Military Review

World War II. 1941-1945. Chetnik movement in Yugoslavia

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Yugoslav troops in their homeland (as opposed to "Yugoslav troops abroad"), Serb. Ословugoslovenska voska y otabini, informal name - Chetnik, Serb. the Yugoslav monarchist guerrilla organization during the Second World War. 13 was founded on May 1941, the leader is a colonel (later made by the Yugoslav emigrant government to become generals) Dragoljub Mikhailovich. The Chetniks focused on the royal government of Yugoslavia in exile. Ethnically mainly consisted of Serbs.


The oath of three young Chetniks from Medvedzha, 1941

World War II. 1941-1945. Chetnik movement in Yugoslavia


After the initial clash with the occupying forces of the axis, the Chetniks were divided, some of them began to fight against the Germans and the Ustashe, while others concentrated on fighting the communist partisans, sometimes the Chetniks collaborated with the Italians, and sometimes even with German troops.

A group of Chetniks are listening to a British radio station near Medvej in Vulinov on 1942. year



Dragoljub (dragees) Mihajlovic (Serbia Dragoљub "Drazen" Mihailoviћ.), Is also possible to write the names of M. (27 April 1893, Ivanjica - 17 July 1946, Belgrade) - Yugoslav Serb military leader, a member of the Balkan wars and the First World War, the commander of the Chetnik movement During the Second World War.

General, leader of the Chetnik movement Dragoljub (Drazha) Mikhailovich in the Serbian village of Pranyana with representatives of the American military mission.1944



After the Axis attack on Yugoslavia 6 on April 1941, Colonel Mikhailovich was sent to the Sarajevo area by the head of the operational department of the 2 Army. Even in peacetime, Dragoljub proposed that the high command, in the event of war, withdraw the army from the borders to the mountains in order to proceed to guerrilla actions so that the German army could not take advantage of its technical advantage. But in the Yugoslav leadership they decided not to give a single inch of their land to the enemy without a fight, and Mikhailovich’s proposal was rejected. Under the blows of the German, Italian and Hungarian troops at the front and the Croatian armed forces in the rear, the Yugoslav army retreated and was completely defeated in a few days. 17 April military command signed a surrender.

The oath of the soldiers of the Second Ravnogorsk corps of the Chetniks Xnumx



During the surrender detachment Mikhailovich was in Bosnia. Upon learning of the government’s surrender, Dragolyub called on soldiers and officers to refuse to accept it. After that, the detachment headed for Serbia. 8 May they arrived at Ravna Gora. This day is considered the beginning of the movement of the Chetniks, or the Ravnogorsk movement.

Fighters of the Second Ravnogorsk Corps of the Chetniks in oath.1942



After some time, the officers and soldiers of the defeated Yugoslav army and those who did not want to put up with the occupation of their homeland reached out to Equal Gora. Most of those who came to Mikhailovich sent to their homelands to organize partisan movements throughout the country. He believed that the forces were not equal, and it was premature to enter into open confrontation with the enemy. According to the doctrine of Mikhailovich, it was necessary to carry out actions of sabotage and sabotage, conduct reconnaissance and subversive activities, protect the civilian population and prepare the people for a general uprising, when suitable conditions are created for this.

A detachment of the Chetniks from the Deligrad Corps in the city of Sokobanya. Serbia, winter 1942-43gg.



In the summer of 1941, communists began to be active in Yugoslavia. The leader of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, Josip Broz Tito, created armed units, later transformed into the People’s Liberation Army of Yugoslavia. In August, 1941, Army General Milan Nedich, formed the Government of National Salvation, which set the course for cooperation with the Germans. At first, the Chetniks and Communist partisans tried to cooperate in the fight against the invaders. However, in November, clashes began, which soon grew into a civil war. The Chetniks fought against the Communists, against the occupiers, and against the Ustashes, but they tried to cooperate with the Nedich troops.

Chetniki on the transition in the winter 1942 — 1943's. Neighborhoods of Aleksinac in southern Serbia



The Chetniks achieved great success and in 1942, they controlled large areas, clearing them both from invaders and from communists. The Yugoslav government in exile established contact with Mikhailovich and recognized him as commander of the Yugoslav army, in December conferred on him the rank of brigadier general, in January 1942 divisional general, and in July 1942 - army general. The German command launched several major operations to destroy the ravnogory movement and its leadership. But these operations failed. In July, the 1943, the occupiers appointed for the head of Mikhailovich 100 thousand gold marks. In February, 1943, the leader of the French Resistance Movement, General Charles de Gaulle awarded Mikhailovich with a Military Cross.

Chetniki machine gunners from the Deligrad Corps. Aleksinac district in southern Serbia. Winter 1942-1943's



The Yugoslav communists, seeing Mikhailovich as a serious opponent, tried to deprive him of the help of his allies in the Anti-Hitler coalition, accusing him of collaborating with the occupiers. In 1944, the allies, including the Yugoslav emigrant government, finally shifted to Tito.

The soldiers are armed with German machine guns MG-34. The surroundings of the city of Kralev, Yugoslavia. 1943 year.



However, Mikhailovich did not give up and, in connection with the defeats of the Germans at the front, 1 September 1944 announced a general mobilization, trying to prevent the communists from seizing power. In October, the Red Army entered the territory of Yugoslavia, and almost the whole country was under the control of the Communists. Most of the Chetniks departed to the north of the country, where they, together with parts of the Slovenian home-keeping and the remnants of the Serb SS Volunteer Corps, tried to resist NOAJ in Slovenia. But the forces were unequal, and most of the Chetniks retreated to Italy and Austria. Mikhailovich himself refused to leave the country and urged the Chetniks not to fold weapons and continue the fight. In March, the 1946 detachment of Mikhailovich was crushed, and he himself was captured.

A group of Chetniks from the Deligrad Corps on vacation in the village. Picture taken in the vicinity of the town of Aleksinac in southern Serbia. Summer 1943 of the year



His trial ran from 10 June to 15 July 1946. The court refused to accept the testimony of American officers who were under Mikhailovich during the war, as well as the Anglo-American pilots shot down over Yugoslav territory and saved by the Chetnik (more than 500 pilots were rescued during the war).

The commander of the Second Ravnogorsk corps of the Chetniks, Captain Predrag Rakovich, conducts a review of the fighters. 1943



15 July Mikhailovich was sentenced to death and July 17 was shot early in the morning. Presumably, this happened in Belgrade, in the area of ​​the Ada Tsiganlia island beach, near the now-demolished old prison [1] In March 1948, US President Harry Truman awarded the Dragoljub Mikhailovich with the American Legion of Honor medal (posthumously). In 2001, the award was presented to his daughter.

The commander of the Second Ravnogorsk corps of the Chetniks, Captain Predrag Rakovich, conducts a review of the fighters. District of Cacak, Yugoslavia, 1943 year.



His burial place remains unknown. In June 2011, the Secretary of the State Commission for the Detection of Secret Burials killed after 1944, Srdjan Cvetkovic published the fact [1] that, during prospecting at the site of shootings and subsequent burials in Belgrade, in the area of ​​the Ada Tsiganliya island beach, near the now demolished the old prison, employees of the State Commission successfully found the remains of bodies and handcuffs, including the remains of Drazhe Mikhailovich.

A detachment of Chetniks from the Deligrad Corps is part of a Serbian village. Picture taken in the vicinity of the town of Aleksinac in southern Serbia, March 1943



Lieutenant Boyan Ristanovich, intelligence and counterintelligence officer, head of the military police and chairman of the military court of the Second Ravnogorsk Chetnik Corps. 1943 year.



The head of the Ravnogorsk Pokoda (Chetniks) General Drazha Mikhailovich. Serbia, January-February 1943.



Nurse of the Second Ravnogorsk Corps of the Chetniks Kosan Hatchi Nikolic 1943



A small detachment of Chetniks in the vicinity of the town of Deligrad in southern Serbia. Squad Leader - Captain Vlastimir Vesich (standing seventh from left)



A squad of Chetniks from the 4 Sokobansky brigade in the vicinity of the city of Sokobanja in the south of Serbia. Winter 1943 — 1944's.



The commander of the Second Ravnogorsk Corps of the Chetniks, Captain Predrag Rakovich, with the head of the Allied Mission, English General Charles Armstrong. District of mountains. Xnumx



The commander of the Second Ravnogorsk corps of the Chetniks, Captain Predrag Rakovich, speaks at the Vidovdan festival. Neighborhood of the village Lazats, Yugoslavia. 28 June 1944



Soldiers of the Second Ravnogorsk corps of the Chetniks at the festival Vidovdan, on the mountain Elitsa. Neighborhood of the village of Lazats, Yugoslavia, 28 Jun 1944



Standard-bearers of the Second Ravnogorsk corps of the Chetniks at the festival Vidovdan



The commander of the Second Ravnogorsk corps of the Chetniks, Captain Predrag Rakovich, speaks in a solemn oath.



The Chetniks enter Kruševac, October 14 1944. of the year



Colonel Dragutin Keserovich, Soviet Colonel Pronin and American Lieutenant Elsford Kramer spoke on the balcony of the Paris Hotel.



Citizens gathered in front of the monument to the heroes of Kosovo in the city center



Before the monument there was a celebration of the Chetniks



Here we see a demonstration of Chetniks and citizens under the American and Soviet flags.



Zhivadin Andreich. He was captured by the Communists and executed in Krusevac in 1944. To his left his wife, Divna. Another Chetnik is Radomir Zdravich, also shot by the Communists in Krusevac. They belonged to the first Trstenichkoy brigade.



The Chetniks from the first Trstenik brigade, from left to right, Zhivadin Adreiich, Draghi Draskovic, Obrad Milivojevic, Rade Zivkovic and the unknown Chetnik.



Milisav Stoyich. From 1942 to the Trstenick Brigade. Surrendered in 1946 year, was sentenced to death in Nish 15 June 1947. Slobodan Penezic - Krtsun himself shot him and another 12 of the Chetniks.



General Dragolyub Mikhailovich with Muslim leaders in Bielina at the end of September 1944.



Unidentified Chetniks



Two Chetniks kill a Serbian peasant suspected of having links with partisans



Three Chetniks kill a Serbian peasant suspected of having links with partisans.



Soviet soldiers and Serbian peasants stand at the found bodies of Soviet officers killed by the Chetniks. Picture taken at the beginning of October 1944 year in the village of Mikhailovac



Chetnik kills a Serbian peasant, a relative of a partisan



Chetniks kill partisan captured in captivity



The Chetniks kill a partisan who is trapped in their ambush



The Chetniks killed a messenger of partisans who fell into their ambush. November 13 1943 of the year.



Yugoslav partisan, the national hero of Yugoslavia Stepan Filipovich during his execution. Valevo (Yugoslavia), 22 May 1942 of the year

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  1. Denis
    Denis 9 September 2013 08: 31 New
    +8
    the Chetniks collaborated with Italians, and sometimes even with German troops.
    Also climb folk heroes?
    In March 1948, US President Harry Truman awarded Dragolyub Mikhailovich the American Legion of Honor medal.
    Why so little? Nominated for Nobel Peace Prize
  2. Greyfox
    Greyfox 9 September 2013 08: 34 New
    17
    During the Second World War in the territory of Yugoslavia, Tito partisans were the only force that, without any "temporary cease-fires" and cooperation with local collaborators and occupiers, fought against the Nazis and their hangers-on. And this is the most important thing for us. By the way, Stepan Filipovich (in the last photo) was captured by the Chetniks and issued by them to the Germans. Such acts by local Balkan showdowns cannot be justified.
  3. makst83
    makst83 9 September 2013 09: 36 New
    +6
    what the fuck @ thai habit of cutting the throat !?
    1. Yun Klob
      Yun Klob 9 September 2013 10: 54 New
      +2
      In each Chetnik detachment there were so-called “spikes” - executioners for demonstrative executions, exclusively cold steel.
  4. Proud.
    Proud. 9 September 2013 09: 40 New
    13
    Butchers ... They loved to pose as they cut people. I read that after the Chetniks executed Soviet officers in the fall of 44 years in eastern Serbia, the Red Army fighters practically did not take Chetniks. Yes, and by habits, they do not differ from Croats-Ustasha. Those in general had special Serboseki knives (Serborazy):
  5. RBLip
    RBLip 9 September 2013 09: 48 New
    13
    such is the yugov version of bendera.
    1. anip
      anip 10 September 2013 05: 35 New
      +2
      Quote: RBLip
      Yugov version of Bendera

      Remember everything once and for all: “Bandera”, through “a”, a derivative of Bandera, which is Stepan. And Bender is such a city in Moldova. And then zae .... already "literate", they write some nonsense.
    2. Alex
      Alex 31 January 2014 19: 52 New
      +2
      Quote: RBLip
      such is the yugov version of bendera.
      Rather, AKovtsev. Adjusted for great cruelty (this is probably the Muslims have accumulated).
  6. tilovaykrisa
    tilovaykrisa 9 September 2013 10: 21 New
    +4
    They loved to show off with knives, that says a lot.
  7. Fuzeler
    Fuzeler 9 September 2013 11: 07 New
    +1
    I got the impression that the sympathy of the author of the article is on the side of the Chetniks.
    1. Alex
      Alex 31 January 2014 19: 53 New
      +2
      Quote: Fuzeler
      I got the impression that the sympathy of the author of the article is on the side of the Chetniks.
      But where is the impression, the white threads just glow.
  8. Sanches
    Sanches 9 September 2013 12: 17 New
    0
    the Chetniks were divided, some of them began to fight against the Germans and the Ustashi, while others focused on the struggle against communist partisans, sometimes the Chetniks collaborated with Italians, and sometimes even with German troops.
    I understand that not all Chetniks were enemies to their people.
    1. Denis
      Denis 9 September 2013 15: 18 New
      +2
      Quote: Sanches
      as I understand it, not all Chetniks were enemies to their people
      Is it somehow strange that you understood the six occupiers for the benefit of your people?
      No, I can’t comprehend ...
      1. Sanches
        Sanches 10 September 2013 09: 11 New
        0
        some of them began to fight against the Germans and Ustasha
        this is not one movement, but two different movements under the same name.
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. FC SKIF
    FC SKIF 9 September 2013 16: 00 New
    +1
    Type of local oun -upavtsev. At first, they would fill up the external enemy together, and then they would sort it out themselves.
    1. Alex
      Alex 31 January 2014 20: 00 New
      +1
      Quote: FC Skiff
      Type of local oun -upavtsev. At first, they would fill up the external enemy together, and then they would sort it out themselves.
      And so, and not so. Indeed, a certain allusion with the first partisan detachments in Volhynia is visible: both of them were formed in the first days of the war: both of them mainly consisted of encircled people (at first). But this all ends: after the death of the Red Army and the seizure of power by local nationalists (and this happened almost completely by the summer-fall of 1942), resistance to the Nazis remained only at the level of declarations for dusting the brains of the population. None of the OUN-UPA troops NEVER fought against the Nazis. The same, as I understand it, were still trying to play politics: either they would join the others, they would support the others, then they would try to cooperate with the NOAA, then the government would change its orientation.
  11. Uazovod
    Uazovod 9 September 2013 16: 10 New
    +5
    Probably inveterate sadists walked into the spikes. Don't you think that in executions with cold steel you can see nationalist notes that were used in the war in the Chechen Republic 1995-1996? Probably all small nations have such inclinations !?
    1. Alex
      Alex 31 January 2014 20: 01 New
      +1
      Quote: Oasovod
      Probably inveterate sadists walked into the spikes. Don't you think that in executions with cold steel you can see nationalist notes that were used in the war in the Chechen Republic 1995-1996? Probably all small nations have such inclinations !?
      It seems to me that Muslim traditions are being promoted here.
  12. Sovok
    Sovok 9 September 2013 19: 14 New
    +2
    the history of the Serbs is very complex and simple. who was represented by the even-royal line of the Karadjordjeviches who came to power by cutting all the Obrenovic family. the prince’s family with their shortcomings but managed to expand the borders of Serbia under the Turkish yoke and terror. first they were shot. then the bodies were thrown from 2 floors of the palace and finally sparked with sabers. these are the first real chetynki od words of the couple .in Russian company. Even the faithful servants of the Karadjordjevic clan, rulers of the defending Anglo-Saxon interests. Under their rule, Serbia lost its identity and turned into a peony of England in the vast Balkans. It turns out that Chitni is a foreign legion of England.
  13. avt
    avt 9 September 2013 20: 01 New
    0
    Quote: Sovok
    Under the authority of Serbia, Serbia lost its originality and turned into a peony of England in the vast Balkans. It turns out that Chetnitsa is a foreign legion of England.

    It is interesting to consider the position of the Angles, for example, in reserve, they even declared the hotel room in Yugoslavia, seem in London, where some kind of royal Serbian person in exile gave birth. Just in case, an heir was being prepared, and Tito, our pilot, took the Angles to the island they controlled when the SS men pressed him in the mountains. The Allies did not disdain any contacts, but, as a result, they drained them like those Cossacks - the punitive von Panwitz, that they were captured, well, those who took the Soviet oath of the SS, but the Germans still held them as an ethnic group in the SS Panzer Division, for full never considered.
  14. GUSAR
    GUSAR 9 September 2013 21: 11 New
    0
    The Chetniks were not accomplices of the Germans, this is the first, second, and why did they have to love the partisans ?, the backbone of the army of which was Croats and Muslims, and the Chetniks were 90% Serb monarchists. And in general, it is extremely difficult to make definite conclusions about Yugoslavia, because everything was (and is) extremely confused in terms of resettlement and relations between national and religious. It was not without reason that German officers considered Yugoslavia to be the worst duty station, where a complete mess reigns, and you won’t make out who for whom, who is who, in general, unlike the Soviet Union, where it was undoubtedly harder in battle, but at least there was a clear front line and there was everything is very clear
    1. Greyfox
      Greyfox 9 September 2013 22: 10 New
      +3
      Chetniks were not accomplices of the Germans, this is the first

      Yeah, for example, the extradition to the Germans of Stepan Filipovich (in the last picture) does not count.
      why should they love partisans?

      Yes, dislike is clearly visible in the series of photos with cutting heads. By the way, the Chetniks killed our officers in the same atrocious way. In general, sadism and the desire to capture this sadism will unite them with the Croatian Ustash and our "Kaukas warriors of Allah." Understand? To forgive? Nope.
      1. GUSAR
        GUSAR 9 September 2013 23: 20 New
        0
        Well, how did the partisans crack down on the Chetniks? Do not know, read, and understand who first started there, figs you will understand, as in all similar matters in the Balkans. I do not clearly take the Chetnik side, no, I just want to say that absolutely everyone was “good”, without exception, to find out who was more right - we will never figure it out
        1. Greyfox
          Greyfox 10 September 2013 08: 20 New
          +3
          I have no doubt that the cruelty was mutual (the truth is true here on both sides, like Beijing in reverse gear), but for us (the Soviet Union) it was more important that only the Tito partisans uncompromisingly fought against the Nazis. And what's the difference to a fighter of the Red Army, in what proportions were the Serbs and Croats in the partisan units? The main thing is that they really fought against the Germans. The Chetniks are very similar to the OUN-UPA, the same arguments, we fought against Hitler and against Stalin. That's just the result does not change, cooperation with the Nazis, under whatever pretexts, it was not conducted not to justify anything. Each shot in the back to those who fettered significant forces of the fascists makes them accomplices of these same fascists.
  15. RBLip
    RBLip 10 September 2013 09: 23 New
    0
    Quote: anip
    Remember

    Yes, everything is fine with both Russian and geography. my grandfather called them that, but the habit remained. and do not call these nits ...
  16. Sovok
    Sovok 10 September 2013 09: 23 New
    0
    until mid-1944, the Chetniks were supplied with weapons and ammunition by the Wehrmacht. After the British were engaged in the supply, the Chetniks conducted coordinated military operations with Croatian ustash against the partisans and the local population, regardless of nationality. Terror robbery and murder.
  17. ndn
    ndn 7 June 2020 08: 56 New
    0
    Yes, they are accomplices of the Nazis. They hated and killed the Communists, both ours and ours. And this ka of their leader Drazh Mikhailovich was correctly shot, but not correctly, that in 2015 he was rehabilitated. How can an accomplice of fascism be rehabilitated? They even have a flag resembling the flag of Petliura.