Military Review

Small arms of the USSR: submachine guns of the Great Patriotic War

62
For many submachine guns, which were used by Soviet soldiers on the battlefields of the Great Patriotic War, these are primarily Shpagin submachine guns - the famous PCA. However, in the Soviet Union during the war years other models of automatic weapons. First of all, we are talking about pistols, machine guns of the Degtyarev system (PPD) and pistols, machine guns of the Sudayev system (PPS). During the war years, submachine guns were released in millions of batches; bullets and cartridges from them still lie on every square kilometer of the liberated territory of the former USSR, as well as countries of Eastern Europe. Soviet sub-machine guns lead wave washed away all the fascists and their allies from the occupied territories and put an end to stories "Thousand years" of the Third Reich.


It so happened that the submachine gun very successfully combined both the need to saturate military units with automatic weapons, and the weak technical training of most Soviet infantrymen and the low technological level of most of the Soviet weapons factories. It is worth noting that the first attempts to create a submachine gun, which was to become a mass weapon of an infantryman, were made in 1927 by the famous designer Fedor Tokarev, who presented his “lightweight carbine” to the military. It may be noted such a curious fact. In the sector store of his automatic carbine, the designer placed special openings through which it was possible to very easily control the number of cartridges remaining in it.

It was only after so many years (decades passed) that other gunsmiths decided to return to such a decision. In addition, the development of Tokarev was distinguished by the presence of a slide delay, which, by the way, appeared only on the most recent AK version. However, the machine gun, which became a real symbol of the entire Red Army during the Great Patriotic War, was developed by the designer Georgy Semenovich Shpagin - the famous PCA, which he developed in 1940 and was in service with the army before the beginning of the 1950-s, and in some The rear units and abroad PPSh could be found almost until the very end of the XX century.

Small arms of the USSR: submachine guns of the Great Patriotic War

Degtyarev submachine gun - PPD-34 / 40

The predecessor of the legendary PPSH was the Degtyarev submachine gun of 1934 design of the year. Unfortunately, due to an erroneous assessment and judgments, submachine guns by the then military theorists, who were for the most part former colonels and generals of the royal General Staff, were considered a purely auxiliary type of weapon. Therefore, until the 1939 of the year, there was an insignificantly small number of these machine pistols — a total of 5084. And in February 1939, PPD-34 were not only removed from service by the Red Army, but even withdrawn from the troops.

It took the bitter lesson of the Soviet-Finnish war, when a lot of troubles of the Red Army were delivered by Finnish soldiers, who were armed with Suomi machine guns designed by A. Lahti arr. 1931 of the year. This model was equipped with shops on the 20 and 71 cartridge. As a result, the Degtyarev submachine gun quickly returned to the troops, moreover, mass production was launched in the USSR. In total, 1940 produced PPD-81118 models in 40, which made this modification the most popular.

The submachine gun Degtyarev (PPD) was developed in the first half of the 1930-s. In 1935, he was adopted by the Red Army under the designation PPD-34. This submachine gun was a typical system that can be attributed to the first generation. It had a wooden bed, and metalworking was widely used in its production. Due to the short-sightedness of command, this development was used mainly in the border units of the NKVD. However, the Finnish conflict changed everything and just before the Great Patriotic War, in the year 1940, PPD has been improved, the new model was designated PPD-40.


PPD-40 was built on the basis of automation with a free gate. Fire from it is conducted from the open shutter. The barrel of a submachine gun was enclosed in a steel round casing, a wooden box. On the early 1934 and 1934 / 38 models, the box was solid, on the 1940 model of the year - split, with a cutout for the store's receiver. A submachine gun could use 2 type stores: a drum cartridge for the 71 or a box horn for 25 cartridges. Drum shops in the USSR were created from the experience gained during the Winter War with Finland. To a large extent, it was copying the shops of the Finnish SuomiM / 31 submachine gun.

Drum stores for PPD-34 and 34 / 38 had a protruding neck, which was inserted into the store's receiver, hidden in a wooden box. At the same time, stores drum RPM-40 such features have not, increasing the reliability and power knot strength cartridges. All RPMs were equipped with sector sights, which were marked up to 500 meters. The manual safety device was on the cocking handle and could lock the valve in the rear (cocked) or forward position. The infantryman also had access to the choice of fire mode (automatic or single shots), which could be accomplished with the help of a rotary flag, which was located in front of the trigger guard on the right side.

Degtyarev submachine guns were used at the beginning of World War II, but by the end of 1941, they began to be replaced in the troops with a more reliable, sophisticated and much more technologically advanced PCF production. Shpagin submachine gun was originally designed for the possibility of mass production at any industrial enterprise in the country that has even low-power press equipment, which turned out to be very useful in the context of a major war. PPSH was much easier to manufacture, which predetermined the fate of the PPD.

Features:
Caliber: 7,62x25 mm TT;
Weight: kg 5.45 with full magazine on 71 cartridge, 3.63 kg. no store;
Length: 788 mm;
Rate of fire: up to 800 rds / min;
Shops: Horn for 25 cartridges and drum cartridges for the 71 cartridge;
Effective range: 200 m.

Submachine gun Shpagin - PPSH-41

Pittolet-machine gun design Shpagina PPSH-41 was developed in 1941 year, it was created to replace the rather complex and expensive to manufacture PPD-40. In 1941, PPSh was adopted by the Red Army. This model was a cheap and easy to manufacture small arms, which were produced throughout the war. A total of about 6 million PCA-41 units were produced.


Technically, PPSH-41 is an automatic weapon built on the principle of the free shutter. The fire was fired from the rear sear (from the open bolt). Drummer was fixedly mounted on the mirror shutter. The switch of fire modes (automatic fire / single shooting) was located inside the trigger guard, directly in front of the trigger.
The fuse was made in the form of a slide on the cocking handle; it could lock the bolt in the front or rear position. The casing of the barrel and the bolt box were stamped, made of steel, the front of the barrel casing protruded by the muzzle and was the muzzle brake compensator. The stock of a wooden submachine gun was most often made of birch.

Initially, it was believed that the PCN had a special firepower attached to the drum shops on the 71 cartridge, which ensured a high density of fire and a rare change of magazine. But such shops were notable for their complex construction, high cost of production and a large number of failures in work, which led to the fact that in the 1942 year, the PPSh began to be equipped with sector stores for 35 cartridges that were similar to what was previously used at PPD-40, and in the future and on almost all samples of domestic weapons.

The PCA sights initially included a fixed front sight and a sector sight, and later - a special reversible L-shaped rear sight with installations on 100 and 200 meters. The undeniable advantages of PPSH include simplicity and low cost of construction, high effective firing range, high rate of firing; one of the drawbacks is the large weight of the model, as well as the tendency to involuntary shots in the event of a machine gun falling on hard surfaces.


Unlike many models of Allied and Wehrmacht submachine guns, the PCA used a smaller caliber pistol bullet (7,62-mm versus German 9-mm). It possessed a higher initial flight speed, which allowed firing at single ammunition to fire at a distance of up to 300 meters, which fully covered the needs of stripping trenches or urban combat.

The low requirements that were imposed on the processing equipment during the production of the PCA, led to the fact that the PCA-41 was manufactured even in Soviet partisan detachments. The successful design of this small arms was also noted by the Germans, who reworked the captured PCA for their 9x19 “Parabellum” cartridge. In total, at least 10 of thousands of such submachine guns were produced. Modifications of German origin, as well as the captured PCA not hesitate to use the soldiers of the elite German units, e.g. Vaffen-MOP. There are a large number of photographs, which captured the German grenadiers, armed with Soviet PCA.

Features:
Caliber: 7,62x25 mm TT;
Weight: kg 3,63 without store, kg 4,3. with a horn on 35 cartridges, 5,45 kg. with drum on 71 cartridge;
Length: 843 mm;
Rate of fire: up to 900 rds / min;
Magazine capacity: 35 rounds in carob (box-shaped) or 71 cartridge in the drum;
Effective range: 200 m.

Subaev submachine gun - PPS-43

Despite the fact that PCA-41 was pretty simple in the production - its production is still required the presence of a complex metal-cutting equipment. In addition, with all its undeniable advantages, it was too heavy and cumbersome to use in the conditions of narrow trenches or enclosed spaces. He also did not suit the scouts, paratroopers, tankers. Therefore, already in 1942, the Red Army announced the requirements for a new submachine gun, which was supposed to be smaller and lighter than the PCA. As a result, the designer Alexey Sudaevym in besieged Leningrad fascists was designed submachine gun PPS-42 original design. At the end of 1942, this model was put into service.


Technically, the Soudaev submachine gun was a small arms, which was built according to the scheme with a free gate and firing from the rear sear (from the open gate). Firing mode - only automatic. The fuse was in front of the trigger guard and blocked the trigger pull. The stem box was made by cold forging of steel and was one with the barrel casing. PPS was equipped with a muzzle brake-compensator of the simplest design. For disassembly, the receiver “breaks” forward-down along the axis located in front of the store's receiver. The sighting device constituted rocker pillar calculated at a range in 100 and 200 meters and fixed fly. PPS was equipped with a folding butt, which was made of steel. Box stores sector stores with 35 cartridges were used as stores. They were not interchangeable with PCA stores.

In addition to ease of manufacture, the PPS also had a folding butt, which made it an irreplaceable model of small arms to arm reconnaissance crews and various combat vehicles. In 1943, Sudayev’s product was modernized and manufactured in this form until 1945. In total, during the war years, about half a million PPPs of both models were produced. After the war, this submachine gun is very well supplied for export pro-Soviet states and movements (including China and North Korea). Often it was the PPS-43 that was recognized as the best submachine gun of the Second World War.

Characteristics
Caliber: 7,62x25 mm TT;
Weight: 3,04 kg. without cartridges, 3,67 kg. charged;
Length (butt folded / folded): 820 / 615 mm;
Rate of fire: up to 700 rds / min;
Shop: rozhkovy on 35 cartridges;
Effective range: 200 m.

Information sources:
-http: //voennovosti.ru/2013/08/strelkovoe-oruzhie-rossii-pistolety-pulemety
-http: //world.guns.ru
-http: //www.opoccuu.com
Author:
62 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. ruslan207
    ruslan207 3 September 2013 08: 04 New
    13
    they were former colonels and generals of the tsarist General Staff, were considered a purely auxiliary type of weapon. - The nonsense of the Germans, too, was not used in bulk, it was only in the movies that they showed us that the Germans had only mp-38
    1. creak
      creak 3 September 2013 10: 20 New
      14
      The standard weapons of the Wehrmacht and the SS troops were Mauser rifles of model 1898 and a Mauser 98k carbine of 7,92 mm caliber. A little more than 38 million units were produced by MP-40 and MP1 during the war years. Since mid-1944, these models began to be replaced by an STG-44 assault rifle.
    2. Aryan
      Aryan 3 September 2013 10: 40 New
      +2
      Like still there were PP ...
      1. bazilio
        bazilio 3 September 2013 12: 30 New
        +4
        Quote: Aryan
        Like still there were PP ...

        if you are about German, then they still had an MP41 Schmeiser. It was a barrel receiver and an MP-40 store and a wooden box with a butt from MP 28,2
        1. ruslan207
          ruslan207 3 September 2013 13: 28 New
          0
          This machine had nothing to do with Schmeiser, Volmer look at Wikipedia
        2. ruslan207
          ruslan207 3 September 2013 13: 29 New
          0
          This machine had nothing to do with Schmeiser, Volmer look at Wikipedia
          1. bazilio
            bazilio 3 September 2013 16: 45 New
            +1
            Quote: ruslan207
            This machine had nothing to do with Schmeiser, Volmer look at Wikipedia

            Which one? MP-38/40, yes, Volmer’s design. MR-41 was made by Schmeiser taking the Folmer MP-40 and screwed the bed from MP-28.2 to it
          2. uwzek
            uwzek 3 September 2013 16: 49 New
            0
            According to the textbook A.B.Zhuk, this is indeed a Schmeiser automaton ...
        3. uwzek
          uwzek 3 September 2013 16: 44 New
          0
          The Germans, also, several more PPs were offered, which are described in common arms manuals. That is why I will not list the models, so as not to build a great specialist from myself ...
      2. uwzek
        uwzek 3 September 2013 16: 29 New
        +2
        Yes they were. Produced in small series, Soviet and delivered by Lend-Lease. Therefore, the article is nothing (in terms of the fact that it does not bring anything new).
        1. bogdan
          bogdan 3 September 2013 17: 41 New
          +6


          Here's another was PP Korovin.
          He generally has an amazing story http://www.opoccuu.com/pistolet-pulemyot-korovina.htm
          1. Aryan
            Aryan 4 September 2013 10: 09 New
            0
            here's another question
            Did you then link the two stores for quick change?
            how is it in a movie about modern special forces
            1. Vyalik
              Vyalik 4 September 2013 18: 21 New
              +1
              My father never told me that they connected stores at the front. My friend’s son is serving in the Israeli army on one of the pictures he has attached to the M-16 store, I don’t know what to call it, the bracket or device that is still attached one store. He saw it in the photo with his own eyes, and when he arrived he asked about it, he said that they had such things for a long time, such as knee pads and elbow pieces.
  2. mark1
    mark1 3 September 2013 08: 12 New
    10
    "Initially, it was believed that the special firepower of the PPSh was given by drum magazines for 71 rounds, which ensured a high density of fire and a rare magazine change. But such magazines were distinguished by a complex design, high cost of production and a large number of failures in work, which caused the In 1942, PPSh began to be equipped with sector magazines for 35 rounds, ... "
    It is interesting that the captured PCA was valued by the Germans, including the drum store (at least in the SS troops, where they were taken into service), and even in our present time, the PCA is also valued for the large-capacity store, the drum is apparently modified before he required an individual fit.
    1. Srgsoap
      Srgsoap 3 September 2013 09: 29 New
      10
      Add another photo
      1. bazilio
        bazilio 3 September 2013 12: 35 New
        +7
        PPSh with a drum magazine is perhaps the best WWII trench broom, and even now PPSH is capable of much. You can recall the tommy gun with a drum, but PP Thompson himself was very expensive to manufacture.
      2. Recon
        Recon 3 September 2013 17: 00 New
        +1
        added the EOTech and the handle, for business ...
    2. HINO
      HINO 3 September 2013 17: 04 New
      0
      The Germans reassigned the PPSh by 9 mm.
    3. ruslan207
      ruslan207 3 September 2013 20: 52 New
      0
      Well, pp bison also has a capacity of at least
  3. bunta
    bunta 3 September 2013 08: 20 New
    +1
    Eustace Alex: The shutter lag on the AK-12 is not observed.
    1. bazilio
      bazilio 3 September 2013 12: 38 New
      +1
      Quote: bunta
      The shutter lag on the AK-12 is not observed.

      and sorry ((with a delay it would be faster to reload
    2. Recon
      Recon 3 September 2013 17: 01 New
      0
      this is why you think so? Provide Proflink?
      1. bunta
        bunta 3 September 2013 19: 23 New
        0
        Quote: Recon
        this is why you think so? Provide Proflink?

        I said - "Eustace - Alex". What is the proof? wink
        The claimed two-tempo automation also evaporated. In any case, from the statements.
        Oh well, his FIG 12-th. He draws yearning.
  4. Igor39
    Igor39 3 September 2013 08: 32 New
    +5
    It is a pity that in 1916 they did not accept Fedorov’s 6,5mm machine gun, and the Germans would have felt the density of fire at medium distances.
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 3 September 2013 09: 52 New
      +3
      For horseradish you need a Fedorov assault rifle when there was a SVT-40, which the Germans loved very much ...
      1. bazilio
        bazilio 3 September 2013 12: 42 New
        +1
        Quote: Nayhas
        It is a pity that in 1916 they did not accept Fedorov’s 6,5mm machine gun, and the Germans would have felt the density of fire at medium distances.

        Quote: Nayhas
        For horseradish you need a Fedorov assault rifle when there was a SVT-40, which the Germans loved very much ...

        if the Fedorov assault rifle would use an intermediate cartridge, it would be very relevant. With a 6.5 mm arisaka rifle cartridge, automatic fire would not give tangible advantages, and when shooting in self-loading mode the SVT-40 would be preferable, as it seems to me.
        1. Bosk
          Bosk 3 September 2013 18: 03 New
          +2
          The 6.5 cartridge Arisaka was in some way "intermediate", Fedorov chose him precisely because he had a small recoil momentum compared to other rifle cartridges, again, there were a lot of them in warehouses.
          1. bazilio
            bazilio 4 September 2013 12: 31 New
            +1
            Quote: Bosk
            The 6.5 round of Arisaka was somewhat "intermediate"

            I agree that in a way, yes, the 6,5mm arisaka was very close in terms of intermediate cartridges. here by the way an interesting question, what are the main criteria for determining the difference between a traveling and rifle cartridges. caliber, no, bullet weight, no, muzzle energy, perhaps but not a fact, sleeve / cartridge length is also not a fact ...... who has any thoughts?
            1. Bosk
              Bosk 4 September 2013 19: 12 New
              0
              The main criteria for an intermediate cartridge is the ability to conduct effective fire at a distance if I’m not mistaken 300-400 meters, well, due to this reduction in the mass of weapons and an increase in ammunition ... maybe I didn’t accurately set out but the direction is approximately correct. And 300-400 meters taken if I’m not mistaken according to statistics of manpower defeat ... somewhere like that.
        2. Sour
          Sour 4 September 2013 20: 50 New
          0
          \\\ if the Fedorov assault rifle would use an intermediate cartridge, it would be very relevant. \\\
          However, the short barrel on assault rifles seems to have never been used anywhere else. And with submachine guns too. It's not just the cartridge, but also the principle of operation of automation.
          1. Bosk
            Bosk 4 September 2013 22: 34 New
            -1
            The Ukrainian "Equalizer" seems to be working on the "short" one, though it seems to be just a promising sample, but quite an interesting "tasty".
    2. Aleksys2
      Aleksys2 3 September 2013 10: 54 New
      +1
      Quote: Igor39
      It’s a pity that they did not accept Fedorov’s 1916mm machine in 6,5

      In the summer of 1916, Fedorov’s automatic rifles armed the team of the 189 Ismail regiment, the 1 of December of the same year sent to the Romanian front as part of 158 soldiers and 4 officers. In the fall of the same year, the Sestroretsk arms factory received an order for “Fedorov's 2,5 linear rifles.” The order was not completed, because in the conditions of the war the plant could not even cope with the production of basic products. Nevertheless, a special workshop is being built in Sestroretsk. The total number of issued Fedorov assault rifles is not exactly known: no source indicates the origin of the 3000-3200 assault rifle figure, which is considered generally accepted.
      Serial production began only after the revolution at the Kovrov plant (now the plant named after Degtyarev). Prior to this, Fedorov’s machine gun was produced at the Sestroretsk arms factory, where a special workshop was built. Due to the territorial claims of neighboring Finland at the beginning of the 20's, this territory became essentially a front-line zone, and it was impossible to find priority enterprises there. At the initial order for 15 thousand pieces, 1920 submachine guns were actually produced from 1924 to 3200 year (the name “submachine gun” was assigned to the Fedorov rifle already in the 1920-s, with the light hand of the head of the shooting range N. I. Filatov). In the 1923 year, Fedorov’s assault rifle underwent modernization: the new sight, striking mechanism and magazine give reason to talk about the 1923 model of the year against the old 1916 model of the year.
      The Red Army was armed with the Red Army until the 1928 year. True, in the 1940 year, during the Winter War with Finland, a certain number of machine guns again entered the troops fighting in Karelia.
      Fedorov and other Soviet designers (Degtyarev, Shpitalny) developed on the basis of the machine a whole family of standardized models of small arms, including light and machine guns, coaxial and built aircraft machine gun systems. By this they to some extent anticipated the post-war concepts of the unification of small arms in the USSR, the USA and other countries.
      In general, the Fedorov assault rifle, as the author himself pointed out, turned out to be insufficiently reliable and overly complex design, so he did not have a chance to become a mass model of weapons. However, an analysis of the only reliable source for the operation of the machine available today - the brochure of the 1923 publication of the year - shows that the main problem of the machine was not design flaws, but the low quality of structural materials - settlement of parts, metal flows and so on, as well as the low quality of the delivered ammunition troops.
  5. Anatole Klim
    Anatole Klim 3 September 2013 09: 16 New
    +2
    In his youth he passed the test for overcoming water obstacles by swimming, instead of AKM they gave PPSh, oh heavy, he pulled everything to the bottom.
  6. omsbon
    omsbon 3 September 2013 09: 27 New
    11
    I had a chance to shoot from PPSh and PPS. It seemed to me significant, the difference in weight and comfort, in favor of the faculty.
    The characteristics of American and English submachine guns look pathetic in comparison with domestic weapons.
  7. RBLip
    RBLip 3 September 2013 09: 47 New
    +6
    PPP is by far the best. and if we consider that it was developed in besieged Leningrad, put on stream and supplied not only the troops of the Leningrad Front, then this command post is twice as valuable.
  8. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky 3 September 2013 10: 23 New
    0
    Quote: SrgSoap
    Add another photo

    On it, add the Picattini bar, tactical flashlight, telescopic butt, laser pointer ...
  9. Nayhas
    Nayhas 3 September 2013 11: 18 New
    +3
    I believe that the author has missed some important facts. A submachine gun, due to the limited range of targeted shooting, is absolutely useless in defense, in an attack it is effective only when penetrating enemy trenches, and is useful in urban battles. In 1941 the Soviet army lost millions of small arms barrels, an urgent replacement was needed, and here the PPSh became the ersatz that in a short time was able to make up for the shortage of small arms. But this does not mean that PPs were useful. In defense, an inexperienced soldier quickly shot all the cartridges in white light, and because the German infantry continued to advance, the fighter left without ammunition did what instinct prompted, i.e. to run. The same thing in the offensive, for effective shooting it was necessary to reach the enemy line at least 100 meters without firing. This could be done only with dashes, but while lying in 300m. from the enemy’s line, he could not conduct targeted fire to suppress. Those. allowed the Germans to quietly conduct targeted fire at themselves from rifles.
    These shortcomings of PP were well known in the spacecraft and made the right decision to curtail the production of PPD. The Finns’s effective use of Suomi’s PP is due to the nature of their use, sudden ambush attacks in the forest, when they quickly reduced the distance to the enemy with skis to effective PP. The problem of increasing the density of fire of rifle units in the spacecraft was solved by using an automatic rifle SVT-40 which, by the beginning of the war, had produced about 1 million units and it was planned to completely re-equip the army with it. This was undoubtedly the right decision, but the huge losses of small arms at the beginning of the war could not be compensated for by the difficult to manufacture SVT-5, hence the bias towards the PP.
    PS: in the Wehrmacht SVT-40 was valued no worse than PPSh ...
    1. Colonel
      Colonel 3 September 2013 11: 52 New
      +3
      And how do you explain the introduction of rifle regiments to the staff of infantry regiments? Also the lack of rifles?
    2. Uazovod
      Uazovod 3 September 2013 11: 53 New
      +6
      There is an opinion about the limited use of the SVT-40 in ground combat units due to the complexity of the design and the inability of infantry soldiers (due to low professional training and technical literacy) to service it in the field - it was easier for them to handle the ordinary Mosin rifle. Sailors who joined the infantry mainly worked with SVT-40, tk. they are accustomed to ship discipline to keep equipment (read - "weapon") clean and lubricated, well, various special forces. But I repeat - this is only an opinion, not a rule.
      1. Vyalik
        Vyalik 3 September 2013 13: 39 New
        +7
        My father went through 3 years of war. He talked about the fact that the SVT-40 was a good rifle, but during protracted battles, when there is no time to clean it, delays often occurred, in a battle you do not look for a place where by land or by cleaner, you fall where you fell and getting dirt and water is not good for a rifle. And this is the life or death of a soldier. And about the Mosin rifle, he said that even if he fell and buried in the sand just shake it and shoot. The machine is good in close combat when fire density plays an important role, when stripping back and trenches, aimed shooting is about 100-200 meters, but a rifle is better when shooting at medium and long distances. It is difficult to get to a distance of more than 200 meters from an assault rifle, especially a PPSh bullet.
    3. bazilio
      bazilio 3 September 2013 16: 58 New
      +1
      Quote: Nayhas
      This could be done only with dashes, but while lying in 300m. from the enemy’s line he could not conduct targeted fire to suppress.

      What do you think, how realistic is it to get at least into the chest figure from a distance of 300 m from the AK-74? Why at least in the chest, because the defending enemy is unlikely to meet the attackers at full height
      1. Bosk
        Bosk 3 September 2013 18: 21 New
        +1
        Well, shooting at 300 meters from an AK-74 ... is still "luxury" compared to shooting at this distance from an AKM.
      2. Nayhas
        Nayhas 4 September 2013 10: 14 New
        0
        Quote: bazilio
        What do you think, how realistic is it to get at least into the chest figure from a distance of 300 m from the AK-74?

        It is hard to get into the enemy shooting from a full-profile trench, so the advancing fighter fires mainly to suppress the enemy, i.e. so that the enemy could not conduct targeted fire. When firing at 300 m from the enemy’s bullets, the bullets will fly anywhere, the enemy will not even notice them. From a rifle, it is possible to conduct targeted fire and the higher the rate of fire, the more likely it is that the enemy in the trench will cease fire to change position thereby giving time for the next throw.
    4. Aleks21
      Aleks21 3 September 2013 20: 52 New
      +1
      I think that all the same 7.62x25, in contrast to 9x19, and even more so 11,43x23 mm made it possible to conduct aimed fire at 150-250m. "On horseback" on tanks it is quite possible to get closer to the effective 200 m.
  10. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 3 September 2013 11: 22 New
    +5
    To begin with, the first work on the creation of submachine guns began in the USSR in the mid-1920s. On October 27, 1925, the Red Army Armament Commission stipulated the desirability of arming with this type of weapon of the junior and middle command personnel. On December 28, 1926, the Artillery Committee of the Artillery Directorate of the Red Army approved the technical conditions for the manufacture of the first submachine guns.
    Therefore, on October 27, 1925, the commission on armament of the Red Army in its protocol, approved by I.S. Unshlikht, noted: “Recognizing the Nagan revolver as only a means of self-defense, consider the junior and middle command personnel to rearm with an automatic submachine gun, leaving Nagan in service with the senior and highest the command staff of the Artillery Directorate to conduct comprehensive tests of both new types of automatic submachine guns being manufactured and the proposed foreign ones. ” Actually, this moment can be considered the impetus for the development of domestic submachine guns, the beginning of the development of technical requirements for the "light carbines", as they were called then, and on December 28, 1926, the Artillery Committee approved the relevant documentation.
    Fedor Vasilievich Tokarev, who by that time already had considerable experience in the development of small arms, also joined in the work on the creation of the first Soviet submachine gun. So, in 1925, he and his son created the Maxim – Tokarev (MT) light machine gun.
    In 1927, an experienced Tokarev submachine gun was ready. It is worth noting that the Tokarev sample was one of the few models of automatic weapons designed for the revolving cartridge of the 7,62x39 mm R Nagan. Despite the fact that the Tokarev submachine gun was never officially adopted, a significant number of copies of this weapon were produced , - according to various sources, from 300 to 600, that is, it is quite comparable with the scale of production of PPD at the initial stage of development in production; A fairly large number of rounds of ammunition were also issued to it. Part of the submachine guns fell into the troops. Even cases of their application during the years of World War II are known. So, it is known that in January 1942, the Tokarev submachine gun was used on the Kalinin front.
    http://www.opoccuu.com/ppt-27.htm

    The first Soviet Tokarev submachine gun

    Incomplete disassembly of Tokarev submachine gun
  11. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 3 September 2013 11: 37 New
    +3
    As for the PPD, then in 1929 an experimental Degtyarev submachine gun came under a 7,62 mm cartridge. In terms of design, it was largely reminiscent of a Degtyarev light machine gun, in particular, it had a shutter with diverging combat stops and located flat on top, taking into account the use of various principles for the operation of automation equipment - a gas engine in a DP and the recoil of a shutter in an experienced submachine gun disk store.

    After refinement, in which, in addition to Degtyarev, designers G. F. Kubynov, P. E. Ivanov and G. G. Markov participated, on January 23, 1935, it was approved by the GAU as a model for the manufacture of an experimental batch (30 copies), and on July 9 adopted by the Red Army under the name "7,62 mm submachine gun of the 1934 model of the Degtyarev system (PPD)." In the same year, production began at Kovrovsky Plant No. 2.
    In 1934, the Kovrov Plant No. 2 manufactured 44 copies of PPD, in 1935 - only 23, in 1936 - 911, in 1937 - 1 291, in 1938 - 1 115, in 1939 - 1 700 , in total - a little over 5 copies.

    http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%9F%D0%94-34/38/40

    In February 1939, the RPM (Degtyarev submachine gun) was withdrawn from production and armaments, withdrawn from the troops and deposited in warehouses. Only a very small order to prevent production from completely dying was given by General Vlasik for the NKVD border troops. But in the same year, the Soviet-Finnish War began, and it suddenly turned out that a submachine gun in capable hands in a wooded area was a very formidable weapon, and then such a dialogue took place ...
    STALIN. ... The 100-shot American submachine gun [Thompson-ET submachine gun] was known, it was with the Chekists, but it was believed that it was a police weapon, that in the army this weapon had no meaning. It turned out the opposite, that for the army a machine gun is a highly necessary phenomenon, and intelligence represented it exclusively from the political side, that it was not suitable for war. ”

    The deputy commissar of defense Kulik made excuses:

    "SANDPIPER. … On the issue of PPD. I didn't think personally until I visited, Comrade Stern, after you at Kingisepp, when I went to command the corps, until I personally tried the Suomi on myself. I then saw that in the forest this "Suomi" is equivalent to an 8- [inch] howitzer.

    STALIN. A little bit inferior.

    SANDPIPER. Here, when you were surrounded and everything was cracking, and our fighters were embarrassed and even a little afraid of the forest, then I realized what "Suomi" is and remembered that I have a PPD. Then I just felt a mistake.

    STALIN. What missed is a fact.

    SANDPIPER. I do not hide it. I did not think that he could be given to the Red Army soldier. But I suggested that the Main Military Council accept this for the command staff, they rejected it, but they didn’t give it to the Red Army ... I thought it was for the command staff and for the police, and therefore I suggested that the NKVD take it ”

    B. L. Vannikov Notes of the Commissar. Banner, 1-2'1988.
    1. smiths xnumx
      smiths xnumx 3 September 2013 12: 26 New
      +1
      The People's Commissar of Defense, Comrade Voroshilov, reported:
      “As soon as it was discovered that enemy troops widely used a light submachine gun in battles, the Headquarters of the Main Military Council, or rather Comrade Stalin, lifted everyone and everything to their feet and forced them to restore the production of Degtyarev submachine gun. This pistol had a clip of only 25 rounds. Comrade Stalin demanded that the People's Commissar of Arms comrade Vannikov and his designers give the store the same as the Finnish pistol - 70-75 rounds. Within a dozen and a half days, our industry mastered both a pistol and a new magazine for 70 rounds of ammunition, and began to produce hundreds of submachine guns daily, which was immediately sent to active troops. "

      Secrets and lessons of the Winter War. Ed. Zolotareva V.A. St. Petersburg, Polygon, 2002, p. 436.

      Here is the story of the then Commissar of Arms B.L. Vannikova.

      “One evening Stalin called me. He asked why our factories did not manufacture submachine guns. I recalled the decision, according to which the supply of these weapons to the army was stopped. Silently walking around the office, Stalin said:

      - Can't we organize the production of the Finnish Suomi submachine gun? Our commanders praise him very much.

      I replied that it was necessary to manufacture a Soviet automatic machine, since it is no worse than the Finnish one, and its production has been mastered and needs only to be deployed. Moreover, this will require incomparably less time than organizing the production of a Finnish automatic machine.

      Stalin apparently hesitated. He repeated:

      - The commanders praise the Finnish machine gun. - And, going into the next room, he brought two submachine guns - a Soviet PPD and a Finnish Suomi.

      He asked to disassemble them, and we discussed in detail the qualities of the two machines, after which Stalin instructed to resume the production of PPD at the same factory - in three shifts with full use of all equipment. He demanded that by the end of next month, 18 thousand submachine guns were made.

      Since this was impossible even with the mobilization of all forces (there was very little hurt in the work in progress), which I reported to Stalin, he ultimately reduced the task to 12 thousand. But since I said that even such a quantity cannot be manufactured in such a short time, Stalin irritably asked:

      “What can you offer?” And what if from the front every day they demand to equip at least one compartment in the company with submachine guns?

      I remembered the submachine guns received by General Vlasik. The latter was immediately summoned by Stalin and was instructed to immediately transfer to the army all PPDs available in the border areas. Their delivery to the front was to be carried out by planes "

      B. L. Vannikov Notes of the Commissar. Banner, 1-2'1988. p. 135

      No sooner said than done. Transport planes flew in, bringing the PPD scattered along the entire border all the way to Primorye to the Soviet-Finnish front. But that was not enough. Delivery of PPD from border guards could not solve the problem of weapons. So the assault squads on the Mannerheim Line had to be armed with 6,5-mm Fedorov assault rifles during the First World War.
      1. smiths xnumx
        smiths xnumx 3 September 2013 12: 29 New
        +5
        Soviet soldiers armed with Fedorov assault rifles on the ruins of a Finnish bunker on the Mannerheim Line
      2. Corsair
        Corsair 3 September 2013 12: 38 New
        0
        Quote: Kuznetsov 1977
        So the assault squads on the Mannerheim Line had to be armed with 6,5-mm Fedorov assault rifles during the First World War.

        6,5 MM is Japanese ammunition? hi
        1. smiths xnumx
          smiths xnumx 3 September 2013 12: 56 New
          +1
          Yes, Fedorov created his weapons for the Japanese cartridge "Arisaka"
          In 1915, Fedorov adapted his rifle to an even weaker Japanese cartridge of caliber 6,5 × 50 mm Arisaka. These cartridges were purchased by the government along with the Japanese Arisaka carbines and were in stock in significant quantities. The main manufacturers of Japanese-style cartridges for Russia were English firms - Kainok, the Woolwich royal arsenal, as well as the Petrograd cartridge factory (200-300 thousand per month, according to the factory museum).

          It should be especially noted that both Fedorov’s cartridge and Arisak’s cartridge are typical rifle cartridges in terms of their ballistic properties, albeit of reduced caliber and power, but not at all like intermediate ones, as claimed by some sources. True, according to such “paper” characteristics as the caliber and muzzle energy of a bullet, the Arisak cartridge in a specific case of its use in the Fedorov’s assault rifle (with a barrel relatively short compared to a conventional rifle) is really comparable with the most powerful of the intermediate intermediate cartridges designed for a specific task destruction of targets protected by means of individual armor protection - such as 6,8 × 43 mm Remington SPC or 6,5 × 38 mm Grendel, but at the same time due to the use in its design of much less advanced technologies and materials of the late XIX century by weight , it corresponded to dimensions and recoil momentum precisely to rifle cartridges (the Arisaka cartridge weighed 21 grams, the cartridge for the Mosin rifle - 22,7 ... 25,1 grams; their sizes were also very close), and therefore it was still too large and heavy for successful use in a manual automatic weapon such as an assault rifle in the modern sense of the word

          http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%90%D0%B2%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%82_%D0%A4%D

          0%B5%D0%B4%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0

          Cartridge 6,5 × 50 mm Arisaka
          1. smiths xnumx
            smiths xnumx 3 September 2013 12: 59 New
            +6
            However, Fedorov did not stop at the base of his machine gun and also created a light machine gun, under the same cartridge:

            and with an air-cooled barrel, similar to the 1915 Anglo-American Lewis.

            Yours! hi
    2. stalkerwalker
      stalkerwalker 4 September 2013 00: 42 New
      +5
      Quote: Kuznetsov 1977
      B. L. Vannikov Notes of the Commissar. Banner, 1-2'1988.

      Comrade Vannikov, to put it mildly, is disingenuous. Again I will refer to "10 myths" by A. Isaev - the topic is how to grill, chew.
      Comrade Stalin, when the war ended, many ministers and marshals "rewarded what they deserved." Vannikov managed to "trample" the zone for certain sins even during the war, but the Minister of the Aviation Industry Shakhurin, together with Marshal of Aviation Novikov (and they were married to sisters), received "retroactively" terms, for the fact that one ordered to release from the assembly Yaki workshops in violation of the technology of fastening percale on planes - with nails, instead of self-tapping screws, and the second, ordered the military receptionists to sign acts. In the final, hundreds of aircraft literally fell apart in the air, in battle.
      And after the death of J.V. Stalin, with Khrushchev, many began to "take revenge" on the deceased in their memoirs.
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 4 September 2013 00: 44 New
        +1
        good + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
  12. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 3 September 2013 13: 14 New
    +3
    Well, now a small selection of photos from the PCA:
    Aircraft TU-2 with Fire Hedgehog:
    The chief of the OKB armament brigade A.V. Nadashkevich and the leading engineer S.I. Saveliev in 1944 proposed the use of submachine guns designed by G.S. Shpagin when attacking enemy infantry convoys. For this purpose, a platform was designed on which 88 PPSh assault rifles were fixed (11 rows of 8 trunks each). The whole system is called "PPSh battery." Each machine had a magazine with 71 rounds of 7,62 mm caliber. In the fighting position, the battery was rigidly mounted in the Tu-2 bomb bay. During the attack, the pilot opened the bomber’s flaps and, using a special sight, fired heavily at the enemy. For reloading, the platform with the PPSh fell down on the cables.

    The decision to install such systems on two Tu-2S was made at a meeting at the Chief of Aviation Marshal A.A. Novikov on October 10, 1944.

    Ten days later, Major General IAS A.N. Tupolev asked the Chief Engineer of the Red Army Air Force Colonel General IAS A.K. Repin to give an order to allocate 156 180 pieces of PPSh of the 1941 model with the number of disk stores and 15000 rounds of ammunition.

    In early February 1946, the PPSh battery, which received the unofficial name "fiery hedgehog", passed flight tests at the range. They showed its great efficiency. However, a powerful flurry of fire was short-lived, and the need to return to base to reload the submachine guns negated its advantages. As a result, it was recognized that it was more expedient to use small-caliber bombs placed in cassettes to defeat enemy manpower.

    http://www.airwar.ru/enc/aww2/tu2sh.html

  13. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 3 September 2013 13: 17 New
    +4
    Kilimanjaro African policeman with PCA

    Angolan partisans with PPSh

    Romanians with PPSh

    Australians in Korea with captured PCA

    Perfume with PPSh
    1. Astrey
      Astrey 3 September 2013 20: 15 New
      0
      The photo with the Australians is remarkable - Jamie Oliver is right - "Australians are people too - just not as smart as the rest." FROM

      The warrior does not seem to get into the work of the instance.
  14. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 3 September 2013 13: 22 New
    +4
    Deutsche Froline with PPSh

    Grenadier Waffen SS with PPSh

    Croatian Shotgun PPSh

    PCA at the awards

    Germans with PPSh at the captured KV
  15. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 3 September 2013 13: 26 New
    +3
    German huntsman masters PCA

    German paramedic with PPSH

    German convoy with PPSh and captured Red Army soldiers

    German tanker with PPSh

    NNA GDR with PPSh on exercises
  16. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 3 September 2013 13: 31 New
    +4
    "forest brothers" - detachment Laimutis Lithuania 1949

    banderlog with PPSh

    Italian gendarmes

    PCA with silencer

    Hungarian "rebels" in 1956, also did not shy away from the PPSh

    Vietcong with PPSh

    All photos taken
    http://artofwar.ru/img/c/chekmarew_w_a/text_0290/index.shtml
  17. ramsi
    ramsi 3 September 2013 14: 47 New
    +4
    PPSh with a glushak impressed! Such a thing would definitely come in handy on the farm
    1. ICT
      ICT 3 September 2013 17: 59 New
      +1
      Quote: ramsi
      PPSh with a glushak impressed! Such a thing would definitely come in handy on the farm


      Yes, along the way, from someone's farm, they took it, (who is already resting for it)
  18. Alikovo
    Alikovo 3 September 2013 15: 02 New
    0
    they have a slightly higher rate of fire.
  19. HINO
    HINO 3 September 2013 17: 10 New
    0
    Oh, if only in the 34th Fedorovo-Degtyarevskaya Mafia didn’t cut Moshchevitin’s rifle ...
  20. Ilya Mikhalych
    Ilya Mikhalych 3 September 2013 17: 26 New
    +1
    Article +, but I doubt that the PCA will be effective at 300 meters, even single.
  21. nik_alt
    nik_alt 3 September 2013 20: 14 New
    0
    The other day I saw on YouTube a review of PPS-43 made by an American. I did not understand everything, however, but the review came out laudatory!
  22. The comment was deleted.
  23. ruslan207
    ruslan207 3 September 2013 20: 56 New
    +1
    PPS masterpiece was the best PP the second world was
  24. NOMAD
    NOMAD 3 September 2013 21: 36 New
    -2
    But for some reason, the Soviet PCA is similar to Finnish Suomi! During the Soviet-Finnish war, Suomi was already !!! and PCA came out later !!
    1. Bosk
      Bosk 3 September 2013 22: 02 New
      +1
      And for me, an improved PPD-40.
      1. Landwarrior
        Landwarrior 4 September 2013 12: 52 New
        0
        Quote: Bosk
        And for me, an improved PPD-40.

        Duc on the basis of "Suomi" after the winter war, this modernization of the PPD was made - a split bed and a drum magazine without a neck. wink
        1. Bosk
          Bosk 4 September 2013 19: 28 New
          0
          Well, here's the PPD-34 adopted in service in the 34th year, here you have all the upgrades "on the face." Maybe someone will remember that the "Suomi" was adopted in the 31st ..., well, then our very quickly copied and more in addition, finalized ...
    2. stalkerwalker
      stalkerwalker 4 September 2013 00: 18 New
      +5
      Quote: NOMAD
      During the Soviet-Finnish war, Suomi was already !!! and PCA came out later !!

      "Suomi" sucks in its performance characteristics.
      The success of the PCA is a much lower production cost than, say, PPD. Some "smart guys" also shout about the similarity of the PPSh with the Thomson assault rifle, the favorite toy of the US gangsters of that time.
      "... Look, Kozlevich, what can be done from a Singer sewing machine ...".
      "Golden calf".
  25. stalkerwalker
    stalkerwalker 3 September 2013 21: 52 New
    +4
    The article, to put it mildly, controversial ... I didn’t minus, but not so, guys ...
    ... Therefore, before the 1939 of the year, negligible data on submachine guns was released - the entire 5084 instance. And in February 1939, the PPD-34 were not only withdrawn from the Red Army, but even removed from the army ...
    I recommend "10 myths" by A. Isaev - the topic has been researched.
    In the first photo, above the Reichstag - PPP, not PPD.
    Well, after that I didn’t read ...
  26. Avenger711
    Avenger711 4 September 2013 00: 42 New
    -5
    From PPSh at 300 meters it is strong. Well, if for 100 kills. A conventional 50-pistol is already almost useless, and a 9 mm caliber is adopted to maintain a stopping action with a low-power cartridge, that is, even as a self-defense weapon, PPSh is frankly weak.
    1. falcon
      falcon 4 September 2013 01: 00 New
      +2
      Quote: Avenger711
      that is, even as a self-defense weapon, PCA is frankly weak.

      They invented it themselves, or who suggested?
      1. Bosk
        Bosk 4 September 2013 19: 39 New
        0
        If in the 90s every law-abiding citizen had such weak fuzz ... then the profession of a bandyugan would be the most dangerous.
    2. Landwarrior
      Landwarrior 4 September 2013 12: 46 New
      +2
      Quote: Avenger711
      even as a self-defense weapon PPSh is frankly weak.

      This is followed by a bike about the fact that the PPSh bullet did not penetrate the overcoat in the cold wassat
      It is strange that TT under exactly the same "weak" as you say, the cartridge was very much appreciated in the 90s by bandits for its ability to pierce a target even in a bulletproof vest laughing
    3. Bosk
      Bosk 4 September 2013 19: 37 New
      +1
      And "Mauser" for you is not a pistol?, For your information, if it is reasonable to add the barrel length to the pistol ... then the powder gases on the bullet will last longer and naturally the bullet speed wakes up more and of course the lethal range.
    4. Sour
      Sour 4 September 2013 21: 02 New
      +3
      \\\ From the PCA at 300 meters it is strong. Well, if for 100 kills. A conventional 50-pistol is almost useless, and a 9 mm caliber is adopted to maintain a stopping effect with a low-power cartridge, that is, even as a self-defense weapon, PPSh is frankly weak. \\\
      I haven't read such nonsense for a long time. "Mauser", which has the same cartridge as the PPSh, was excellent at hitting at 100 meters and more. And in general, the stopping action is for close combat, and not for shooting at 100 m or more. There you need more penetration and maximum range, and not a stopping effect. And the penetrating ability and range does not depend on the caliber, but on the initial speed. The initial speed for the PPSh is 500 m / s, for the PM 315 m / s. Do not write nonsense and do not disgrace yourself. You don't even know the basics of shooting.
  27. Droid
    Droid 4 September 2013 08: 49 New
    +1
    Quote: Nayhas
    The submachine gun, due to the limited range of targeted shooting, is absolutely useless in defense, in an attack it is effective only when penetrating enemy trenches, and is useful in urban battles.

    On the contrary, it’s very effective. A couple of PPSh, at a distance of up to 200 m, could stop the attack and cause the enemy to lie down.
    Quote: Nayhas

    In 1941 the Soviet army lost millions of small arms barrels, an urgent replacement was needed, and here the PPSh became the ersatz that in a short time was able to make up for the shortage of small arms.

    The plan for the production of PPSh at 41 was failed and in general its production was in question. While Izhevsk produced three of 12 thousand per day. So, do not tell tales about ersatz.
    Quote: Nayhas

    But this does not mean that PPs were useful. In defense, an inexperienced soldier quickly shot all the cartridges in white light, and because the German infantry continued to advance, the fighter left without ammunition did what instinct prompted, i.e. to run.

    PPs were very helpful. So much so that in December 41, the distribution of PPSh was dealt with by the Supreme Command.
    Quote: Bolotin
    “A new year was approaching, 1942. On the evening of December 31, when I was engaged in many urgent matters, they suddenly called from Stavka. They said that two ski battalions should urgently go to the front, but they do not have a single machine gun, they need to be armed urgently. I asked to let me deal with our capabilities. It turned out that at that moment we had only 250 assault rifles at our disposal - such were the reserves of small arms at that time! I reported to Stavka our “automatic capabilities”. In response, he received an order: “Immediately give one hundred and sixty automatic machines to the ski battalions, and keep ninety in your reserve.” So we met in 1942. Although our capabilities were modest then, we deeply believed that a holiday would come on our street too! ”*

    Recalling this episode in 1943, Stalin said: “I remember a time when it was difficult with machine guns. The enemy then threatened directly to the capital. It was necessary to find two hundred assault rifles for the rear of the enemy. Then we did not give rest to anyone day or night. And now for us this is not a problem. There are as many assault rifles as the front needs.
  28. Droid
    Droid 4 September 2013 13: 25 New
    0
    Quote: Bosk
    The 6.5 cartridge Arisaka was in some way "intermediate", Fedorov chose him precisely because he had a small recoil momentum compared to other rifle cartridges, again, there were a lot of them in warehouses.

    It depends on what is considered small. The recoil momentum of 6,5 Arisaka is of the order of 1 kgf * s, which is twice as high as the pulse of 5,45 and 1,28 times higher than 7,62x39.
    1. Bosk
      Bosk 4 September 2013 19: 47 New
      0
      Dear, it is not correct to compare what is and what was, I had in mind among rifle cartridges at that time. By the way, it seems even then that Fedorov said something about the excessive power of rifle and the weakness of pistol cartridges ... and suggested introducing an interim one, but after the Civil War it was by no means lifting for the country.
  29. svp67
    svp67 4 September 2013 19: 42 New
    +1
    Very interesting military photos
    - Salute of the Winners

    - our "marines" with the "Americans"

    1. Bosk
      Bosk 4 September 2013 22: 17 New
      +1
      "American" during the war came to us through L-Lisa, though a small amount, if I'm not mistaken in Leningrad in the museum of artillery there is even an exhibit.
      1. Landwarrior
        Landwarrior 5 September 2013 00: 08 New
        +1
        Yes, Lend-Lease. As a rule, they went with tanks and other equipment as weapons for crews. Used mainly in the rear because rare cartridge. wink
        somehow hi
  30. Droid
    Droid 5 September 2013 09: 23 New
    0
    Quote: Bosk
    Dear, it is not correct to compare what is and what was, I had in mind among rifle cartridges at that time.

    Here the fact is that for a manual automatic weapon, if it is not a machine gun, the momentum is still large. And for the store and self-loading, the difference between 7,62x54 and 6,5 Arisaka is not critical. Plus, the well-established production of cartridges 7,62, and the accumulated stocks, and the lack of machines and equipment for the production of weapons and cartridges for a reduced caliber, and the poverty of the country ... It was completely logical to leave the main cartridge 7,62x54. Actually, Fedorov’s ideas were embodied with the adoption of the 5,45 cartridge.
    1. Bosk
      Bosk 5 September 2013 19: 14 New
      0
      The difference is not critical but significant, again, there was no need to establish the production of Arisak cartridges, because tsarist Russia bought a huge amount of them from Japan in the First World War and had to be used somehow.