Military Review

Engine PD-14 - the future of the Russian aviation industry

24
The development of the basic engine stimulates the development of domestic industry and science


The objective of the PD-14 Engine for MS-21 aircraft is to create a family of commercial engines for short and medium-haul aircraft with a seating capacity from 130 to 180 seats. The engines of the prospective family must compete with their foreign counterparts in technical characteristics and economic efficiency.

The most important task of the project is to eliminate the technological lag of Russia in the gas turbine engine-building industry in the shortest period. In addition, in the course of its implementation the tasks are solved:

  • restructuring of one of the strategic industries - the aircraft engine industry by involving all leading enterprises in the project, dividing the areas of responsibility taking into account their strengths and switching to program and project management in accordance with the practice of leading world manufacturers aviation technology;
  • the creation of new domestic materials and metallurgy technologies, as well as polymer composite materials and their production technologies.


    The basis of cooperation

    The idea of ​​creating a new generation of Russian aviation engine was born in the depths of the engine-building design bureau of Aviadvigatel OJSC at the beginning of the 2000s.

    For a long time and carefully studied the development trends and the technical level of the world leaders in the engine industry, the aircraft and air transportation market was analyzed to select the correct thrust range of the future engine. Given the aggressive expansion of foreign-made aircraft to the Russian market, the new engine must not only surpass future-looking foreign counterparts in its technical characteristics, but also ensure the competitiveness of new Russian aircraft in terms of economy, environmental performance, and cost of flight hours. And for a serial manufacturer - an acceptable cost of production. Given the technological lag of the aviation industry from the world level of the first decade of the 2000-s, it is not an easy task.

    Starting to develop a new engine, we understood that it was impossible to create a competitive product by using a single design school. Therefore, initially the project was conceived as the integration of the strengths of all engine-building enterprises and research institutes of the Russian Federation.

    The main business idea of ​​the project is to develop a domestic modern efficient gas generator of a high degree of technical excellence with parameters that allow it to create a family of engines of various capacities that can be installed on various types of aircraft and used in ground installations - gas pumping units and power plants. The gas generator is the most complex and highly stressed engine assembly, which determines its competitiveness and manufacturing cost. The unification of this unit allows it to be mass produced for the production of engines of various applications and significantly reduce the cost of each of the future modifications. In addition, materials, technology design, testing, refinement and production of the gas generator can not be imported from abroad, because they are always the protected know-how of the country, the secret behind seven seals, since they significantly determine the place of the state in the world table of ranks ( this is why the production of the hot part of the SAM146 engine is concentrated in France).

    The idea was supported by all engine-building enterprises and aviation research institutes. In 2006, a protocol of intent on the joint implementation of a project to create a family of new generation aviation engines for civil aviation based on a unified gas generator was signed by Aviadvigatel OJSC, PMZ OJSC, CIAM, Salyut, NPO Saturn, UMPO, NPP Motor ", JSC" MPP them. Chernysheva ", JSC" Klimov ". Business leaders decided to work together to develop a competitive engine in order to ensure conditions for the Russian aviation industry to return Russia to the status of an aviation power. This document laid the foundation for future cooperation.

    Engine initiative was supported by the Russian government. In the year 2008, after the nationalization of engine-building assets, state financing of the base engine project began, which became known as PD-14. The lead contractor of the project and the recipient of budgetary funds was OAO UK UDC, the lead developer was the Perm Design Bureau of Aviadvigatel OJSC. In the development of the engine involved:

  • all the leading domestic enterprises of aircraft engine building - OAO PMZ, OAO UMPO, OAO NPP Motor, OAO NPO Saturn, FSUE NPT Salyut, OAO STAR;
  • branch institutes - CIAM, TsAGI, VIAM, VILS;
  • Institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences - IPSM, IMSS, UB RAS.

    Key milestones

    PD-14 is a turbojet dual circuit engine 14 tons, designed for use on promising short-range and medium-haul MS-2017 aircraft on 21 – 130 passenger seats. Work on the creation of the PD-180 engine is being carried out synchronously with work on the creation of the MS-14 aircraft developed by the United Aircraft Building Corporation at the expense of the budget of the Russian Federation.

    The project "PD-14 Engine for MS-21 Aircraft" is being implemented using Gate technology. After each development stage, Aviadvigatel OJSC organizes an examination of the results achieved by engine engineers, scientists, aircraft builders, the state, and customers - the so-called control lines. Highly qualified specialists from industry departments, research institutes, UAC, UEC are involved as experts. This makes it possible to consolidate and take into account the views of all interested parties, avoid mistakes, make timely adjustments to the engine design and organization of the development process, thereby minimizing financial costs and shortening the time frame. The solution of the project tasks is carried out in the Business & Technical complex ("Business and technical part").

    For the first time, engine development is carried out “at a given cost price” - cost parameters are taken into account when determining the engine design, production technology and maintenance technologies.

    When developing an engine design, the emphasis was placed on time-tested classical design solutions, which, in combination with the use of modern design and testing technologies, provide qualitatively new characteristics of the finished product. New Russian titanium and nickel superalloys are widely used in the engine, allowing to provide the necessary parameters. Compared with the best Russian turbofan engines (SaM146, PS-90A, PS-90A2) and foreign analogues (CFM56, V2500), a qualitative leap in the increase of the basic parameters was achieved, ensuring a reduction in the specific fuel consumption of the PD-14 engine on 12-XNXX.

    The use of polymer composite materials allows the introduction of modern noise suppression technology and reduce engine weight. The proportion of composite materials in the design of the engine nacelle reaches 60 – 70 percent. In total, the engine uses about twenty items of new materials.

    16 key technologies that provide quality manufacturing and high engine production are highlighted. These technologies, unfortunately, were absent in the engine industry of the Russian Federation. Today, enterprises participating in the project are successfully developing and implementing these technologies, which in itself is a big step forward for the innovative development of the country and the creation of high-tech jobs in Russia.

    In 2012, the engine technology demonstrator (DDT) passed a bench test complex. Their main goal - to demonstrate the readiness of engineered design and technological solutions - has been successfully achieved. DDT showed good results in thermodynamics, acoustics and emissions - better than those of modern analogues, showed the effectiveness of the technologies used.

    To confirm the airworthiness of the PD-14, special qualification of materials (semi-finished products) used in the engine is carried out. A databank of characteristics of materials is being formed, confirming that these materials have the required level of structural strength. Material samples are tested in new, modern, accredited AR IAC laboratories of Aviadvigatel OJSC, CIAM and VIAM. To reduce the time required to test materials, Aviadvigatel has built a unique robotized sample-making complex in the world.

    Engine PD-14 - the future of the Russian aviation industry

    When developing the PD-14 engine and introducing new technologies, the interests of future customers, those who will be engaged in its operation, are taken into account.

    Purposeful work to reduce production costs, the cost of maintenance and repair, ensure the stability of the characteristics and high reliability of the engine, its fuel efficiency, reduce weight, noise and the emission of harmful substances ensures low engine life cycle costs.

    When implementing the project, in parallel with the engine design, the issues of creating a modern and customer-friendly after-sales service system are addressed - as closely as possible to the customer's repair and technical base, convenient logistic schemes, providing the best guarantees and service — all that due to the relatively small number of aircraft in operation domestic production is completely absent and causes fair complaints of air carriers.

    The results achieved so far give us confidence that PD-14 will be competitive not only in technical characteristics, but also in the cost of flight hour.

    In the spring of 2013, a significant event for the project took place - an application was submitted to the IAC AR to obtain a PD-14 engine type certificate, and at the end of the year the project will enter the stage of international certification in EАSА.

    In the 2014 year, tests of the PD-14 engine will be launched at the Il-76 flying laboratory at the LII named after Gromov.

    The implementation of the project “Engine PD-14 for MC-21” on the basis of extensive cooperation of engine-building enterprises and scientific research institutes allows to ensure high efficiency in the use of budget funds. State money is invested not only in the development of a specific high-tech modern product - the PD-14 engine, but also in the actual introduction of modern design, testing and production technologies, which can significantly overcome the technological lag of the domestic aviation industry and create the basis for its further development. Firstly, there is a guarantee that these technologies will be really used in the production of the popular competitive product - PD-14 engine. Secondly, budget money is invested in the strengths of enterprises. This minimizes their risks of mastering new competencies - based on their practical experience, they can prevent possible mistakes and failures. Thirdly, since participation in cooperation “distracts” only a part of the production capacities of enterprises, retaining their ability to receive revenues from the sale of other products, not a single cooperative is threatened with a significant loss of profit at the stage of primary, always very limited in terms of sales of engines and airplanes .

    Such a distribution of risks between private business and the state is optimal for achieving the goals of both parties. The change in the existing structure of the project will inevitably increase the risks of the state once again to no avail losing billions in funds already invested in the project.

    I am confident that the implementation of the project for the creation of PD-14 will be an example of the successful development of high-tech production based on domestic engineering developments and inventions.

    Creating a family of promising engines on the basis of a unified gas generator is a brilliant opportunity for Russia to return domestic engine building to the world level, and for the United Engine Building Corporation a chance to gain a foothold among the world's largest manufacturers of gas turbine equipment.
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    1. ramsi
      ramsi 30 August 2013 08: 56
      -3
      after all, the main parameters for engines are power and reliability, and not economic and environmental, especially for airplanes
      1. Apollo
        Apollo 30 August 2013 09: 09
        +7
        quote-The goal of the project “PD-14 engine for the MS-21 aircraft” is to create a family of commercial engines for short- and medium-haul aircraft with a passenger capacity from 130 to 180 seats.

        1. Russian
          Russian 30 August 2013 09: 55
          -3
          Of course I wish good luck to our designers and developers, but somehow everything is well painfully painted! About the superjet, too, they thought everything would be fine, but in reality no one takes it. No matter how this project was. It will be very difficult to compete with airbases and Boeing, serious government support is needed
          1. Greyfox
            Greyfox 30 August 2013 10: 34
            13
            I have already suggested not to deal with the Superjet. There is no need for panic shouts of "no one is taking" (especially since this is not so). The plant is working, subcontractors are working, jobs have been created. We must wait calmly for 5-7 years and there it will be seen, without any shouts, whether the program has succeeded or failed. In any case, directing budget money to the aviation industry (especially in the slightly crowded Far East) is much more useful for the state than burying lemonards in the mountain slopes in the Sochi region.
            On the topic, our engine building has always lagged behind Western competitors, but if we do nothing, then, as Shakespeare says, “nothing will come of it”. Let them work and do not mind the money.
            1. Russian
              Russian 30 August 2013 14: 28
              0
              Sorry, I haven’t seen your offer. And it seems I’m not a “srach,” as you put it, I don’t like it here. The project was publicized as a breakthrough in aircraft construction, but essentially no breakthrough occurred. The same Aeroflot forced them to take it, the pilots say that they are uncomfortable, this is not all information from the ceiling, but from people working there.
              And regarding the fact that we are developing production, this is of course a plus, just don’t spend money on PR, but finish the project, and not lobby the interests of the same Boeing and Airways, who bought our bureaucrats so that all the carcasses are written off and not new built.
              1. No_more
                No_more 3 September 2013 18: 24
                0
                Kickbacks pay everything, alas, the world has become such, but they are not the point. After all, what to learn from Airbus and Boeing is after-sales service. After all, a good airplane ... and even an aviation engine, it’s not just a product, but the entire infrastructure and well-functioning service processes, the availability and price of consumables, service centers, documentation, etc. Nobody would buy them if they were less profitable to domestic technology.
          2. Dmitry 2246
            Dmitry 2246 30 August 2013 10: 45
            +1
            I join you with the wishes of good luck.
            With a good engine and the car goes differently.
            We are waiting for the mass production of domestic modern aircraft.
            And the superjet is now well supported.
          3. AVV
            AVV 31 August 2013 15: 31
            +1
            Do not compare the superjet with ms -21, although the cars are of a similar class, but they will solve the problems and they will occupy different niches !!! More precisely they will complement each other, and the market segment is really big! Good luck to both of them !!!
          4. Siberian German
            Siberian German 1 September 2013 05: 59
            0
            support was given to the supers, and so, and this ms-21, as it were, wasn’t a prodigy either
      2. abc_alex
        abc_alex 30 August 2013 11: 03
        +7
        This is the engine for commercial civil aircraft. For them, economic indicators are determined. And if you do not fit into the eco-parameters, the engines are not certified for international lines. Europe has already pulled the Russian aviation industry into "eco". Ying won't rust pull on again.

        So that’s all right.
        1. unclevad
          unclevad 30 August 2013 16: 32
          0
          For commercial engines, the main parameters: resource, efficiency, environmental friendliness. All aircraft in the USSR flew military engines, even those that were not designed for dual use. Double-circuit engines on the IL-86 and those were designed for IL-76. When the 86th went to the landing glide path, it could always be distinguished from any Boeing!
      3. zzaharr
        zzaharr 30 August 2013 17: 52
        +1
        You do not confuse civil aviation with the military. Who will buy an unkillable and super-malleable engine if it is voracious and expensive?
      4. castle
        castle 30 August 2013 22: 55
        -5
        The main indicators for aircraft engines are reliability (how else?), Power and efficiency (at modern fuel prices, this is important!), And ecology! (Where do you live? In Moscow, even in the sanitary zones, there are already more exhaust gases than sanitary standards allow. True, these standards can be changed by the decision of "competent" legislators, at their discretion. Well, well. God help you, your children and grandchildren.) If you yourself do not know how to make aircraft engines that meet the requirements, buy them either in the USA or in Europe. And don't fool the Russian people with the fact that everything Russian is the best in the world. At MAKS - 2013 excellent models of the Russian dream about aviation technology were presented. Yes, foreign companies know how to make these models by order of Russian UACs and IRKUTs for Russian petrodollars. And when will Russia start selling its high-tech goods to developed countries? And then all the oil and gas. And even weapons, kind of like, friends, forgive me, but less developed economically than Russia. A question for specialists for filling: "How long has the MC-21 aircraft been under development?"
      5. Vorkot cat
        Vorkot cat 30 August 2013 23: 12
        0
        For military aviation, no doubt yes.

        But for the civilian it’s quite the opposite, otherwise they won’t buy it.
    2. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 30 August 2013 14: 33
      0
      Painted powerfully. I was especially impressed by the number of documents signed at each stage with approvals. Indeed, no Soviet or Russian project had such a powerful pillow to cover the ass! When the materials selected according to the parameter of "economic efficiency" begin to burn and melt - with a hundredfold reliability it will not be possible to bring a single official's face to justice! Bravo, encore, download the authors !!
      Passages of the "16 technologies" type, which in the USSR were not simply thrown into tears. Because all this, still flying, tempts me. Dreaming ... After all, there was no technology! So there were no engines either. That is, instead of aircraft construction, there was an underground workshop with three Chinese, which were scrubbed from the Pratt-Whitney engines. Have you bought modern machine tools? Well, what could be more revolutionary? No shame, no conscience ...
      The powerful work of moving service doors to where it would be more convenient to get to the engine (and shit on the strong, let the fuselage count) - this, of course, is a revolution, they used to bother so little. Well and so on ...
      Something I hardly believe in this engine. No sooner will we have another real engine than a person will appear who can rightfully say - this engine was conceived, implemented and controlled by I. And I am responsible for everything. This "joint project" is too similar to a system in which there will be no ends with a multiple guarantee.
      1. Cheloveck
        Cheloveck 30 August 2013 21: 58
        0
        Quote: Mikhail3
        Something I hardly believe in this engine. No sooner will we have another real engine than a person will appear who can rightfully say - this engine was conceived, implemented and controlled by I. And I am responsible for everything. This "joint project" is too similar to a system in which there will be no ends with a multiple guarantee.

        But in vain I can’t believe it ...
        By the way, the author of the article is the very person who "can rightfully say that this engine was conceived, I am implementing and controlling the work on it. And I am responsible for everything."
        And everyone else is so, from the side of the bake, by and large.
    3. washi
      washi 30 August 2013 19: 53
      +1
      They already got it with their fine-tuning. And they cannot find pairs of millions for licensing on the ready-made engine NK-91 (superior to foreign ones), despite the request of the GDP.
      Although when you consider that the Perm plant belongs to foreigners ...
      1. Cheloveck
        Cheloveck 30 August 2013 21: 54
        0
        Quote: Vasya
        They already got it with their fine-tuning. And they cannot find pairs of millions for licensing on the ready-made engine NK-91 (superior to foreign ones), despite the request of the GDP.

        What is NK-91?
        And what is he superior to?
        Ground modification of the NK-86 model of 1989 for the drive of an electric generator, so ...
        Hmm.
        Quote: Vasya
        Although when you consider that the Perm plant belongs to foreigners ...

        Yes nuuu? belay
        Maybe enlighten to whom specifically?
      2. Johnagle
        Johnagle 30 August 2013 23: 04
        0
        You probably meant the NK-93 ...
        1. Cheloveck
          Cheloveck 30 August 2013 23: 19
          0
          Quote: JohnEagle
          You probably meant the NK-93 ...

          NK-93 is not so simple.
          There is practically no engine ..., some developments ...
          http://vpk.name/news/54485_.html
    4. Drakk
      Drakk 30 August 2013 23: 48
      0
      And most importantly, during the release process, do not mix up the contacts .............
    5. efeer
      efeer 31 August 2013 03: 23
      +1
      Quote: Cheloveck
      There is practically no engine ..., some developments ...

      There is an engine, it was tested on LL, and even exhibited at one of the exhibitions under the wing of this very LL on the basis of IL-76.
      To start mass production, it remains only to find demand and give the command "from above".
      1. Bad_gr
        Bad_gr 31 August 2013 10: 39
        +1
        Quote: efeer
        There is an engine, it was tested on LL, and even exhibited at one of the exhibitions under the wing of this very LL on the basis of IL-76.

        Interestingly, in the first photo the blades are clearly visible, in the third they are almost invisible - the blade pitch is clearly increased.





        Does anyone know this enterprise (“Samara Scientific and Technical Complex named after ND Kuznetsov”) is still alive? at least engaged in the repair of their old engines, which fly all the bomber aircraft?

        2011 article on this engine http://newsland.com/news/detail/id/686849/
    6. k-yu
      k-yu 1 September 2013 20: 36
      0
      interesting PMZ general designer himself wrote an article, or who helped?
    7. Sirs
      Sirs 2 September 2013 02: 45
      +1
      Honestly, all the same, the PD-14 is inferior to the developed Pratt & Whitney engines.
    8. gridasov
      gridasov 8 September 2013 20: 16
      0
      The future belongs to completely different movers. Centrifugal flow should change the density of this flow. The whole algorithm of modern engines based on the screw and the progressive algorithm of this device is not perfect, has threshold rotation speeds. These thresholds are the cause of email. magnetic processes as a result of ionization of the surface of the outflow. Therefore, the proportional dependence of the growth of energy costs with increasing rotation speed. While the analysis of engine operation will be carried out as an analysis of aerodynamic causes, there will be no sense. The whole analysis is only based on the calculation of email. magnetic processes