pods, even ceramic ones.
    3. No_more
      No_more 3 September 2013 17: 14 New
      +1
      Here it is also necessary to take into account the protection from most meteorites and space debris and one hundred percent return to earth.
  8. alex67
    alex67 3 September 2013 10: 23 New
    +5
    All the good days!
    An interesting economical development, if implemented, it will be very effective
    multifunctional tracking and communication satellite. hi
    1. studentmati
      studentmati 3 September 2013 22: 38 New
      +1
      Quote: alex67
      An interesting economical development, if implemented, there will be a very effective multifunctional tracking and communication satellite. hi


      With a payload of 32 kg? no
    2. Egor.nic
      Egor.nic 4 September 2013 16: 09 New
      0
      The notion is interesting. But rather, a multifunctional seven-fingered-eight-membered one is obtained. lol
  9. Max otto
    Max otto 3 September 2013 11: 18 New
    0
    In the northern latitudes this winter is not really what you will exploit, and it is not known whether the winter sun will suffice in the temperate zones. And previously, the idea is good for sub-moderate zones and to the south (for the northern hemisphere, for the southern, respectively, vice versa).
    1. Black Colonel
      Black Colonel 3 September 2013 15: 50 New
      0
      And at 20 km what is the temperature? No less than the frosts of the winter Arctic. The unit is very promising.
  10. little man
    little man 3 September 2013 11: 21 New
    0
    Great plane! Something fabulous in it.
  11. Vorkot cat
    Vorkot cat 3 September 2013 12: 18 New
    0
    The very idea of ​​such an aircraft has existed for about 10 years already, but so far no one is in a hurry to start production of this device wink
    1. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 3 September 2013 19: 47 New
      0
      And what are the problems with its production? Rather, many have already tried ... but no one has yet succeeded in bringing it to working heights, so there is hardly anything to announce.
  12. rotor
    rotor 3 September 2013 12: 23 New
    0
    An excellent technical tool for duplicating satellites. It is only necessary to modify the wing to unfold in flight, otherwise it is very large.
    1. rotor
      rotor 3 September 2013 13: 35 New
      0
      Also, the drone can use incident wind flows for flight.
  13. Svetlana
    Svetlana 3 September 2013 12: 26 New
    +1
    Quote: atk44849
    and an airship in this role would not be more practical?

    if you fly in a circle above one point, then it’s probably more practical to use a tethered balloon (http://www.membrana.ru/particle/12522) equipped with solar panels, an on-board wind generator, an electrolysis unit for producing hydrogen from atmospheric water, condensing on the surfaces of the aerostat. The resulting hydrogen can be used to fill and make up for the loss of hydrogen from balloons instead of expensive helium. You can tie the balloon to the ground with ropes based on graphene nanotubes (http://plastcraft.ru/nanoprovod). The balloon can also be equipped with an air separation unit for nitrogen production. Nitrogen is used to replace flammable hydrogen in a balloon when it is planted on the ground for maintenance.
    1. ramsi
      ramsi 3 September 2013 13: 04 New
      +1
      tethered is unlikely, a wind generator is doubtful, electrolysis is sensible; with helium, probably, you should not bother at all, as with nitrogen, and for planting you can simply bleed hydrogen; and finally, returning to the idea of ​​a vacuum shell, the main problem is not to bleed off the gas (hydrogen), but to reduce the closed volume of the shell, if the inside pressure is at least equal to or slightly lower than the outboard pressure (which for a rigid shell at high altitude, probably real), then the drop in lift will not happen
      1. Svetlana
        Svetlana 3 September 2013 19: 13 New
        +1
        all hydrogen from the cylinder cannot be vented, because then the volume of the cylinder will become equal to zero.
        Hydrogen can be vented only with a soft balloon body - when the volume of the balloon may decrease.
        but then the cross-sectional area of ​​the balloon decreases, the ability to parachute when descending from a height
        decreases, the descent can turn into an uncontrollable fall, as happened with the stratospheric balloon “Osoaviahim-1” (http://class-fizika.narod.ru/vosd14.htm)
        It is tempting to use a rigid or semi-rigid cylinder body.
        1. ramsi
          ramsi 3 September 2013 22: 00 New
          0
          you are right - there is a problem - in the bleeding of hydrogen at almost "outboard" pressure in the shell. So, the idea is cubic meter blocks, successively opened, like the tanks of the main ballast of submarines. With a small volume and sufficiently large valves, the danger of the formation of "explosive gas", I think, can be neglected, and a consistent decrease in lift will make it possible to control the descent
    2. studentmati
      studentmati 3 September 2013 23: 40 New
      +1
      Quote: Svetlana
      if you fly in a circle above one point, then it’s probably more practical to use a tethered balloon (http://www.membrana.ru/particle/12522) equipped with solar panels, an on-board wind generator, an electrolysis unit for producing hydrogen from atmospheric water, condensing on the surfaces of the aerostat. The resulting hydrogen can be used to fill and make up for the loss of hydrogen from balloons instead of expensive helium. You can tie the balloon to the ground with ropes based on graphene nanotubes (http://plastcraft.ru/nanoprovod). The balloon can also be equipped with an air separation unit for nitrogen production. Nitrogen is used to replace flammable hydrogen in a balloon when it is planted on the ground for maintenance.


      And for what purpose is this whole garden? Or is it the irony of Svetlana? Then 5 s +.
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 3 September 2013 23: 53 New
        +2
        Cool San! I felt like a schoolboy laughing Something futuristic! You can still arm with blasters, and photon torpedoes laughing
        1. studentmati
          studentmati 3 September 2013 23: 58 New
          +1
          Quote: Alex 241
          Cool Sanya! I felt like a schoolboy laughing Something futuristic! You can still arm with blasters, and photon torpedoes laughing


          And also enable the search function for "first-aid kits", and connect at least three "lives", in case of inept use of 8D-blasters.
          1. Alex 241
            Alex 241 4 September 2013 00: 06 New
            +1
            And be sure to save laughing
      2. Svetlana
        Svetlana 4 September 2013 07: 58 New
        0
        this garden is mainly for low-altitude small-sized purposes such as axes, as in a fairy tale (I sit high, I look far ..) But we were born to make the fairy tale come true.
  14. Kadavercianin
    Kadavercianin 3 September 2013 13: 48 New
    +2
    For some reason, it seems to me that the airship will be more justified for the same functions. In general, the idea of ​​atmospheric satellites is justified, but according to this model there are a number of questions:
    1-in my opinion, this device will be comparable in price to satellites, with its dimensions and number of solar cells, the more I suspect that the design will have figs of composites and are light and strong, and at the same time not cheap alloys
    2-payload 32, 100 kg - for the range of tasks that they want to assign to it, will it be enough to accommodate so many quite different equipment in it, its tasks are more modest than that of satellites, but still in this article it was indicated that it generally "and the Swiss, and the reaper, and the trumpeter on the trumpet."
    3-third after practicing for 5 years, which materials need to be changed, how many and, accordingly, which attendants will get into it. If the situation with metal over many years of use in the aircraft industry is, in principle, more or less clear, then the composites will not fully understand how they will behave during such a long, continuous operation at low temperatures and high ultraviolet and radiation exposure.
    4-strong dependence on solar panels, the device will not be able to stick out in one place for too long if it wants to perform its tasks, we can say that it must fly behind the sun, otherwise you need to either put a set of batteries on it or a generator
    The project is interesting, not new (I already saw something similar at the beginning of 2000), but for this functionality flat unmanned airships with a “rigid” body are better suited
  15. Forest
    Forest 3 September 2013 14: 49 New
    0
    Something I doubt that the batteries will remain operational at -40C and the 5-year life is alarming.
    1. ramsi
      ramsi 3 September 2013 15: 20 New
      0
      Well, they work in space ...
      1. Forest
        Forest 3 September 2013 15: 42 New
        0
        There the insulation is good, but here there are strict weight restrictions.
        1. Kadavercianin
          Kadavercianin 3 September 2013 17: 26 New
          +1
          If I’m not mistaken, it all depends on the type of battery, for example, lithium-ion batteries on Russian satellites, on the contrary, require “hellish” cooling since the electrolyte is very hot during their operation and without proper cooling it will explode, and removed it into space in the shade and it’s already -100C, so that the batteries can still be picked up, there are problems with the other, it seems to me, well, for example, how many of these batteries can I put in there and how long will it last for them at full capacity of the equipment used?
          1. Forest
            Forest 4 September 2013 08: 46 New
            0
            Ooh, I didn’t know these properties of lithium-ion batteries. I really read it. Then there was one question that remained for 5 years with constant work.
      2. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 3 September 2013 19: 50 New
        +2
        There ... no oxygen! Oxygen is a universal destroyer. And on 20 000 there is oxygen, and some water, either in the form of ice, sometimes in the form of vapor, or even droplets will appear, just on the joints of the structure, very suitable conditions. And the flakes of batteries rained down ...
  16. lazy
    lazy 3 September 2013 15: 29 New
    +1
    in peacetime, as a reconnaissance officer, it’s unlikely that you can’t take down satellites, but in the U-2 atmosphere only in an unmanned aircraft
  17. Aristarch
    Aristarch 3 September 2013 17: 10 New
    -2
    A very stupid idea, from and to, absolutely everything is not consistent. There can be no talk of any replacement of the satellite precisely for technical reasons and the laws of physics. As for a short-term PROBE, as a repeater, well, there are many different "BUT" here.
  18. Captain cook
    Captain cook 3 September 2013 19: 33 New
    0
    Quote: habalog
    "+"
    An interesting solution. I would like to see a working option in action.
    On the border of the Troposphere and Stratosphere (~ 20km), temperatures are minus (-50 / -40). It is quite suitable.
    We will observe smile

    I will disappoint you, the border of the troposphere and stratosphere is much lower - 8-15 km, depending on the time of year and latitude.
    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/Atmosfeer.png?uselang=ru
  19. Iraclius
    Iraclius 3 September 2013 20: 27 New
    +2
    The idea is very good. A curious illustration of the development of history in a spiral. The times of Powers and the "black birds" of genius Kelly Johnson with his Lockheed U-2 are back.

    The heights are just those.
    With great pleasure I would read material on the effectiveness of the propeller drive in the upper layers of the stratosphere. As well as the issue of structural stability in conditions of high ozone content.
    Geostationary satellites, of course, will not replace such devices, but the application promises many attractive prospects.
  20. kind
    kind 3 September 2013 20: 29 New
    0
    It’s time for us to design anti-drones.
  21. studentmati
    studentmati 3 September 2013 22: 24 New
    0
    This unit will cruise at an altitude of about 20 thousand meters and take photos of the surface or act as an atmospheric satellite.

    For civilian use, the product is great !!! good

    And if there is a desire to use for military and reconnaissance purposes - that is, the M-55. drinks
    1. Alex 241
      Alex 241 4 September 2013 01: 06 New
      +1
      Solar Impulse - a plane powered by the sun's rays during a flight with grief in half in a month overcame 5000 km over continental America.
      1. studentmati
        studentmati 4 September 2013 22: 37 New
        +1
        Master class of an advanced aircraft modeling club with good funding!
  22. Egor.nic
    Egor.nic 4 September 2013 16: 03 New
    0
    Doubtful project. Rather, another fraud to knock out funds from the state budget. The optimum ceiling for jet aircraft is 20km. At a cruising speed of 100 km / h - you need a turboprop engine, taking into account the solid payload (chemical batteries, cameras, radio systems and navigation systems, solar batteries) several engines, add here 5 years of continuous operation in difficult environmental conditions. To ensure the effect of a glider flight at a given height, thoughtful aerodynamics are required. The effect of solar radiation, plus cosmic radiation and reflected earth radiation. The other side - the reliability of the 5-year continuous operation of turbine engines and blades should be confirmed. The costs are substantial, and the effect is minimal. Not an alternative to satellites.
    1. Iraclius
      Iraclius 4 September 2013 19: 20 New
      0
      Egor.nic , but what have the turbines and blades? Electric airplane. The propeller is driven by DC motors. My old laptop at the end of the month will be knocked down exactly 8 years old - the motors also work silently and alright. I did not serve them even once - only once I cleaned it from dust. Hard drive drives that work for years ... But are there any examples of extremely long-term operation of mechanisms?
      This is a time. Secondly, the threat from the aggressive environment is, in my opinion, far-fetched. Current polymers do not burn in fire, and do not drown in water.
      Turbines are not needed here. The plane is made with a clear "glider" bias. What a wingspan! And in the stratosphere, powerful convection flows are preserved.
      In addition, Solara is far from the first.
      Known prototype NASA Pathfinder. In 2001, this device climbed to an altitude of 29,5 km already, and this is the so-called. precosmos - on propellers!
      Here is a gravitap with 75 meter wing:
      1. Kadavercianin
        Kadavercianin 5 September 2013 15: 15 New
        0
        The problems with composite materials at low (below -30 ° C) and high temperatures (above 100 ° C) are not far-fetched; they are very real and for ultramodern materials and many, there is still sensitivity to ultraviolet, so the question of materials, in my opinion, cannot be removed, NASA Pathfinder did not carry a payload (something that it does not need to control and fly), in addition it was a project to test the fundamental possibilities of creating such machines, so it's only too early to talk about the whole direction, in addition, record flights are record flights , and the working height and lifetime with subsequent maintenance is another.
        All these solar devices are certainly interesting, but from a conceptual point of view (I’m not saying that this type of device itself will not work as it should), that is, the development prospects seem to me like a dead end
        1. Kadavercianin
          Kadavercianin 5 September 2013 19: 53 New
          0
          I apologize. It is not always possible to write the whole phrase at a time, so schizophasia comes out periodically.
  23. chunga-changa
    chunga-changa 4 September 2013 21: 13 New
    0
    Firstly, an AES body orbiting around the Earth and having a speed not lower than the 1st space one.
    Secondly, satellites above 100-110 km are located outside the territorial airspace and their destruction is an act of aggression. This aircraft operates in the area of ​​air borders, and can be shot down by air defense systems as soon as they cross them.
    But in principle, for peaceful purposes, the thing is not bad, scientists will appreciate.
  24. vasiliy2803
    vasiliy2803 15 September 2013 01: 32 New
    0
    Very interesting! Because it's cool!