Military Review

In place of the "Union". Creating a new Russian manned spacecraft is the task of the current decade.

42
The SP Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia from the first launch into space of 12 on April 1961 of the manned spacecraft Vostok with Yuri Gagarin on board is carrying out work on the development of this area of ​​practical cosmonautics, the founder of which is rightfully the space technology Sergey Korolev. The corporation has a wealth of experience in this field. For more than half a century, it has been the leading organization in the domestic rocket and space industry for the creation of manned spacecraft, manned orbital stations and complexes. From 2008, according to the Roskosmos specification, the company is developing a manned transport vehicle of a new generation.


The project of a new Russian manned transport ship being created by RSC Energia named after S. P. Korolev in cooperation of enterprises of the industry, in a relatively short time passed several stages of work, during which the customer specified the ship’s tasks and requirements for it. To date, a technical project has been released. By the decision of the Scientific and Technical Council of Roscosmos, it was adopted with a recommendation to proceed to the release of design documentation and experimental testing to ensure the first test unmanned flight in low-earth orbit in 2018.

At this stage of the ship’s creation, its main task is to fly to the Moon and back, as well as to fly in low-Earth orbits (transport and technical support of the manned station and, if necessary, special autonomous flights).

When flying to the moon, two programs are considered.

One of them is a two-starter with an expedition landing of four people on its surface. According to this program, a landing ship without astronauts is first sent to a low circumlunar orbit, and then a manned transport worker takes the crew to him, who goes aboard this ship, landing on the lunar surface and then returning to a manned transport worker, on board which astronauts return to Earth

Another program provides for the docking of a transport manned spacecraft with a near-moon orbital station. Of particular interest is the location of such a station at a distance of about 60 thousand kilometers from the moon - at the point L1 or L2 Lagrange of the Earth-Moon gravitational system. These points are on a straight line connecting the centers of our planet and its natural satellite (the first is in front of the Moon relative to the earth observer, the second is behind it).

The ship consists of a returnable reusable vehicle and a disposable engine compartment. The length is about six meters, the lateral size of the deployed solar panels is about 14 meters, the starting mass for flights to the Moon is about 20 tons, and for flights to the station in low near-earth orbit it is about 14 tons. Crew - four people. The removal of the ship is expected from the Russian Vostochny cosmodrome. Landing of the return vehicle must be carried out on the territory of Russia.

A full-scale design layout of the return vehicle of the new transport manned vehicle can be seen at the RSC Energia stand as part of the combined exposition of the rocket and space industry of Russia deployed in the D1 pavilion at MAKS-2013. The length (height) of the returned apparatus is about four meters (without taking into account the disclosed landing supports), the maximum diameter is about 4,5 meters.

The composition of the return device: command, aggregate and unsealed upper compartments, the side surfaces of which are equipped with heat protection, and a frontal heat shield.

The crew compartment houses the crew, the complex of means for its life support system, part of the equipment and instruments of the onboard control complex, the container of the parachute system. The aggregate compartment will contain jet engines for controlling the descent of the returned vehicle in the atmosphere, fuel tanks and a pneumohydraulic system for supplying fuel to these engines, as well as a solid propellant landing propulsion unit, four retractable seating supports, instruments and equipment of some onboard systems of the apparatus.

In place of the "Union". Creating a new Russian manned spacecraft is the task of the current decade.

For the flight of the ship to the Moon, special navigation devices are installed on it, a propulsion system with two cruise engines of two tons each and fuel to carry out dynamic operations in near-moon orbit and the formation of the trajectory of return to Earth. The onboard radio-technical systems of the ship must maintain its communication with the control center and the external trajectory control of the flight by ground measuring points up to a range of 500 thousands of kilometers.

The new ship will be much more comfortable than the "Union". The free volume of the return apparatus per one cosmonaut will almost double. Developed design solutions for the layout of the interior should ensure the ergonomics and comfort of the crew, improve the competitiveness of the ship compared to similar developments. In particular, new seat “Cheget” with improved comfort will be used to accommodate astronauts, new technical and software solutions will be implemented in the part of on-board computer control system and flight information display for the crew.

The design of the ship uses a lot of innovation. Among them are new high-strength aluminum alloys, heat-shielding materials with a density three times smaller than those used on Soyuz TMA, carbon-fiber materials and three-layer structures, laser means of docking and mooring, and more. The multiple use of the return vehicle of the new ship is provided by a complex of implemented technical solutions, including due to the vertical landing on the landing pillars, as well as the replacement of thermal protection during inter-flight maintenance.

For flights of the ship to the satellite of the Earth it is planned to use a rocket carrier of the super heavy class and an upper stage intended for putting the ship on the flight path to the Moon and braking it. Their development is scheduled to begin soon. The loading capacity of the launch vehicle, according to preliminary estimates, should be at least 65 – 70 tons, which include the starting weight of the ship and the starting weight of the upper stage (40 – 45 tons).

It is assumed that five return vehicles will be built, taking into account their multiple use and the intended flight program. The engine compartment of the ship will be made for each flight separately.
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  1. Nayhas
    Nayhas 30 August 2013 09: 02
    -13 qualifying.
    Unfortunately, Russian cosmonautics follows the path of populism. WHY need a flight to the moon? Show that the Soviet Union could not, but the new Russia can? Can we do space exploration already?
    1. Petrix
      Petrix 30 August 2013 10: 50
      11
      Quote: Nayhas
      WHY need a flight to the moon? ...
      Can we do space exploration already?

      Is the moon not space? Why do we need flights? Maybe we’ll just study space from books?
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas 30 August 2013 15: 25
        +5
        Quote: Petrix
        Why do we need flights? Maybe we’ll just study space from books?

        Manned flights are only a small part in space exploration and far from the main one. Sorry, but photographs of the earth from the orbit of Saturn were not taken by the Russian AMS, but by NASA CASSINI. Voyager 1 and 2 have been flying for the fourth decade and already at the border of the solar system and communication with them does not disappear, Mercury studies MESSENGER, the Sun - STEREO A and B, WIND, SOHO, ACE, Mars - Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (+ two rovers), Dawn flies to Ceres, Juno flies to Jupiter, Saturn studies Cassini, New Horizons flies to Pluto. These are all operating NASA's automatic interplanetary stations with which it is engaged in space exploration. The USSR last successfully launched in 1984. AMS Vega1 and Vega2 to comet Halley and Venus, after this the study of space has ended. Russia only has the RadioAstron radio telescope on SpektrB vs. Hubble and Kepler NASA.
        PS: the construction of settlements on the moon and the extraction of He3 is such a distant prospect, even for our time, that the statement about the need to start looks ridiculous.
        1. Aljavad
          Aljavad 30 August 2013 23: 49
          +1
          Deep space exploration is definitely great. It is necessary. But it just so happened - for the last *** twenty years we are not strong in this. But manned flights are successful, they have saved all the know-how, and we have the best practices. So what? In your opinion, it is necessary to give up this and rush into the area where everything is for the first time (for us)? So here's Phobos-soil. We need to do 80% of what we get and know how to do, and for the rest - learn the rest. And the moon is a good target. Trunk. There is no way around it. And deep space is so big. And that's enough for us. Later. When we overcome the collapse. Yes, we will raise personnel to replace those who have gone to "shuttle traders". Then there will be Russian AMS, and also - I'm sure - manned and permanent near-Mars and near-Jupiter, then - everywhere.
          1. Nayhas
            Nayhas 31 August 2013 08: 22
            0
            Quote: Aljavad
            But manned flights succeed, saved all the know-how

            All manned flights are flights to earth orbit. The experience of living in zero gravity has been accumulated for a long time, but do not forget that regular delivery of goods over a distance of 370 km is necessary to ensure life. What is 370 km. on the scale of space? 0! Nothing! To reach the Moon, you need to travel a thousand times longer! And to Mars on the shortest "road" 55 million km. So what is more profitable, to launch an automatic station, work out all the tasks with it and forget about it, or send a person along the way solving the problem of his regular provision and return?
    2. Alligator_S
      Alligator_S 30 August 2013 11: 00
      +7
      The development of such knowledge-intensive areas as space exploration will lead to technological progress not only in this area. And the political effect of this can weigh, in modern conditions, even more technological.
      1. studentmati
        studentmati 30 August 2013 19: 49
        +1
        Quote: Alligator_S
        The development of such knowledge-intensive areas as space exploration will lead to technological progress not only in this area.


        ABC truth! good
      2. Nayhas
        Nayhas 30 August 2013 20: 47
        0
        Quote: Alligator_S
        The development of such knowledge-intensive areas as space exploration will lead to technological progress not only in this area.

        Well, how did the astronautics help the technical progress of the USSR? For example, the purchase of CNC machine tools in Japan was instrumental in reducing the noise of nuclear submarines in the USSR, and what does the space program have to do with it? If you touch on the everyday level, then in my time tape recorders with Hungarian production senstast heads were valued, the question is the same. But this is certainly superfluous; try to find causal relationships between space exploration and technological progress in the USSR.
        1. studentmati
          studentmati 30 August 2013 20: 53
          +1
          Quote: Nayhas
          try to find a causal relationship between space and technical progress in the USSR.


          The first thing that came to mind was the RD-180 engines. Who created them and who buys?
          1. Nayhas
            Nayhas 31 August 2013 08: 25
            +1
            Quote: studentmati
            The first thing that came to mind was the RD-180 engines. Who created them and who buys?

            What does this have to do with the non-space industry? Can the RD-180 be used to create pressure in a gas transport system?
            1. studentmati
              studentmati 1 September 2013 21: 35
              0
              Quote: Nayhas
              Quote: studentmati
              The first thing that came to mind was the RD-180 engines. Who created them and who buys?

              What does this have to do with the non-space industry? Can the RD-180 be used to create pressure in a gas transport system?


              Technologies, metals, materials, ...
        2. Aljavad
          Aljavad 30 August 2013 23: 55
          +1
          Still to tighten the grammar, especially in the last sentence. And about the USSR - a common place. Everything was classified, and there was no help to progress. Well, the country was arranged. And she is already gone (although it hurts). And there is no such secrecy anymore. So there will be a flow of technology.
    3. saruman
      saruman 30 August 2013 11: 03
      +7
      It is the study of the moon, and its development in the future, that will give the main dividends to the country that will do it first.
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas 31 August 2013 08: 27
        0
        Quote: saruman
        It is the study of the moon, and its development in the future, that will give the main dividends to the country that will do it first.

        Perhaps, but it will be without the presence of a person there.
    4. 11 black
      11 black 30 August 2013 12: 04
      +2
      Quote: Nayhas
      Unfortunately, Russian cosmonautics follows the path of populism. WHY need a flight to the moon? Show that the Soviet Union could not, but the new Russia can? Can we do space exploration already?

      Space technology - this is an area where the country's scientific and technical potential is involved, you just think how many new technologies are implemented using this program
      Quote: author
      The design of the ship uses a lot of innovation. Among them are new high-strength aluminum alloys, heat-shielding materials with a density three times lower than that used on Soyuz TMA ships, carbon fiber materials and three-layer structures, laser means for docking and mooring, and more.

      But these technologies will not go anywhere and will be used, for example, in aviation

      PS In addition, a large amount of Helium 3 was found on the moon (this substance is considered as the main fuel for future thermonuclear reactors), if you think that a thermonuclear reactor is still far away, then I advise you to google the ITER program, by the way Russia also participates in it.
      So it's a good thing - good luck to the developers! And with the "Hangara" too!
      1. El13
        El13 30 August 2013 13: 57
        0
        With ITER, not everything is in order, it is being built, it is being built, but when it is built and it will work ... in short, it’s not very good soon, because Helium-3 has no way. About potential You are absolutely right, we need, we need such projects.
        I had a question after reading the article, because last year the ship was shown as a six-seater, and here it says about 4, who is in the subject?
        In general, I don’t really like the project for flights to the Moon, as a replacement for the Union, yes, but for flights from the Earth it’s not enough.
      2. Nayhas
        Nayhas 30 August 2013 15: 42
        -4
        Quote: 11 black
        Space technology - this is an area in which the country's scientific and technical potential is involved.

        Maybe I will not act quite tactfully, but please indicate those "breakthrough space technologies" that helped the scientific and technical potential of the USSR? Or Russia? You mentioned "high-strength aluminum alloys, heat-shielding materials with a density three times less than those used on the Soyuz TMA ships, carbon materials and three-layer structures ..." may be used in aviation (I do not know which truth), but not are "disruptive technologies".
        Quote: 11 black
        in addition, a large amount of Helium 3 was discovered on the moon (this substance is considered as the main fuel for future thermonuclear reactors)

        And what about the fact that he is there? How do you think it can be delivered to the ground so that it would cost acceptable? It’s cheaper to heat diamonds than to transport He3 from the moon ...
        1. Aljavad
          Aljavad 31 August 2013 00: 00
          0
          And you don't have to carry it. Recycle and recycle locally. And not now. And not tomorrow. But you need to think about it now. Of course not to everyone, but as my math teacher used to say: "smart."
    5. biglow
      biglow 30 August 2013 13: 33
      +3
      Quote: Nayhas
      Unfortunately, Russian cosmonautics follows the path of populism. WHY need a flight to the moon? Show that the Soviet Union could not, but the new Russia can? Can we do space exploration already?

      Without base stations, further space exploration is impossible. Even how to get new materials? It is easier to create production in orbit or on a solid surface .. The exploration of the moon is not populism but a new step in space exploration.
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas 30 August 2013 15: 47
        -1
        Quote: biglow
        without base stations, further space exploration is impossible

        NASA is exploring space without base stations using AMS, why are these notorious base stations generally needed? Why drag a ship with a crew life support system, food and water supply over millions of kilometers, when you can send an automatic station?
        1. biglow
          biglow 30 August 2013 19: 38
          0
          Quote: Nayhas
          Quote: biglow
          without base stations, further space exploration is impossible

          NASA is exploring space without base stations using AMS, why are these notorious base stations generally needed? Why drag a ship with a crew life support system, food and water supply over millions of kilometers, when you can send an automatic station?

          before writing this, read about NASA's plans ...
          1. Nayhas
            Nayhas 31 August 2013 08: 08
            +1
            Quote: biglow
            before writing this read about NASA's plans

            Are you talking about flying to Mars? Absolutely crazy idea, as much populist. Mars rovers and an artificial satellite are successfully operating on Mars. I can assure you that this flight will not be.
        2. Aljavad
          Aljavad 31 August 2013 00: 03
          +2
          Well, why go out of the house when everything is visible on the network, you can hear it, and even order pizza mona ...
    6. rate
      rate 30 August 2013 13: 42
      +1
      "... There is no reliable information about the work on the N1-TMK Martian project. All materials were destroyed in 1974. Was the Korolyov Mars project? ... The basis of the Korolyov Martian project - the N1 rocket - went out for flight tests, but it was not given fly successfully ...
      whether the Royal project of the expedition to Mars or not was a matter of principle. If there was, then the following question: who and why buried him 40 years ago? In the "funeral" team can be very respected people. Today cosmonauts, and not only ours, fly on a rocket and a spacecraft created by Korolev almost half a century ago. They fly to someone else's station. If Korolyov was mistaken in choosing a target - interplanetary flight, then to what goal were we moving 40 years after it? "
      http://www.astronaut.ru/bookcase/article/article94.htm?reload_coolmenus
      Everything is not as presented to us. Like another secret of 1941.
    7. Denis
      Denis 30 August 2013 15: 49
      +1
      Quote: Nayhas
      WHY need a flight to the moon?
      But what is the idea that the Moon is a launching pad into deep space?
      Starting with it is much easier.
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas 30 August 2013 20: 37
        0
        Quote: Denis
        But what is the idea that the Moon is a launching pad into deep space?

        Bullshit, Americans fly into outer space from the earth. Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Cassini, New horizons ... You probably just do not know, but Voyager 1, Voyager 2 flew to the edge of the solar system back in 1977 .. still fly and send not only greetings ...
        1. Denis
          Denis 4 September 2013 19: 11
          0
          Quote: Nayhas
          Bullshit, Americans fly into outer space from the earth. Voyager 1, Voyager 2,
          Just nonsense? Of course
          The devices of the Voyager series are rather large structures. These are highly autonomous robots equipped with scientific instruments for researching outer planets, as well as their own power plants, rocket engines, computers, radio communication systems and control
          But still
          The total mass of each device is about 721 kg.
          These are only robots, for manned space flight the mass is too small
    8. sak1969
      sak1969 30 August 2013 22: 33
      +1

      Quote: Nayhas
      WHY need a flight to the moon? Show that the Soviet Union could not, but the new Russia can? Can we do space exploration already?

      What moon, what cosmos. Here, like the third world looms. belay
      1. Aljavad
        Aljavad 31 August 2013 00: 05
        0
        until the PRC sends 1.000.000 colonists to Mars, there will be no world war.
  2. Denis
    Denis 30 August 2013 09: 13
    +4
    Well done! People work and do not talk. Let it be a surprise to friends, etc., like Gagarin’s satellite and flight, without any noise
    The crew compartment contains the crew, a set of means of its life support system, part of the equipment and instruments of the onboard control complex, a container parachute system
    Still, with the descent vehicle, although how the shuttles were praised. But where are they now? What are the ISS flying to?
    This is another + to what you need to do, and not brag, the result will tell you everything
  3. Ascetic
    Ascetic 30 August 2013 10: 39
    +6
    Although it pleases ... "Clipper" in 2006 was closed, allegedly due to lack of money. I hope that "Rus" (officially the project is called PTK NP-Manned Transport Ship of the New Generation) will be brought to mind, all the more so there are developments and know-how that can be used from the curtailed Clipper project. According to the plan, the first manned flight on it should take place in 2018.

    1. not good
      not good 30 August 2013 22: 54
      +1
      Whatever, at least something, we flew into space, first on the moon it is simply necessary to launch Popovkin.
  4. Lone gunman
    Lone gunman 30 August 2013 11: 20
    +8
    I would like to say with caution, can I?! Just don't ban me, and so, I think that we will fly to the moon in 20 years, judging by the economic situation in Russia, this is once. Two-listen, from the media there was no since it is said that the first flight should take place on 15-16 years ???, and here it is already 18 years old, I wonder what they will say in 17-18 years? Three-I am not sure that a spaceship of this design will fly to the moon, I think it will look more like a "ship", and this is an orbital capsule!
  5. USNik
    USNik 30 August 2013 12: 26
    0
    The new ship is perfect for near-Earth flights, but the possibility of sending to the moon raises questions. Judging by the figure, there is no powerful radiation protection on it, and without it it is not possible to overcome the radiation belts of the Earth and not grab a decent dose in several flights. Anyway, why are these flights to the moon, if preparations are underway for an interplanetary flight to Mars? Raise the rating using the lunar program? Is it a little expensive? Or is there an economic interest? Helium 3? Or ultrapure production of something at the lunar base? Then this is clearly not 2018.what
    1. Aljavad
      Aljavad 31 August 2013 00: 08
      0
      18th - 1st test launch, not to the moon.
  6. KazaK Bo
    KazaK Bo 30 August 2013 12: 56
    +3
    From Korolev PROBES ... through the CLIPPER program to the RUS program (by the way, this is the 4th "lunar variant" known in the open press). There are a lot of programs ... it's time to come to the final version. I don't know how it is with Mars, but we really need to go to the Moon! The flight options to the Moon are very interesting and apart from the wish of success in resolving them positively, there can be no other opinions. If only a rocket for ascent to a high orbit would turn out that way 70-100 tons. Without it, it will again be just a "project" ... the next stage in the development of the necessary (no words against) experience. Good luck!
  7. pensioner
    pensioner 30 August 2013 13: 26
    +2
    Let's rocket guys, think, do it! Something pause dragged on in our space program. No breakthroughs ... And so I want to have time to see! Good luck to you! And do not relax! He was well acquainted with the missiles of the older generations. Were friends. Even worked together with them. What were the people! Dedicated to the end. No one left ...
    1. studentmati
      studentmati 30 August 2013 19: 55
      +2
      Quote: retired
      What were the people! Dedicated to the end. No one left ...


      Or maybe it is in dedication to end and the success of the Russian Cosmonautics was laid? They didn’t sleep, didn’t eat, they didn’t see their wives ... ...?
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. vignat21
        vignat21 7 September 2013 16: 19
        0
        It was precisely in dedication to the end that the success of the Russian Cosmonautics was laid. http://abbreviator.ru/?p=768
  8. lazy
    lazy 30 August 2013 14: 02
    +2
    and this is not a breakthrough, but marking time, the "clipper" was more breakthrough, but it was turned off, the project with the launch from Mriya was interesting, this is not a breakthrough, but a small step, but even so, any long road begins with the first step
  9. washi
    washi 30 August 2013 15: 09
    +1
    The ship consists of a returnable reusable vehicle and a disposable engine compartment. Length - about six meters, the transverse size of the expanded solar panels - about 14 meters, the starting mass when flying to the moon - about 20 tonswhen flying to the station in low Earth orbit - about 14 tons. The crew is four people. Departure of the ship is expected from the Russian Vostochny spaceport. Landing of the returned device should be carried out in Russia.
    On the basis of the Energia launch vehicle, a project of the Energy-M heavy-class launch vehicle was developed, which, with a launch mass of 1050 tons, provides spacecraft with a mass of up to 34 t
    Why fall to the level of the 60s?
    1. Aljavad
      Aljavad 31 August 2013 00: 15
      0
      We were rolling back 20 years, losing personnel and technologies. It's good that at least they started moving forward again. And in the 60s, the whole world rebounded. The shuttle took off early. "Energy" - even more so. That is why Soyuz is such a long-liver. And from him the next step is a reusable non-gliding CA and, it would be good, a reusable launch vehicle.
  10. Kadavercianin
    Kadavercianin 30 August 2013 16: 37
    +3
    Quote: Vasya
    The ship consists of a returnable reusable vehicle and a disposable engine compartment. Length - about six meters, the transverse size of the expanded solar panels - about 14 meters, the starting mass when flying to the moon - about 20 tonswhen flying to the station in low Earth orbit - about 14 tons. The crew is four people. Departure of the ship is expected from the Russian Vostochny spaceport. Landing of the returned device should be carried out in Russia.
    On the basis of the Energia launch vehicle, a project of the Energy-M heavy-class launch vehicle was developed, which, with a launch mass of 1050 tons, provides spacecraft with a mass of up to 34 t
    Why fall to the level of the 60s?


    All world cosmonautics is approximately there (60s). If you look, you haven’t created anything radically new or it was only at the design stage, or they refused at all (due to inexpediency or unacceptability) and it turns out that things are still there. I can’t dispute that in 40 years a lot of automatic (and not automatic) stations have been created to study the solar system (some are no longer being investigated by the solar system), new materials have been created, computer systems have been improved .... But the returned ships, which would justify their no returnability; the launch into space is carried out by chemical-propelled rockets, so far the fuel mass is 90% of the total mass of the launched launch vehicle, the air launch has not been implemented, the water launch has been forgotten; flights in outer space beyond the Earth’s orbit are only inertial (sorry, I don’t remember exactly when the apparatus after gravitational acceleration flies by inertia) since there are no engines suitable for such flights and fuel (respectively); well, what else they don’t fly to the moon anymore, they just say ... All one-time ships, one-time rockets and rejoice. So the returning ship (for the most part), and if it is still economically viable plus the returning launch vehicles (also cost-effective - no kidding) will already be at least somewhat similar to a serious step in the global development of astronautics, this means the whole, and not only Russian .
    I didn’t want to say anything bad, this is my vision of the situation. To be honest, I would very much like to find at least a more rational way of delivering people and goods into space and into orbit, so I sincerely wish success to the designers in creating this and other promising devices.
  11. Technologist
    Technologist 30 August 2013 17: 47
    0
    To build the necessary launch vehicle in our time of cuts and kickbacks will be problematic. The main thing is that Chubais the innovator with Medvedev and other Kinder surprises should not be allowed to do this.
  12. viktor_ui
    viktor_ui 30 August 2013 19: 01
    +2
    put a minus to the article due to simple considerations: in the light of all the outstanding recent "EPOCHAL ACHIEVEMENTS" of this space "office" - we are already beginning to expect from it products on the exhaust level of private manufacturers ... why ??? Well, for me, the proposed scheme of Russia in the article, well, very much looks like a private product in the style of "SpaceX Dragon" ... but it's a private office, BUT its product has already been in space wassat We dream of a base with a spaceport on the moon or at the next Lagrange point - I willingly believe and there will be a new tripper (oh sorry - Clipper), just let the flippers not attach to it, but I have a great fear that if not Okiyana, then in Helium-3 they’ll surely drown it all. Gigantic losses in this office, and at least one of the elite was taken for candelabra ??? The patient is more likely dead than alive at this stage and on the exhaust there stinks one-on-one, as until recently was in our Moscow Region headed by a master stool. In short, we are waiting for a miracle.
  13. Demon45
    Demon45 30 August 2013 19: 44
    +1
    All these projects in most cases are a simple cut of money. After an unsuccessful launch, Energia decided to show that it has new projects. As an employee of "TsSKB-Progress" I can say that the only more or less viable projects are (evolutionary) - all know-how is an elementary theft. For breakthrough technologies, "ailing" personnel + the will of the state are needed. in Russia, as in the rest of the world, the development of cosmonautics stopped at the turn of the 70s of the 20th century. Everything that was created after is the modernization of the existing one (mostly microelectronics).
  14. studentmati
    studentmati 30 August 2013 20: 05
    +3
    It is interesting that at the dawn of cosmonautics there were no less, but even more different projects and options, but the public did not even know about this. "Minds" worked and created! And we learned about victories and achievements from TASS reports.
    Today, we can say that we monitor almost the entire background from the terms of reference to the layout, the design, financing and production processes in real time ...

    Maybe that's why there is a certain amount of skepticism and distrust of programs?
  15. studentmati
    studentmati 30 August 2013 20: 08
    0
    It is assumed that five return vehicles will be built, taking into account their multiple use and the intended flight program. The engine compartment of the ship will be made for each flight separately.

    The shuttle symbiosis with the Union? An interesting solution?
  16. nod739
    nod739 30 August 2013 22: 35
    +1
    Quote: Nayhas
    try to find a causal relationship between space and technical progress in the USSR.

    and the WORLD station ?, and many things, even simple ones, were made there - bifidobacteria narena. If I’m not mistaken, the medicine is interferon, they are made from blood, but they were studied in microgravity. At least go to the Roskosmos website and look at meager scientific programs, 90% can be rejected, but out of those few% there are many new things that are already familiar, new ones materials, alloys, knowledge ....

    Quote: 11 black
    PS in addition, a large amount of Helium 3 was found on the moon (this substance is considered as the main fuel for future thermonuclear reactors),

    there are a lot of problems with helium 3 that somehow bypass the side, the first one is it is concentrated in a layer with a thickness of hundredths or thousandths of a millimeter, and its concentration is extremely low, two orders of magnitude less than uranium isotopes - for nuclear plants, how to process the soil? if you compare with the same uranium, then on the moon you need to build a plant (centrifuges) an order of magnitude more powerful than on the earth for uranium, and if this is realized, then very soon, it’s easier to use another reaction for fusion, with the same tritium
  17. castle
    castle 30 August 2013 23: 04
    -1
    I look at the picture. What's this? Fotoshop's redone Apollo 13 picture?
    1. Aljavad
      Aljavad 31 August 2013 00: 23
      +1
      And about the "Buran" and the Shuttle blurted out, and about the Tu-144 and Concorde. Well, the layout is rational, and the difference is in the details. Do you always distinguish Boeing from Airbus?
  18. svp67
    svp67 31 August 2013 00: 38
    0
    Oh, how I would like that these projects, even the simplest ones, finally began to fly, otherwise the "P7" and "Soyuz" have long since become obsolete ...
  19. sergey158-29
    sergey158-29 31 August 2013 17: 28
    0
    Just think about the pH of the UNION - this is a modification of the R-7 of the 50s of the 20th century ... then, in my opinion, comments are NOT NEEDED ... crying
  20. erg
    erg 31 August 2013 19: 23
    0
    Manned space flights are needed today. I will try to explain why. First you need to understand that astronautics is a very complex, first of all high-tech, expensive and quite dangerous branch of human activity today. Largely because of the very hostile environment for humans. And for space exploration, you need to spend a lot of effort, money, etc. Therefore, you should not wait for a quick return from manned astronautics. This may come in a hundred years. An analogy with quantum physics is appropriate here. Born in the late 19th century, it only by the mid-twentieth gave concrete results in the form of semiconductors. And then not only scientists but also business paid attention to research in this area. But you need to fly today just for the flight itself. Each flight gives knowledge primarily about the nature of the flight. We learned to fly into orbit. You need to learn to fly on. Theory is theory, but no one can replace practice. Also, as machines do not replace a person. One thing, the ability to create automatic stations and quite another habitable. We know how automatic machines behave in long-distance space flight, but how will things be with a manned spacecraft? In relation to long-distance flights - only theory. At the beginning of the 20th century, record flights on airplanes were popular. It seems there was no benefit from them. Even opinions were expressed about their advisability. But each such flight gave at least a bit of knowledge about the air element and, relying on this knowledge, engineers could create better aircraft, and pilots learned to fly. What this led to, no need to tell. Imagine a man who does not like to swim. And he does not consider it necessary to learn. He doesn’t love, well, he doesn’t love, his business. But once in his life, he finds himself in a situation where this skill can be useful to him. And even knowing how to swim in theory, it will take him a long time to reach the desired level. And it’s good if his life does not depend on it. And a few words about the technique. Aviation and space technology, in fact, has no expiration dates. As parts wear, they are replaced with new ones. It can be upgraded. Constructive solutions are used as long as they satisfy those who operate this technique. Therefore, in aviation and in astronautics, structures with more than half a century history can be used. For example, the so-called small aircraft, this is actually what was invented and developed in the first half of the 20th century.
  21. crambol
    crambol 1 September 2013 20: 15
    0
    Quote: nod739
    there are a lot of problems with helium 3 that somehow sidestep, the first one is focused in a layer thick hundredths or thousandths of a millimeter, and its concentration is extremely small


    Excuse me, where did the data come from? I'm not interested in Wikipedia, but in solid and serious sources.