Military Review

Soviet-German non-aggression pact of 23 August 1939. Part of 1

50
Soviet-German relations after Adolf Hitler came to power.


Soviet-German non-aggression pact of 23 August 1939. Part of 1

The signing by the Soviet Union and Germany of the non-aggression treaty of August 23 of 1939 of the year was a big surprise for the entire international community. The sudden rapprochement between the two countries, openly hostile to each other, turned out to be an incredible, but nonetheless accomplished fact. The abrupt change in the balance of power forced the leading powers of that time, such as Great Britain, the United States, France and Japan, to reconsider their policies and act in the conditions of a new reality. But the reality was this: in the near future, the Soviet Union and Germany are not going to fight each other.

To understand the reasons that prompted the leadership of the two countries to sign this document, it is necessary not only to analyze the geopolitical situation at the time of signing the contract, but also the events preceding it.

January 30 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed Reich Chancellor (that is, head of government). In the same year, the Communist and Social Democratic parties were banned, and in the next, the institution of the presidency was abolished. The Nazis who came to power very quickly established control over the state and society, actively introducing the ideology of national socialism and revanchism into the masses. A course was taken for the restoration of the German armed forces and the militarization of the economy.

The establishment of a regime hostile to the USSR in Germany naturally led to a sharp deterioration in relations between the two countries. For the 11 months of 1933, only (since February), the Soviet embassy in Berlin has sent a note of protest to the German Foreign Ministry 217 (A. Martirosyan. Who led the war in the USSR? M., 2007. S. 434.). Cooperation in the military and economic spheres suffered. After the 2 trade agreement of May 1932 was declared null and void, for the first half of the year alone, Soviet exports to Germany decreased by 44% (A. Martirosyan. Who led the war in the USSR? M., 2007. S. 434.). German exports to the USSR also fell sharply. In addition, contacts between the military of the Red Army and the Reichswehr ceased. Schools in the Soviet Union, where the joint training of the Soviet and German military took place, were closed in the 1933 year, shortly after Hitler came to power (SA Gorlov, Top Secret: Alliance Moscow - Berlin, 1920-1953 M., 2001. C. 220.).



Tank a school in Kazan, a flight school in Lipetsk, and the Tomka chemical facility — the only military facilities in the USSR where the German military were trained — were closed shortly after Hitler came to power.

One of the first serious incidents in the Soviet-German relations of that time was the conflict around the Society for the sale of Soviet oil products Derop, which was eliminated after a series of organized pogroms that were clearly anti-communist in nature. At the same time, the Derunaft limited liability company was liquidated, which also represented the interests of the USSR on the German oil market. All this happened against the background of the Fuhrer's anti-communist rhetoric and repression against the Communists.

Nazi economic miracle.

As mentioned above, after Hitler came to power, the process of rapid growth of the German economy began, which would later be called "the Nazi economic miracle." From 1933 to 1939, Germany’s GDP grew by 2,2 times. Along the way, the militarization of the economy took place: from 1933 to 1939, budgetary expenditures on armaments grew almost 10 times (from 1,9 to 18,41 billion marks). As a percentage, their growth increased from 24 to 58% (Collection. How the German sword was forged. Industrial potential of the Third Reich. M .: Yauza-Eksmo, 2006. With 13.). In addition, there was a reduction in unemployment (from 4,80 million in 1933 to 0,91 million in 1937) ((Collection. How the German sword was forged. Industrial potential of the Third Reich. M .: Yauza-Eksmo, 2006. With 13.) and the intensive construction of autobahns.



Adolf Hitler sets an example to other Germans, digging ground for the autobahn.

However, the "Nazi economic miracle" did not appear out of nowhere. He had several components:

- The gradual exemption of Germany from the payment of reparations through the adoption of new plans for their payments, namely the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan. The Dawes Plan of 16 August 1924 of the year provided for a new procedure for reparation payments, in accordance with which their size was adjusted to the economic possibilities of the Weimar Republic. In addition, Germany provided an initial loan in 800 million marks (in the period 1924-1929gg. The amount of loans issued to the United States of the Weimar Republic, amounted to 21 billion marks)(Preparata GD Hitler Inc. How Britain and the United States created the Third Reich. M .: Generation, 2007. C. 251.).

The second reparations payment plan, known as the Young Plan, was adopted at the Hague Conference on Reparations 1929-1930. It provided for the reduction of reparation payments to 2 billion marks a year (in 1928, the amount of reparation payments amounted to 2,8 billion marks), the abolition of the reparation tax on industry and transport. However, the most important provision of this plan was the liquidation of foreign control bodies that monitored the payment of reparations.

However, this was not enough for some participants in the reparations conference, and in 1931, a moratorium was declared on the payment of reparations. Officially, Jung's plan was canceled in 1932; it was replaced by the Lausanne Agreement of 9 in July of 1932 on Germany buying out three billion gold marks of its reparation obligations with the redemption of redemption bonds over 15 years. After Hitler came to power in 1933g. reparation payments ceased, which, however, did not lead to any sanctions against Germany.

- Active financing of the German economy by Western countries. In addition to reducing reparation payments, intensive lending to the German economy and the penetration of foreign campaigns into it continued. Great Britain and the USA have succeeded in this. In April, 1933, as well as 10 in August and 1 in November, 1934 concluded a number of agreements on the Anglo-German agreements: on coal, currency, trade, and payment. According to the latter, for every 55 of pounds sterling spent by Germany on the purchase of British goods, England pledged to buy German goods worth 100 pounds sterling (A. Martirosyan. Who led the war in the USSR? M., 2007. S. 438.). In addition, an important role was played by the investments of British and American companies that controlled many sectors of the economy of the Third Reich.

The breakdown of economic ties with the Soviet Union and the ousting of its companies from the German economic space was accompanied by the seizure of this space by companies of Great Britain and the USA. So, after the liquidation of Derop and Derunaft societies on the German oil market, the British company Royal Dutch Shell firmly established itself. Not far behind the UK and the USA. American company Standard Oil owned 90% of all capital of the German-American oil company (Preparata GD Hitler Inc. How Britain and the United States created the Third Reich. M .: Generation, 2007. C. 332.). In addition to the oil industry, other strategic industries were under the control of the Anglo-Saxons.

For example, a conglomerate of German chemical industry concerns IG Farben Industry, in 1926 year, concluded trade agreements with the American Dupont concern and the British Imperial Chemical Industries. Later, in 1929, a subsidiary campaign of the American Chemical Corporation was opened in the USA, through which the American bank JP Morgan provided loans. At the same time, the General Motors automobile concern, owned by the Dupont family only from 1932 to 1939, 30 million dollars to the German conglomerate (Preparata GD Hitler Inc. How Britain and the United States created the Third Reich. M .: Generation, 2007. C. 332.). This conglomerate, among other things, specialized in the production of explosives and toxic substances. The General Electric Company, a German company specializing in the electric power industry and mechanical engineering, also came under the control of British and American firms.

Thus, the "Nazi economic miracle" is a carefully planned and organized operation to restore the German economy through the gradual abolition of reparation payments, the provision of profitable loans, and the establishment of control over strategically important sectors of German industry.

The policy of appeasement.

The conditions of the Versailles Peace Treaty, signed on June 28 of 1919, were extremely difficult and humiliating for Germany. Under the terms of this agreement, Germany not only suffered tangible territorial losses (colonies in Africa and Asia, Lorraine and Alsace in the west, Poznan and Pomerania in the east), but also pledged to pay reparations in the amount of 33 billion dollars. In addition, the entire German part of the left bank of the Rhine and the right bank of the 50 km width were subject to demilitarization (in 1923, this area was occupied by French troops; this event was included in history like the Ruhr conflict). The terms of the agreement also included limiting the size of the regular army (not more than 100 thousand people), abolishing military service, a ban on having modern armored vehicles in service, and Aviationas well as naval transfer fleet into the hands of the allies (Versailles Peace Treaty, translated from French, M., 1925.).



German territorial losses after the Versailles Treaty 1919g.

The Versailles system, built by the victors, was aimed at depriving the defeated Germany of even the theoretical possibility of restoring its power and being an equal partner of the victorious powers in the First World War. The occupation of the most important industrial region of Germany, reparations, and the actual prohibition of having full-fledged armed forces, coupled with hyperinflation and chaos in management, made this really impossible.

However, with the advent of Adolf Hitler to power, the situation began to change rapidly. “March 9 1935 was announced the official existence of German aviation, and March 16 - that the German army will continue to be based on compulsory universal military service” - writes the famous British statesman Winston Churchill (Churchill U. World War II. M .: Voenizdat, 1991. T. 1. C. 42.). It was a flagrant violation of the Versailles Treaty, which, however, did not entail any sanctions against Germany.

After the adoption of the “Law on the construction of the Wehrmacht”, the number of German armed forces began to increase with overwhelming speed and reached 4 million 233 by the start of the Second World War. thousand people That is, in 4, the number of German armed forces increased 42 times (A. Martirosyan. Who led the war in the USSR? M., 2007. S. 142.).

In parallel with this, the process of equipping the German army with modern types of weapons openly took place. Already by March 1935g. Luftwaffe (Wehrmacht Air Force) numbered 1888 machines and 20 thous. ps of attendants. K 1 October 1935. the first large Wehrmacht tank units were formed, which included a total of 1200 tanks. In addition, 18 June 1935g. The Anglo-German Maritime Agreement was concluded, according to which Germany received the right to have a fleet, in tonnage equal to 35% of the total displacement of the naval forces of the British Empire. The tonnage of the German submarine fleet was set at 45% of the total tonnage of submarines (British Empire Churchill W. World War II. T.1. M .: Voenizdat, 1991. C. 46.).

It is the rapid growth of the German armed forces that Western historians and statesmen of that time determine the so-called "policy of appeasement" - the policy of concessions in relation to Hitler's Germany, which was carried out in the period 1933-1939gg. The lack of reaction to the open re-establishment of the German armed forces gradually shifted to territorial concessions.

The first concession of this kind was the remilitarization of the Rhineland. 7 March 1936. German troops in the number of 19 battalions were introduced into the region, 3 of them crossed to the west bank of the Rhine. The French covering army, many times superior in number, approached the borders of the Rhineland, but did not enter its territory. The reaction of the French government was limited to a declaration that strongly condemned the occupation of the Rhineland. However, no concrete actions were taken, although the French had every opportunity and full right to oust the German troops from the territory they occupied.

Even more characteristic was the reaction of the UK government. Especially worth mentioning is the position of British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, who called on France not to take military action against Germany and the statement of Lord Lothian (British Ambassador to the United States): "In the end, the Germans just went into their garden" (Nicolson H. The Harold Nicolson Diaries: 1919-1964 (Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 2004) P. 139.).

There were no demonstrations against remilitarization of the Rhineland. On the contrary, several demonstrations were organized, demanding "maintaining peace" and "preventing the use of military force on the continent." Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin stated that Britain “does not have enough resources” to stop the Germans, and that in any case “public opinion” will not support military action on the continent (Taylor, AJP The Origins of the Second World War, London: Penguin 1961, 1976. P. 132.).

However, was the fear of an open clash with Hitler Germany really behind the inaction of the powers? After all, in 1936g. the process of increasing the number of German armed forces and modern weapons has just begun. At that time, Hitler did not yet have modern tanks and aircraft, which would later become legends of the Second World War. Consider this with specific examples.

Light tanks Panzer I and Panzer II even during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) showed the weakness of their weapons and booking. The first full-fledged Panzer III Panzer IV tanks, which had artillery (and not machine-gun) weapons and better booking, were mass-produced only in 1937. But the legendary "Tigers" and "Panther" was not yet in the project.

The same thing happened with the aircraft. The main fighter of the Luftwaffe during the 1935-1936 period. There was a classic Heinkel He 51 biplane. This design scheme is more typical for aircraft 1920-x., But in 30-e is already outdated. The modern fighter Bf.109 and the dive bomber Ju 87 began to be mass produced in the same 1937. A similar situation was with kriegsmarine (German Navy). The construction of a modern surface and submarine fleet has just begun.



The Ju-87 dive bomber, one of the most famous symbols of World War II, went into serial production in 1937 and was built according to technology taken out of Detroit (Preparata GD Hitler Inc. How Britain and the United States created the Third Reich. M .: Generation, 2007. C. 333.)

In this situation, the United Kingdom and France had every chance of winning a military confrontation. The peacetime French armed forces numbered more than 1 million people, 550000 of whom were found in the territory of the metropolis. To this 3 should be added thousands of tanks and combat aircraft, as well as the fourth largest fleet in the world. Britain also had the world's first fleet, as well as about 1,5 thousand aircraft, not counting ground forces (History of the Second World War 1939 – 1945 in 12 volumes. Edited by A. A. Grechko. M .: Voenizdat, 1973-1982. Volume 2. On the eve of the war. M .: Voenizdat, 1974. C. 402-405 .).

It is extremely doubtful that the armed forces of Germany, which were then at the stage of formation, were able to successfully withstand the well-equipped and trained forces of Great Britain and France, which, moreover, were significantly superior to the Wehrmacht in numbers. It was enough just a collective ultimatum, supported by the occupation of the Rhineland and the mobilization of the armed forces, in order to prevent any attempts by Germany to redraw the map of Europe established by the Versailles system. Not to mention such economic sanctions as the return of reparation payments and the termination of lending to the German economy.

None of the above measures have been implemented.

In order to explain the reasons for such strange pliability and malleability, the most varied versions are put forward, ranging from the economic crisis that allegedly did not allow the allies to wage a long war, up to "psychological unpreparedness" for a big war. Here is what Winston Churchill wrote about this: “Until the middle of 1936, Hitler’s aggressive policy and breach of contract did not rest on the strength of Germany, but on the disunity and timidity of France and England, as well as on the isolation of the United States” (Churchill U. World War II. M .: Voenizdat, 1991. T. 1. C. 172.). What caused the “fragmentation” and “timidity” of France and England, as well as the isolation of the United States, if at that time they had all the opportunities in the bud to extinguish Hitler's aggression?

The true goals of the “policy of appeasement” become clear if we recall the state with which Germany’s relations worsened immediately after the establishment of the Nazi regime. It was the Soviet Union.

Adolf Hitler did not hide his hostility towards the Land of the Soviets and its ideology. Even in his autobiographical book, Mein Kampf, he wrote:

“We, the National Socialists, quite deliberately put an end to all German foreign policy before the war. We want to return to the point at which our old development of 600 interrupted years ago. We want to stop the eternal German aspiration to the south and west of Europe and definitely point the finger towards the territories located in the east. We finally break with the colonial and commercial policies of the pre-war period and consciously turn to the policy of conquering new lands in Europe. When we talk about the conquest of new lands in Europe, we, of course, can have in mind, first of all, only Russia and those marginal states that are subordinate to it. Fate itself points us with your finger ... This giant eastern state is inevitably doomed to ruin. All the prerequisites are ripe for this ... " (Hitler A. Mein Kampf. M .: Ed. "T-Eye.", 1992. With 341.).

In addition, the author is building a foreign policy line in relation to two other main opponents of Germany in the First World War. The quintessence of his thesis in relation to France is the following:

“We must understand the following: France is and will be the most deadly enemy of the German people” (Hitler A. Mein Kampf. M .: Ed. "T-Eye.", 1992. With 324.).

At the same time, the future Fuhrer characterizes the UK quite differently:

“England’s desire has been and remains to prevent any European continental power from growing into a world factor, for which England needs the forces of individual European states to balance each other ... France’s desire has been and remains to prevent Germany has truly become a single state with a single strong leadership, for which it systematically supports the idea of ​​turning Germany into a conglomerate of small and smallest states, whose forces mutually balance each other ... The objectives of French diplomacy in the final analysis are contrary to the goals and trends of British state art. Who from this point of view will weigh the possibilities remaining for Germany, he will inevitably have to come with us to the conclusion that we have to seek rapprochement only with England ... Of course, British statesmen will always stick to pro-British policy, and not pro-German. But things may turn out that it is precisely the interests of the pro-British policy for various reasons to some extent coincide with the interests of the pro-German policy ... For a whole period of time for Germany, only two allies in Europe are possible: England and Italy " (Hitler A. Mein Kampf. M .: Ed. "T-Eye.", 1992. With 321.).

The task of this article is not to find out what role external forces played in the coming of the Nazis to power. However, it is worth noting that the establishment of the Nazi regime in Germany, the main direction of expansion was directed to the east, fully meeting the geopolitical interests of England, as well as its desire to fight by proxy. This also answered the British unwillingness to see France as the dominant continental European power.

From this point of view, all the actions of Great Britain are quite logical: in the economy - the abolition of reparations, favorable agreements for Germany and lending. In foreign policy, ignoring violations of the Versailles Treaty and territorial concessions pushing the Fuhrer to new gains. The same policy was followed by the USA.

The situation with France was somewhat more complicated, since this policy directly threatened its national interests and security. However, it should not be forgotten that, despite the powerful armed forces, the presence of colonies and other signs of a colonial power, France focused on England on many issues of foreign policy. Interesting in this regard are the testimonies of the defendants of the Nuremberg process. “The Führer,” reports Goering, “often said that France would do nothing without the approval of England, and that Paris had become the London diplomatic branch. Consequently, it was enough to settle the matter with England, and then everything is in order in the West ”(Cartier R. Secrets of War. After Nuremberg. M., 2005. C. 39.). Thus, the calculation of the eastern direction of the expansion of Germany, together with the pro-British orientation of foreign policy, led France to deliberately neglecting national security issues (which, in the end, cost her dearly).

Meanwhile, the expansion of Nazi Germany continued in full swing. 12-13 March 1938g. Austria (Anschluss) was annexed to Germany, to which the UK reacted with a formal protest (March 14) followed by recognition (April 2). It is symptomatic that, following Britain, the Anschluss was recognized by France.



The triumphal entry into Vienna was not without its roughness: “Despite the excellent weather and good conditions, most of the tanks failed. Defects of heavy motorized artillery were discovered, and the road from Linz to Vienna turned out to be blocked by stopped heavy machines ”(W. Churchill World War II. M .: Voenizdat, 1991. T. 1. C. 122.)

The next victim was Czechoslovakia. The cause of the German claims was the Sudetenland, in whose territory the Germans lived, the “Sudeten German party” of which began to advocate for granting territorial autonomy to the Sudetenland. Naturally, this was fully understood by the German government.

However, the government of Czechoslovakia did not want to make concessions, for which there was no reason: in the spring of 1938. Czechoslovakia's army outnumbered the Wehrmacht (34 versus 28 divisions). By the fall, the balance of power had changed, but even then the Czechs could put up 39 divisions of 1,8 million, 36 million, and 1,6 planes and 2400 Hitler tanks and 1200 tanks, respectively, against 1500 German divisions. (Volkov F. Secret becomes clear. M., 1989. C. 9.). That is, the superiority of the Wehrmacht was not at all overwhelming. At the same time, on the territory of the Sudetenland region, which was supposed to be a theater of operations, there were powerful fortifications, about which the Minister of Armaments and Military Industry of the Third Reich, Albert Speer, later wrote: “In the firing practice, our experts amazedly weaponwhich we were going to use against these fortifications, would not have the expected effect ” (Speer A. Memoirs. M., 1997. C.169.).

In addition, in the event of German aggression towards Czechoslovakia, the latter was to be helped by France. Under Article II of the Franco-Soviet Mutual Assistance Pact of 2 in May 1935, the parties pledged to provide immediate assistance and support to the other side if it becomes the object of an unprovoked attack by a third “European state”. In reality, everything was completely different.

Already at the first meeting devoted to the Sudeten crisis, which was held in London on April 28-30 on April 1938, British and French diplomats demanded that Czechoslovakia by all means avoid a military clash. The demands of Hitler to grant the Sudeten Germans autonomy went to the demands to include the Sudetenland in the Third Reich, and the demand of London and Paris to make concessions into ultimatums.

As a result, on September 29-30, a decisive meeting was held in Munich, in which Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler and Mussolini took part. The outcome of the Munich Agreement was the inclusion of the Sudetenland region in the Third Reich and the actual dismemberment of Czechoslovakia, fully completed in March 1939, when Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic, occupied by Hitler, Slovakia and Transcarpathian Ukraine.

Of course, living in the Sudetenland of the German population was only a formal reason for the occupation. Sudetenland attracted Hitler for other reasons. William Shearer writes: “According to German data, the dismembered country was losing 66% coal production, 86% chemical industry production, 80% cement production, 70% pig iron smelting, 70% electricity generation and 40% wood processing industry” (From Munich to Tokyo Bay: A look from the West at the tragic pages of the history of the Second World War: Translation. / Comp. E.Ya. Troyanovskaya. M .: Politizdat, 1992. From 20.). In addition, in the territory of Czechoslovakia were located weapons factories "Skoda", which for the year gave products as much as was produced throughout the industry in the UK (Churchill U. World War II. M .: Voenizdat, 1991. T. 1. C. 150.). Now all this wealth went to the Führer for free.

On the example of the Munich Agreements, it can be seen that the leading world powers of that time carried out a deliberate surrender of their positions to Hitler in order to provoke him to further aggression in the eastern direction. This was covered up by "timidity", "disunity", "desire for peace" and other arguments. At the same time, all the proposals of the Soviet Union were ignored, which will be discussed below.

Collapse of the collective security system.

Of course, the leadership of the Soviet Union was aware that the sharp deterioration in relations with Germany that followed the Nazis came to power was primarily due not to the ideological differences and the anti-communist rhetoric of the Fuhrer, but to its internal policies and territorial aspirations. It was obvious that the future expansion of Hitler's Germany (if it was given a course) would be directed, first of all, to the east. And the main purpose of this expansion will be the territory of the Soviet Union, the very “space in the East”, about which Hitler wrote in “Main Kampf”. The key question was how the leading European powers of the time, Great Britain and France, as well as the United States, would react to the Fuhrer’s aggressive encroachments. By their actions (or inaction), it was possible to understand whether the restoration of a strong Germany corresponds to their geopolitical interests, or not. The development of a further foreign policy depended on this.

To this end, the Soviet Union began to pursue a policy of creating a collective security system, the essence of which was to conclude treaties on mutual assistance in order to prevent aggression in Europe. This concept 29 December 1933g. outlined by the Commissar for Foreign Affairs M. Litvinov at a session of the CEC.

Initially, the concept was successfully implemented. Along the way, there was a strengthening of the authority of the USSR in the international arena. September 18 1934. The USSR was adopted by the League of Nations, and immediately became a permanent member of its Council. Even earlier, in November 1933. USSR recognized the United States.

At the beginning of 1934. negotiations began on the conclusion of the Eastern Pact - a system of treaties on mutual assistance between the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, which would guarantee the inviolability of their borders. In Western historiography, the Eastern Pact is called the “Eastern Locarno”, since this agreement was similar to the Locarno Agreements 1925, which guaranteed the inviolability of borders in Western Europe. The Eastern Pact was proposed by French Foreign Minister Louis Bart in the form of a bilateral agreement between the Soviet Union recognizing the Locarno Treaties and France recognizing the Eastern Pact. 14 June 1934. It was proposed to join the Eastern Pact to all interested states. Czechoslovakia (2 July 1934), Estonia (29 July 1934), Latvia and Lithuania (3 August 1934) agreed, Finland abstained. At the same time, Latvia and Estonia, as a condition for accession, demanded the inclusion of Germany and Poland in the Pact.

However, in the end, the attempt to conclude the Eastern Pact ended in failure. The position of Great Britain played a key role here: the British agreed to support the Eastern Pact, provided that Germany was included not only in the pact, but also in the French-Soviet bilateral treaty. France and the Soviet Union agreed, however, Germany (September 11 1934) and Poland (September 27 1934) refused to accede to the pact. Thus, the goal of ensuring the inviolability of borders in Eastern Europe has not been achieved. And, if Germany’s refusal to join the pact is understandable (in fact, it was directed against its territorial aspirations in the east), then the position of Great Britain in this matter was alarming. The actual refusal of the British to join the Eastern Pact and thus maintain the inviolability of borders in Eastern Europe testified that at the moment this did not correspond to their foreign policy interests.

Not the last role was also played by the assassination of the initiator of the Eastern Pact, French Foreign Minister Louis Barth, which occurred on October 9 on 1934. His successor in this post, Pierre Laval, adhered to other views on the foreign policy line (recall that the remilitarization of the Rhineland took place during his tenure as Minister of Foreign Affairs).

The failed attempt to conclude the Eastern Pact was the first in a series of attempts by the USSR to create a collective security system. The failure in the conclusion of the Eastern Pact showed the Soviet leadership that intentions to prevent further strengthening of Nazi Germany did not meet with adequate support from Western partners. Subsequent events confirmed this trend.

2 May 1935. The Franco-Soviet Mutual Assistance Pact was concluded. The main article of this treaty was Article II, which obliged the parties to provide immediate assistance and support to the other party if it became the object of an unprovoked attack by a third "European state" (The history of diplomacy. Edited by V.P. Potemkin. M .: Politizdat, 1959 — 1979. C. 397.). The contract was concluded for five years with automatic renewal. However, the supplementary agreement designed to regulate the practical aspects of cooperation was ratified only after Laval’s resignation.

Meanwhile, the situation continued to escalate. In July, 1936. the Spanish Civil War began, during which the USSR supported the Republican government of the Popular Front, and Germany and Italy supported the rebel forces of General Franco. This war has become for both sides a kind of testing ground for the acquisition of technology and the acquisition of combat experience. Especially distinguished in this regard, Germany and Italy: in the period 1936-1939gg. 16000 of the German military and 72000 of the Italian military (against the Soviet 5000) took part in the conflict (Soria G., Pozharskaya S. War and Revolution in Spain. 1936-1939. M., 1987.t 1. With 221.). In addition, both sides actively supplied the warring artillery, armored vehicles and aircraft.

The Spanish Civil War contributed to the further deterioration of Soviet-German relations. 25 November 1936. Germany and Japan concluded Anti-Comintern, which created a bilateral bloc of these states, directed against the countries of the Third Communist International (Comintern). The treaty provided for the exchange of information regarding the activities of the Comintern and support for anti-communist regimes. In November, 1937. Italy joined the Anti-Comintern Pact. In the autumn of the same year, a real “consular war” unfolded between Germany and the USSR, as a result of which 5 German consulates from 7 were closed in the USSR, and in Germany - 2 from Soviet consulates from 4 (Rozanov G.L. Stalin - Hitler: A Documentary Essay on Soviet-German Diplomatic Relations, 1939 –1941 Moscow: International Relations, 1991. With 39.).

The final futility of attempts to build a collective security system was demonstrated by the events of 1938: the aforementioned Anschluss of Austria and the Munich Agreement of 30 of September of 1938. The peculiarity of the latter is that not only the Franco-Soviet Mutual Assistance Pact of 2 in May of 1935 were ignored, but also the attempt of the Soviet Union to render military assistance to Czechoslovakia was blocked. At the same time, an agreement on the actual dismemberment of Czechoslovakia was made without any participation of representatives of the USSR.



Neville Chamberlain: “I have to confess to the deepest distrust of Russia, I don’t even believe in her ability to conduct successful offensive actions, even if she wanted. And I do not believe her motives "

After the Munich agreements 1938. it became finally clear that the Soviet Union’s foreign policy on building a collective security system did not meet with the support of the leading powers, led to international isolation, and therefore needed a radical revision. The key task of Soviet diplomacy was not to build a collective security system, but to search for allies in the coming geopolitical confrontation. Further events developed in this vein.

Yuri Chikhichin
27 August 2013 g
Articles from this series:
Soviet-German non-aggression pact of 23 August 1939. Part of 1
Soviet-Geran Non-Aggression Pact of 23 in August 1939. Part of 2
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  1. Aryan
    Aryan 28 August 2013 10: 49
    0
    Am I stupid or is there not a single word "Jew" in the article?
    and how did the anti-Simitic policy of the Reich affect the same unemployment?
    1. smile
      smile 28 August 2013 14: 32
      +2
      Aryan
      I would not exaggerate the Jewish factor. Yes, Hitler credited banking institutions, which often belonged to comrades with Jewish surnames. But the determining factor here was not their nationality, but the policy of the countries whose citizens they were. The state will always find an opportunity to force its citizen to act in a certain way, especially then ... by the way, Israel, which does not give out its own, then there wasn’t ... :))) Then the banking structures served the interests of the powers that first made decisions on loans and investments funds. and then they were executed ... that’s why they didn’t give us loans, although investing in the USSR was super-profitable and there were no risks, state guarantees .....
      As an example = Abramovich invested a lot in Chukotka ... do you think he spent the funds raised in the Country on his own initiative, the "World Government" instructed him to do this ... :)))) ... or he just understands that when the head of state asks, this is exactly the offer that cannot be refused ... :))) and remember, then everything was much tougher for the oligarchs ...
      And the Nazi anti-Semitic policy had practically no effect on unemployment. There were not so many Jews. And unemployment in Germany before the economic court was simply monstrous.
      Some left (but not very significant, since European countries, the USA, and, for example, Latin American countries were very reluctant to accept Jewish refugees). A smaller part of themselves felt quite at ease in Germany (recall Hitler's phrase - "here I decide who is a Jew and who is not" .. everyone remembers what he was talking about), and the main part was forced to do the darkest work so as not to die of hunger, but they did not stop working.
      So, the answer to your question did not affect ...
      1. Day 11
        Day 11 28 August 2013 18: 41
        +2
        Volodya, do you know that you wrote "Völkischer Beobachter" on this topic in 1929 (I can look for the number). road. They write on one side of the price tag the sale price, and on the other side, for the regulatory authorities. They sell one by one, and as soon as the check is turned over the back side. Does it resemble the current situation? If it were not true, it became - would Hitler be Chancellor?
        1. smile
          smile 28 August 2013 19: 28
          +2
          Day 11
          Greetings!
          I want to say the following, I do not want to discuss the Jewish theme-
          firstly, because the Jewish theme already takes up too much space in the heads of some of our colleagues
          Secondly, because I do not believe that such a small nation and state has such a significant influence on the history of mankind - they are not superhuman
          third. I do not believe. what is the people of the planet. consisting of the masters of hell, although this idea has been successfully introduced in the West and in many post-Soviet republics ... only in relation to Russians. To the Poles my separate reverence ... :)))
          fourthly, huckster, huckster everywhere, regardless of nationality. With the Jews, their inevitable clannishness, isolation (without which they would simply have dissolved) played a cruel joke here, as well as that. that in the Middle Ages their ambitious representatives were ordered the road to the nobility, army service. trade remained. later art and the media, where they naturally supported each other, there was no other choice ... here is the result ...: (((Jews in Israel, where they were freed from the need to pile up in clans so as not to disappear, completely others ...
          Well, Völkisher Beobachter is another source of information .. :))). Dan, you know. what kind of newspaper is it ... :)))
          Yes, and Hitler did not become chancellor because of anti-Semitism ... take my word for it ... :))) Yes, and Hindenburg appointed him chancellor-although he won the election, he still did not get the required percentage of votes .
          1. Day 11
            Day 11 28 August 2013 19: 39
            +2
            Well, of course, the rag is still the same ... Like our "Pravda" (the central organ of the Party). But still there was interesting information. Note that it began to appear even before Hitler came to power (by legal means, by the way )
            1. smile
              smile 28 August 2013 21: 00
              +2
              Day 11
              Here you are right, no one disputes the legitimacy of Hitler’s coming to power under those German laws, but not without the help of Hindenburg the Nazis would not come to power. Well, and who influenced Hindenburg, who despised Aloisievich, this is another question ... but I don’t believe this word in a newspaper ... for any period, do not blame me ... :))))
          2. Selevc
            Selevc 28 August 2013 22: 15
            +2
            If you believe this year’s propaganda, then Hitler most of all tormented and killed the Jews - but for some reason he was going to build his third Reich on the lands of the Eastern Slavic states - a problem turns out !!! In my opinion, the Jews simply greatly inflated the scale of the so-called Holocaust !!!
  2. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 28 August 2013 11: 09
    +9
    In the West, few know all this, they know, but they don’t speak. But they remember very well the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.
    1. smile
      smile 28 August 2013 14: 40
      +7
      Vladimirets
      At the same time, they all remember exactly in the version that they themselves invented ... The funny thing is when they talked about the history of the 20th century. you say, about the criminal actions of their states, they are overwhelmingly (if you stick to the wall) they say, Yes, it was all so long ago and it doesn’t matter ... but when it comes to the USSR, memory is sharply aggravated and problems instantly become relevant .... female...:))))
      1. stalkerwalker
        stalkerwalker 28 August 2013 15: 20
        +7
        Quote: smile
        but when it comes to the USSR, memory is sharply aggravated and problems instantly become relevant .... female sssssssvvbchki

        Reflex Pavlova ...
        You can’t argue against nature ... laughing
  3. tixon444
    tixon444 28 August 2013 12: 33
    +8
    Hitler - a chain dog of the arrogant Saxons, from his very puppy age he had been dragged to the USSR, he would have attacked Russia in any case, if there had not even been Bolsheviks. He was brought to power with one single purpose: to erase Russia and the Russians from the face of the earth. Painfully tidbit for them is our homeland. Moreover, he did not hide this, screaming at every step that the living space for the Germans in the east.
    1. smiths xnumx
      smiths xnumx 28 August 2013 12: 46
      11
      It is the "good old" England that bears the main burden of guilt for the long-term massacre called "World War II". As noted long ago (and recognized by the British themselves), England has neither permanent friends nor permanent enemies - only permanent interests. Which, in particular, also consist in the fact that in no case do not allow the appearance in Europe of any force that can seriously oppose England. That is why the British for more than one hundred years skillfully and skillfully played off the European states, vigilantly watching that they deplete each other as much as possible. This was the case back in the Seven Years' War, when, not least thanks to British intrigues, Russia and Prussia clashed, which simply did not have contradictions that should have been resolved by military means. This was the case in the First World War: both Germany and Austria-Hungary (of which there are enough evidences) would not be on the rampage if they knew for sure that England would certainly take part in the war. However, London wagged, twisted, with an innocent air assured that it would remain neutral in any turn of events - and the encouraged Teutons with the Austrians bravely moved troops across the borders. After that, London threw off the mask and began to shout to the whole world that the bloodthirsty Huns should be stopped immediately, that England had proclaimed this from the very beginning. And they began to fight in full ... Regards! hi
    2. ruslan207
      ruslan207 28 August 2013 16: 46
      -3
      Yes, this is nonsense and whom did Hitler love?
      He also wanted to destroy the Poles, and so on.
      1. smile
        smile 28 August 2013 18: 03
        +4
        ruslan207
        You yourself have allowed yourself to crap nonsense; in the USA there was a most powerful pro-Nazi lobby, whose representatives drove Hitler resources throughout the war. mainly through Spain. Switzerland and Sweden, failed (due to the morganatic marriage) The British king is a convinced Nazi who collaborated with the Germans. I will not depress you. what did Hitler rightly consider possible alliance with Britain? :)))
        strong friendship with the Finns, for which Hitler was going to pay off with them territory 2-3 times larger than Finland, supported by over 600 thousand Finnish soldiers, is no secret to anyone. "Loved" Hitler and the Arab population of the English and French colonies. Indians .... orders were issued equating the Crimean Tatars, Vainakhs and some other Muslim peoples of the USSR with the Aryans ... and other allies?
        .... you can list long and tedious, the main thing is that you are fundamentally wrong ... although the thought creeps in that such utterances are not prompted by complete historical illiteracy, but the attitude towards the USSR and us ... is hardly good ...: )))
    3. Day 11
      Day 11 28 August 2013 18: 55
      +4
      Perhaps I agree with you. He didn’t want to fight with the Angles at all. He considered their people close to the Aryan race. Hess no wonder (oh no wonder) flew to England. They shut their mouths.
  4. Strashila
    Strashila 28 August 2013 12: 55
    +7
    When they like to discuss the Molotov-Rebintrop Pact, they come across such things as the time of signing and what actually was in the contract-pact and whether there was something terrible about which they like to gossip in the West.
    The signing time ... the Soviet Union had a choice of further actions in the summer of 1939 .. in the Far East there are fights on Khan-Helgol, heavy battles. The USSR calls on Britain and France to conclude treaties ... refusal. As they say nm want, you will get it. With a difficult situation in the East of the USSR, he secured himself in the West.
    The essence of the agreement on the separation of influence that the USSR actually signed, and nothing seditious, he confirmed his influence in the territories that left Russia after the First World War, but lost during the civil war ... The USSR confirmed that it was the heir to the Russian Empire and nothing more.
    This, incidentally, was confirmed in the winter of 1941, when defeating Finland did not move troops beyond a certain line, a division line following the results of the First World War.
    1. Selevc
      Selevc 28 August 2013 22: 21
      +1
      The events of the 30s, this is Pitt’s British policy in action ... the USSR has intensified greatly and the West has strengthened Germany in contrast to it - but I want to note that I did not give it time to increase to its level !!!
      After Hitler’s invasion of Poland, the idea was to expect a grand Anglo-French offensive in the West - and everything would be finished with Hitler ... In reality, we are witnessing the so-called Strange War - of course - they in the West thought that Hitler immediately from the USSR mates and he has concluded some kind of pact and quietly divided Eastern Europe - so they are still furious !!!
      I am deeply convinced that in the 1939s and 40s of the USSR, everything was politically done correctly and competently - based on the current situation and strengthening the country's security !!!
  5. Lech from ZATULINKI
    Lech from ZATULINKI 28 August 2013 13: 11
    +5
    Interesting in the contest of this article was the visit of Hessa to England - and could not find out SPECIFICALLY what is the true purpose of the mission of Hessa to England
    1. Aryan
      Aryan 28 August 2013 14: 18
      +4
      Britons archive about Hess extended to 2050th
      come here for an answer here in 37 years laughing
      but I agree that his action influenced the decision of the Soviet Union
      "What if the Britons go to peace with the Reich?"
    2. Uhe
      Uhe 28 August 2013 14: 30
      0
      Simple: an anti-Chechel conspiracy, but it was intercepted by people loyal to Cherchel. He was sent by Hitler himself, and to avert his eyes and because of capture was declared a traitor, although in reality he tried to negotiate with the British with Hitler’s knowledge. After its capture by the people of Cherchel, game and trade began. The funny thing is that the transcript of negotiations between Hess and the British on the same day fell on the table to Stalin :) So our intelligence worked.

      As a result, the British agreed that Hitler attacks the USSR, in this case they do not enter the war until 44 years old. Along the way, the Germans were given the disinformation (through a senior British spy in Germany) that Britain has a very strong defense, and the USSR - on the contrary, has only one defense line instead of three.

      Well, they say that Hess himself was then removed, and his double sat in the dungeons.

      If I’m not mistaken, I read about it in detail with Arsen Beniktovich Martirosyan. In general, Martirosyan has a lot of useful books about this period of our history, based on the latest data. I highly advise you to read it, because it is very useful for understanding that era, for realizing the greatness of the people's heroism, leadership, personally Stalin ...
      1. smile
        smile 28 August 2013 15: 03
        +4
        Uhe
        We had good intelligence. but it’s not worth hyperbolizing her abilities, it’s about the fact that the protocols that day fell on Stalin’s table ... :)))) These are Rezunov’s tales and they don’t benefit us ... we were strong, but not omnipotent, otherwise nothing but his own version that Hitler prevented us from taking over the whole world, preventing, not explaining our defeats in the initial period of the war ...
        And about our three lines of defense .... well, what can I say ... :)))) okay, I’m silent ... :))) One thing I can say, not a single sane state will plan its actions from the information delivered by one a spy ... albeit a senior ... :)))
        Sincerely.
      2. Alex
        Alex 5 February 2014 18: 04
        +1
        Uhereading your opus, you ask yourself: did you either sit there in the safe and record all the conversations on the recorder, or do you have too wild imagination? Clarify where this knowledge of the situation comes from?
  6. Djozz
    Djozz 28 August 2013 13: 22
    +4
    Please show the originals of the "secret protocols" to the Soviet-German treaty of 39! Only, do not need a copy from photocopies allegedly found by the Americans!
    1. smile
      smile 28 August 2013 15: 06
      +2
      Djozz
      UTB, why is this not necessary? They wrote it themselves, signed it, then lost it .... and then the OPA! Found it! They have every right to dispose of their property - private property is sacred! :))))
  7. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 28 August 2013 13: 23
    +6
    Both England and France had every opportunity to directly slam Hitler when he was weak and wretched. However, both powers in their arrogance believed that Adolf Aloizovich would trample in the first place against the Soviet Union - therefore, he should not be beaten in the dark, on the contrary, the Reich Chancellor needed to be supported.

    They did as much as they could. Starting with the story of the Rhine region. This territory, at one time torn away from defeated Germany, was under the control of the Allied powers. As a first muscle test, Hitler set out to introduce troops there — not yet formidable “Panzerdivis” of the Wehrmacht, but weak battalions of a half-dead Reichswehr. A kind of reconnaissance in battle. The enterprise looked so hopeless that the German generals seriously agreed to arrest the beloved Fuhrer if England and France frown. Hitler himself gave the troops a directive: to retreat immediately, if only a single English corporal or French sergeant major came out to meet and, threateningly frowning, barked: “Fight from here, your mother!”

    However, the Western powers swallowed it and quietly cleared the Rhine region. Herr Hitler, cunningly squinting, drew conclusions, like any intelligent man in his place. And slowly he began to destroy those articles of the Versailles Accords that turned the German army into something operetic.

    England and France were silent as a people in a famous tragedy. Historians around the world still honestly admit that they are not able to give a convincing explanation for the British action, having signed an agreement with Hitler, according to which Germany was now entitled to have as many submarines as Great Britain. I also can’t. From the standpoint of common sense, there is no explanation for the behavior of the British - especially if you recall how famously during the First World War the German submarines terrorized the British Isles.

    Then Hitler, reuniting the fraternal Germanic and Austrian peoples, annexed the independent independent advance of Austria to the Reich. In German it was called beautifully - "Anschluss." England and France said nothing approvingly. Hitler already understood that they could be bent through the knee ...

    And he demanded that Czechoslovakia give him the Sudetenland - a hefty piece of the country with powerful fortifications and other good. England and France, having called the Czechoslovak leaders to Munich, began to twist their hands, explaining that they would not fight against the cutest man Hitler, and therefore the Czechs were obliged to accept the German ultimatum. The Czechs had to capitulate. English Prime Minister Chamberlain, returning from Munich to London, loudly declared to those who met: “I have brought peace for a whole generation!” The same generation, which very soon had to beat lice in the trenches for six years.
    The French, meanwhile, were enthusiastically developing a plan of war against the Soviet Union - aviation in alliance with the British was smashing Baku oil fields, tanks and infantry invading the territories of Turkey and Finland. Having captured France, the Germans quickly found a suitcase of these plans - and immediately published them, chuckling cynically in a fist . For France, as in that joke, it turned out somehow uncomfortable ...
    Well, then England and France calmly left Poland alone with the Wehrmacht. And when the generals offered one of the senior British leaders a little bombing of German forests and plants, he, having bulged his eyes like a cat that spoils straw (in the words of the brave soldier Schweik), exclaimed plainly in horror: “Gentlemen, you offer me to destroy private property of others ?! ”
    And when the USSR invited England and France to conclude a real union treaty, they sent some old, military pensioners to Moscow who did not have the right to sign anything.

    So Stalin had to conclude a non-aggression pact with Germany ...
    1. smile
      smile 28 August 2013 15: 10
      +3
      smiths xnumx
      Great comment!
      A small addition, those military pensioners did not have the authority, but they had clear instructions on how long it was possible to delay negotiations .... which they successfully managed.
  8. Standard Oil
    Standard Oil 28 August 2013 13: 29
    +3
    I must add to everything else that the well-known British communist, a certain Winston Churchill, did not in any way condemn the USSR for signing a pact with Germany, of course he shielded his own, but in any case, if someone in your presence condemns the USSR for the "Agreement with the Nazis and Nazism in general = communism ", then you can always" remind "of the Munich Agreement and the partition of Czechoslovakia, plus billions in loans to the Nazis from the United States, the" strange war "and much more.
  9. Lech from ZATULINKI
    Lech from ZATULINKI 28 August 2013 13: 40
    +6
    BA familiar faces
  10. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 28 August 2013 13: 43
    11
    Here's another "victim":
    Handshake of Polish Marshal Edward Rydz-Smiglá and German Attache Colonel Bogislaw von Studnitz at the Independence Day parade in Warsaw on November 11 1938 of the year. The photograph is notable for the fact that the Polish parade was especially tied to the capture of Tesinska Silesia a month earlier.

    The Poles replace the Czech name of the city with the Polish name at the city’s railway station in the city of Tesin.

    Polish soldiers pose with the Czechoslovak coat of arms deposed near the telephone and telegraph building they seized during Operation Zaluzhe in the Czech village of Ligotka Kameralna-Polish, Komorní Lhotka-Czech., Located near the town of Teszyn.

    Handshake of the Polish Marshal Edward Rydz-Smigla and the German attache, Major General Bohislav von Studnitz, at the Independence Day parade in Warsaw on November 11 1938 of the year. The photograph is notable for the fact that the Polish parade was especially tied to the capture of Tesinska Silesia a month earlier. A convoy of Teshinsky Poles was specially held at the parade, and in Germany on the eve of 9 to 10 on November 1938, the so-called “Kristallnacht”, the first mass action of direct physical violence against Jews in the Third Reich, took place.

    Brotherhood of soldiers of the Hungarian and Polish occupation forces in captured Czechoslovakia.

    And finally
    1. chehywed
      chehywed 28 August 2013 15: 47
      +3
      Quote: Kuznetsov 1977
      Here's another "victim":
      Handshake of Polish Marshal Edward Rydz-Smiglá and German Attache Colonel Bogislaw von Studnitz at the Independence Day parade in Warsaw on November 11 1938 of the year.

      In October 1920, Poland forcefully seized the Vilnius and Vilnius region from Lithuania, unceremoniously violating the Suwalki Treaty (between Poland and Lithuania, according to which these territories were considered Lithuanian). The Allies turned a blind eye to this, for they were wary of the State of Lithuania, the revival of which took place with the direct support of Germany. Therefore, on 15 on March 1923, the conference of the ambassadors of England, France, Italy and Japan recognized the right of Poland to the capital of Lithuania, Vilnius and Vilnius Territory. Only the Soviet Union then declared Lithuania’s right to Vilnius.
      According to the Treaty of Versailles, Danzig had the status of a free city. The Poles did their best to establish control over a strategically important port, regularly organizing provocations. Say, on 15 June 1932, the Polish destroyer Wieher entered the Danzig raid, and only the condemnation of the League of Nations forced the Poles to abandon military operations. 6 March 1933 Polish troops landed in Danzig. And only the complaint of Germany again to the League of Nations forced Warsaw to retreat.
    2. chehywed
      chehywed 28 August 2013 15: 48
      +1
      During all 20 — 30 years. Poland did not abandon its intention to annex Lithuania. It was especially inspired by the conquest of Hitler in Austria in March of 1938. By the way, the Polish leadership was in a very warm relationship with Hitler’s fascist regime for a long time, having concluded a non-aggression pact as far back as 1934. When Hitler carried out the Anschluss of Austria on 11 — 12 on March 1938, Warsaw tried to do the same with Lithuania (which was not called otherwise, “Polish Austria.”) On 5 on March 1938, anti-Lithuanian demonstrations took place in Warsaw and Vilna under the general slogan “Go to Kovno!” (to Kaunas, the then capital of Lithuania). An ultimatum was presented to Lithuania, and more than 100tys were concentrated on the Lithuanian border. Polish troops. And only the position of the USSR and France kept Poland from a military invasion
      On January 14, on November 1938, during a meeting with Polish Foreign Minister Jozef Beck, Hitler stated that "the Czech state in its current form cannot be preserved, because it is an unsafe place as a result of the disastrous Czech policies in Central Europe - a communist center." As stated in the official Polish report on the meeting, “Pan Beck warmly supported the Fuhrer” (Grishin, op. Cit., P. 36).
      On 25 on September 1938, in a conversation with his American counterpart, the Polish ambassador in Paris Lukasevich said: “A religious war is beginning between fascism and Bolshevism, and if the Soviet Union helps Czechoslovakia, Poland is ready to fight shoulder to shoulder with Germany against the USSR. The Polish government is confident that within three months the Russian troops will be completely defeated and Russia will no longer be even a semblance of a state. ” On September 30, Warsaw sent an official request to Berlin: could it count on Germany’s benevolent position if an armed conflict between Poland and the Soviet Union arose as a result of the forthcoming Polish invasion of Czechoslovakia? The next day, the Polish ambassador in Berlin, Lipsky wrote to Warsaw about the reaction of Ribbentrop to him: "In the event of a Polish-Soviet conflict, the German government will take a more than friendly position towards Poland." A similar answer was received by him from Goering: “In case of complications with Russia, Poland can count on the most effective assistance from Germany”
      As a result, Prague, betrayed by its Western allies, was forced to accept Poland’s claims and transfer to it the region where 80 thousand Poles and 120 thousand Czechs lived. The main acquisition of the Poles was the industrial potential of the occupied territory - the enterprises located there gave at the end of 1938. almost half of the iron and steel produced in Poland.
      1. smiths xnumx
        smiths xnumx 28 August 2013 16: 02
        +4
        Pilsudski died in 1935, and the civil-military junta that succeeded him, led by Marshal Edward Rydz-Smigly, was unpopular and torn apart by squabbles. National minorities (mainly Ukrainians, Belarusians, Jews and Germans) made up over 30% of the population, but were practically absent in the military-political elite. In the eastern regions, Ukrainians and Belarusians absolutely prevailed and were extremely dissatisfied with the unequal position, repressions against national organizations and, above all, the seizure of the best lands in favor of the Polish colonists. It is not surprising that at times the captured Polish officers asked the victors to protect them from the soldiers recruited in the east, and a song was spread among the Belarusian conscripts with the words "You are a dumay, you are a dummy, you are a ram, we are sitting at akopi, and a garelku, a pich".
        However, the country's disintegration has not yet reached its final stage. With a sane foreign policy, the Second Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth could have survived, but the insolence of the Warsaw politicians could only be equal to their stupidity. When such a "mighty" power borders on the USSR on one side and on the other - on the Third Reich (Germany, Austria and the Czech Republic, plus a part of the current Polish lands, Kaliningrad and Klaipeda), it makes sense to come to an agreement with either the western or the eastern neighbor. As you know, neither one nor the other happened. Warsaw refused to comply with Berlin's demands, although they were extremely moderate. Hitler wanted to annex to Germany, separated from it after 1918 and became a free city of Danzig with 95% of the German population. To build through the Polish lands an extraterritorial road and railroad linking East Prussia with Germany, also separated from it under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. And on top of that, to annex Poland to the German-Italian-Japanese-Hungarian Anti-Comintern Pact.
        However, Warsaw categorically refused. She also did not want to allow Soviet troops into her territory in the event of a Reich attack on France or Poland itself, although the USSR guaranteed not to interfere in its internal affairs, and France proposed to introduce 2 of its own and 1 English division for insurance. Subsequently, the experience of the joint occupation of Iran and Austria showed that Moscow complies with such agreements, and introduces Soviet power only in countries that have moved into its sphere of influence by agreement with partners.
        The first option turned Poland into an ally of the Reich, and in exchange for participating in a campaign to the east, it gave a chance to profit from the division of the Soviet Union. The experience of subsequent events showed that Hitler scrupulously shared in such cases. Italy for participating in the defeat of Yugoslavia received Montenegro, Kosovo and most of the Dalmatian coast. Romania, which allocated two armies against the USSR, got the territory between the Prut and the Southern Bug with Chisinau and Odessa.
        The second option involved Polish participation in the Anglo-Franco-Soviet strike on Germany, in which the Allies would have at least three-fold numerical superiority and a multiple advantage in tanks and artillery. A victory would mean inevitable participation in the division of a German pie with good chances to acquire Silesia and Western Pomerania with their developed industry.
        1. smiths xnumx
          smiths xnumx 28 August 2013 16: 03
          +4
          But the Warsaw junta chose the third option, which turned out to be the most stupid. Rejecting all the proposals of Germany and the USSR, they preferred to rely on English-French guarantees, although Czechoslovakia no longer relied on the same hope for London and Paris. It was assumed that the main forces of the German army would be concentrated on the western border, where no later than two weeks after the start of the war, the offensive of the main allied forces should begin.
          The remaining 20-30 divisions, the Polish army, the mobilization of which began even earlier than in Germany - March 23, 1939, hoped to easily defeat or at least delay in the border areas until the Germans had to transfer them to the west. Well, then the defeat of the absent enemy is guaranteed, and the brave Polish cavalrymen can fearlessly jump even to Berlin. No wonder the Polish ambassador in Paris Lukashevich, who in 1938 vowed that if the Soviet Union stood up for Czechoslovakia, Germany and Poland would force the Russians to flee within three months, a few months later promised that the Poles would burrow deep into Germany in the very first days of the war.
          Having completed the mobilization, the Polish army hoped to have under arms 39 infantry divisions, 11 cavalry, 3 mountain and 2 motorized brigades - a total of up to 1,5 million people, about 700 tanks and about 800 aircraft. True, due to the traditional slovenliness, by the time the hostilities began, the mobilization had not yet been completed, but it was believed that what was at hand, and what was at hand, was enough against the German forces in the east, and the rest would enter the battle as they were ready, which partly happened.
  11. tixon444
    tixon444 28 August 2013 14: 01
    +5
    Neville Chamberlain: “I must admit to my deepest distrust of Russia, I do not believe in the least in her ability to conduct successful offensive actions, even if she wanted to

    It is a pity that this wise guy did not live until December 41st, not to mention the 45th year. Then I would sing differently.
  12. smile
    smile 28 August 2013 14: 45
    +5
    A strange thing ... where are Bandera, the Balts, other representatives of liberal piety ... where, in the end, Beck and his colleagues ... who usually try to explain to us, the Syrians, all the vileness of our state and ourselves, trying to colonize everyone, to enslave and send the Gulag? ... A meeting with them, or what? :)))
    1. stalkerwalker
      stalkerwalker 28 August 2013 16: 01
      +7
      Quote: smile
      Meeting with them, or what?

      But it’s not clear ...
      In the lingerie department, cowards "try on" each other ... laughing
      And from there, from the fitting room (whose mouth is not busy)
      Quote: smile
      Are they trying to explain to us, the Syrians, all the vileness of our state and ourselves, who are trying to colonize, enslave and send all the Gulag?
  13. Djozz
    Djozz 28 August 2013 16: 32
    +7
    In 1943, Goebbels accused the USSR of killing Polish officers in Katyn, the Polish government in London immediately recognized Goebbels’s version and is still being sucked up by the new Poland, following the unconditional belief of the Poles in Goebbels’s Katyn version, it should be acknowledged that the POLES attacked ON THE RADIO STATION IN GLAYVICE and thereby unleashed the SECOND WORLD WAR! Who for my version!
    1. smiths xnumx
      smiths xnumx 28 August 2013 17: 19
      +5
      Of course, it is impossible to pass over Katyn in silence. Where the Stalinist executioners allegedly shot ten thousand Polish officers in the most villainous way - for some reason exclusively from German pistols, and not from the usual Nagans, as if they foresaw with inhuman insight that the Germans would capture these places in a year and that care should be taken in advance to cover the tracks. therefore, another version has much more right to exist - that Polish officers, when the Germans attacked, themselves refused to evacuate along the same dope, believing that the Teutons, freeing them from the Soviet prison, Yat cakes and watered Stark. But the Germans had slightly different plans ...
      There is a book by the French researcher Alain Decaux, who logically and convincingly proved that the Katyn execution is the work of the Germans. He found traces of a specific military unit, which carried out executions. He found eyewitnesses who saw how the Germans subsequently drove half-rotted corpses in trucks to the place where they later discovered with such fanfare “traces of Soviet atrocities.” He even found incontrovertible evidence that some of the Polish officers who had been shot were subsequently found to be vigorous and healthy. Deco's book was published in Russia a long time ago and is not a rarity ...
      But actually ... Okay, suppose for a moment that in Katyn our people really did work. Even in this scenario, whether someone likes it or not, such actions would be no more than a little belated response to the events of the twentieth year. The fact is that the Poles still can not clearly explain: where did sixty thousand Soviet prisoners of war captured in the twentieth and never again appear among the living ...
      Clear where. Enough evidence has been preserved of how the gentlemen in the Confederate acted with the prisoners. The medical instructor was raped en masse. The artist of the military theater was hung by the legs to the ceiling and beat with a whip. The captive Red Army was torn up by a stomach and sewn inside a living cat - to see "who will die before."
      So claims are a mutual thing, gentlemen ...
      1. Djozz
        Djozz 28 August 2013 17: 25
        +5
        So you agree with my version that the Poles attacked a German radio station and thereby unleashed World War II. If the Poles believed Goebbels in Katyn!
        1. smiths xnumx
          smiths xnumx 28 August 2013 17: 35
          +4
          And where I wrote that I agree with Goebbels’s version, even the European Court doesn’t agree with it:
          The European Court of Human Rights has ruled that Russia is not guilty of the execution of Polish officers near Katyn. According to the judges, it has not been established that the USSR (and Russia, as its successor) is the culprit of the tragedy.

          http://www.iarex.ru/interviews/26904.html

          And in support of his words he cited evidence that the NKVD officers could not have shot the Poles from the German Walters. His faithful Nagans and TT were enough.
          And even if, all of a sudden, they shot them (which I strongly doubt), then this is a worthy payment for the destruction of the Poles in 1920-1921. 60-80 thousand prisoners of war.
          In 1998, the Prosecutor General’s Office of Russia appealed to the relevant state bodies of the Republic of Poland with a request to institute criminal proceedings upon the death of 83.500 captured Red Army soldiers in 1919-1921. Although initially it was a question of 200 thousand. But there is no evidence of their death, and it is more likely that they survived and scattered throughout Europe.

          http://denegibudut.ucoz.ru/blog/2012-04-09-18810

          Any questions?
          Captured Red Army soldiers in Polish captivity.
          1. Djozz
            Djozz 28 August 2013 17: 46
            +4
            You did not understand me, recognizing the shooting of Polish Soviet officers of the USSR, the Poles blindly believe Goebbels’s version, therefore the Poles must admit to hijacking a radio station in Gleivitz and thereby unleash World War II, because Goebbels blamed the Poles for this, and they must believe him how in Katyn!
        2. chehywed
          chehywed 28 August 2013 21: 41
          +2
          Dear Djozz "Google in Yandex": "Katyn meanness". After viewing, there remains no doubt about the correctness of the pact with Germany.
      2. smile
        smile 28 August 2013 18: 16
        +5
        smiths xnumx
        You have outdated data ... :))) according to the current opinion of the Poles, we have already killed and eaten over the 22 officers and colors of their nation in the Goat Mountains (see gendarmes, executioners from counterintelligence and siegemen, blood-stained ears while suppressing the performances of oppressed Ukrainians and Belarusians) ... individual Polish historians agree already up to 40 thousand, so. that expect an increase in innocent victims.
        By the way, I would recommend Shvets' book "Katyn. Modern History of the Question". One of the best monographs on the topic. It also touches upon the war crimes of the Polish regime in the 20s. The book is academic. but interesting, without emotion and anguish.
        1. Djozz
          Djozz 28 August 2013 18: 26
          +4
          Ah, I believe that the Poles attacked the radio station in Gleivitz! Let now the Poles will dissuade me.
          1. smile
            smile 28 August 2013 19: 39
            +2
            Djozz
            But for sure! Mlyayayayaya! Poles started the Second World War !!! Urgently convene a new Tribunal, take away all the land. what we gave them, starting from East Prussia. Danzig and ending with Silesia !!! :)))
          2. smiths xnumx
            smiths xnumx 28 August 2013 19: 58
            +5
            Dear Nikolai, I want to answer your question, the Poles are such a nation that they will believe only in what they want to believe. They believe that their first "Rzhech Pospolita" was an ideal state in which the king wore a Versal wig, and the noble gentry brought up in a European way, speaking Latin, fought with the "schismatics" Muscovites, Cossacks, cattle and other barbarians, dressed in animal skins and drinking from chamber pots, not knowing what it is. Don't believe me? So watch "With Fire and Sword," a 1999 contemporary film. They are sure that Russia and only Russia are to blame for its collapse, namely, Tsarina Catherine, who could not sleep so as not to divide Poland. And when the Polish patriots rebelled against this, the "bloody dwarf" Suvorov, destroyed them, "the Gulf of Warsaw with blood," forgetting that they themselves first treacherously cut the unarmed Russian garrison. They also forget that together with Russia, Prussia and Austria participated in the three sections of Oleksandr, prudently keeping quiet about this, and Russia only regained the original Belarusian and Ukrainian lands and Lithuania. Part of the European part of Poland went to Russia only in 1815, according to the results of the European Congress of Vienna, when the Poles simply got everyone with their cupids with Napoleon, and even got him with their constant requests to recreate Poland for them "from Moz to Moz." They forget that the newly reconstituted Poland had territorial claims to ALL of its neighbors. They are sure that the whole world owes them for the defeat of Tukhachevsky's army near Warsaw in 1920, insofar as only the Poles were able to stop the drunken red horde, raping women, pooping, sorry for details in palaces, and robbing everything. Don't believe me again? So watch another Polish film "The Battle of Warsaw", released last year. And they believe that after that Stalin became so angry with Poland that he entered into an alliance with Hitler with the sole purpose of dividing Poland, and then exterminated the flower of the Polish nation in Katyn and allowed the Warsaw Uprising to be suppressed. Here the Polish bad naivete soars to cosmic heights ...
            And why should Stalin help the leaders of the Warsaw Uprising? Which, I’ll clarify, was started solely in order to capture Warsaw before Stalin’s nose and transfer it to the jurisdiction of the emigrant London government.
            Turn the situation a bit. Imagine that in the summer of forty-fourth, when the Allied forces landed in Normandy and were advancing to Paris, an uprising suddenly organized by the French Communists oriented towards Moscow suddenly flared up there. And the Communists do not hide their goals at all: to proclaim Paris the capital of the French Soviet Republic, the pro-Stalinist Commune, from the very beginning aimed at confronting both Washington with London and the émigré government of General de Gaulle.
            In your opinion, would Roosevelt, Churchill, and de Gaulle at least somehow help the Paris uprising? Yes, hell bald! On the contrary, they would suspend the troops and wait until the Germans put an end to these rebels. But what the Poles refer to as logic makes other conclusions: Stalin is also bad because he didn’t help the subjects trying to hand Warsaw to his political opponents under his nose. So, the Pole is not a nationality- THIS IS A DIAGNOSIS, AS ANYTHING AND SAYS !!! Yours faithfully! hi
            1. Day 11
              Day 11 28 August 2013 20: 09
              +3
              Roma agrees! One story with a runaway king is worth it!
              1. The comment was deleted.
            2. smile
              smile 28 August 2013 21: 16
              +4
              smiths xnumx
              For the first time, I have to partially disagree with you ... slightly ... :))) Poles scrupulously keep account of their debts. koi have accumulated among the population of the planet in front of them ... :)))) They remember all the Lithuanian intransigence, and the claims of the crusaders and the Czech grievances during the Hussite wars. and French insufficient help from the 17-18-19 centuries (one Napoleon is good). there is a grudge against the Swedes who refused to become part of Poland under Heinrich Waz, Charles 12, and against everyone who divided them. on everyone who did not help them much during their riots of the 19th century, on the Entente who did not help them enough and prevented their victory over us in the twenties, and to reach Moscow. on the USA, England and France, who fed Poland to Hitler, and then to bad Stalin, on the Ukrainians, on the Belarusians .... :))) they remember everything !!!! And they carefully store and nurture grievances ... They just count. what to say about it later. after the main task is solved - to get even with us .... :))) ... "I don't know such a country ..." - this is from the song .... :)))
  14. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 28 August 2013 21: 36
    +6
    If we are already talking about the myths of World War II, one cannot bypass one of the main ones: about the villainously torn to pieces by Stalin peaceful, sincere, innocent, white and fluffy Poland. Once upon a time, a terrifying picture worthy of a Hollywood horror was already imprinted in the minds: a drunken, brutal Soviet political instructor with a knife in his teeth crushed an immaculate panel in a snow-white dress in a dark alley, fragile, like a lily flower, which was completely sleepy with fear. Alas, upon closer examination, it turns out that the panok’s integrity is not in the best way, and her face is not at all gymnasium, and she doesn’t weaken the tobacco pit with alcohol as much as from the political officer, and underneath the hem there’s a masterfully hidden pistol with a castetik, which the panel really knows how to use ... There was no second such state in the world! The monarchy, where the king was elected - and it was enough for one hollow-minded nobleman to squeak against so that the matter would be upset. The nursery of the wildest ambitions, not supported by real possibilities, a surreal land where “pan gentry”, in appearance indistinguishable from the serf “claps”, plowed a stranger on an ice horse in the same way, but to indicate his high rank he hung on his side cut out of tinplate like a saber (there was no real money). A state in which, almost nowhere else, almost all the slightest accomplishments were provided by foreigners, while the titular nation burned their lives in vulgar drinking and idleness ... Russia, Prussia and Austria, who managed to spend two divisions of Poland (after which sheer lack of respect remained), they decided that such a geographical curiosity as independent Poland should be abolished altogether. And canceled. For some time a national liberation uprising was raging - led by Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Raging. The concept of "Poland" for a hundred and twenty years has disappeared from geographical maps.
    The Poles, of course, rose a couple of times in riots - already during the nineteenth century. Not some evil colonizer, but the ideologist of the Polish Enlightenment, philosopher, historian and writer Hugo Kollontai (a purebred Litvin, dog krev!) Said not without irony: “The Poles do not know how to fight. But rebel! ”
    In September 1939, calling a spade a spade, the Red Army entered a colonial country. The role of the colonies was played by the West Ukrainian and West Belorussian lands, to the population of which the Poles belonged approximately like the Belgians to the Congolese blacks or the British to the Indians. What caused numerous uprisings and revolts, not inspired by Soviet intelligence. So our troops there were greeted with sincere joy, and the captured Polish officers demanded increased security, being afraid to pass by the crowd of Ukrainians, who might have torn like a rag for the whole past ... The team of the Polish emigrant government of Sikorski, when Great Britain and France continued dormant on the German front, gathered to fight against the USSR. To the deepest regret of Sikorsky and Co., the lack of bomber aircraft did not allow them to take part in the upcoming strike on the Baku oil fields. But the Poles gathered to help the Finns, to help whom the Allies were preparing an expeditionary force.
    The Sikorsky government included in the composition of the Anglo-French landing its most combat-ready formation - the mountain rifle brigade. Here the pans again acted strictly in the spirit of national traditions: in 1854, Polish emigrants almost on their knees begged Napoleon III to let them shoot at Sevastopol. Even earlier, in 1799, when Russia did not hold a shred of Polish territories proper, the immigrant pane defended the Paris Directory from Suvorov. Now it was preoccupied with the fate of Finland and would support any Papuans - just to at least slightly damn the damned pits.
  15. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 28 August 2013 22: 17
    +4
    In general, men know that I will regret, especially for you, an enchanting removal of the brain. Poles' wet dream is called "TAK MOGŁO BYĆ, czyli jak Polacy pokonali Hitlera i Stalina." - "It could have been, or how the Poles defeated Hitler and Stalin:

    Well, some particularly memorable moments:
    Hitler and Stalin sign the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact. For the purpose of defense (!) "Kresuf vskhodnih" (! - a dream in a dream!), I.e. the "eastern outskirts" of Poland - Ukraine and Belarus, Ukrainian and Belarusian formations are being created within the Polish army, ready to wage a war against the USSR. With a beard - the main Belarusian, in a hat - the Ukrainian "Ataman Shevchenko".

    "There is a country in the East that has its own score with the Soviet colossus."
    1. smiths xnumx
      smiths xnumx 28 August 2013 22: 20
      +4
      Poles urge Hirohito to fight against the USSR. "Communism is as much a threat to Europe as it is to Asia. The Emperor understands that."

      Japan attacks the USSR.

      Meanwhile, on the "Kresy vskhodnykh" (ie in Ukraine and Belarus) of the Commonwealth (!) Soviet troops massively surrender to the Ukrainian and Belarusian detachments of the Polish army and go over to the side of the latter. “We don’t want to fight for Stalin, we don’t want to defend communism!”

      Stalin escaped and asks the Polish government for surrender.

      Polish troops go on the counter-offensive in the west and meet with the American.
      1. smiths xnumx
        smiths xnumx 28 August 2013 22: 27
        +4
        Polish aces bomb Berlin. The Germans capitulate.

        Generals Patton and Kutsheba develop an attack on Moscow.

        Anti-Soviet uprisings are taking place in Ukraine and Belarus. The People's Army of Belarus occupies Minsk, and "Ataman Shevchenko" enters Kiev with the Poles.

        "The Japanese liberate the gulags in Kamchatka, occupy Siberia and eliminate the Soviet power in the Far East."
        1. smiths xnumx
          smiths xnumx 28 August 2013 22: 32
          +3
          "In Moscow, in the Kremlin, representatives of the winning coalition - President Moscitsky, Prime Minister Churchill, Emperor Hirohito, Generals Patton and Anders, as well as Ataman Shevchenko, - accept the act of unconditional surrender of the Soviets."

          Winners at the parade in Warsaw.

          The main defendants at the Nuremberg trials: Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin.

          The 2004 year, a bright future, the EU Parliament in Warsaw accepts France and Germany into its ranks.
      2. smile
        smile 28 August 2013 22: 35
        +3
        smiths xnumx
        Chic filmets! :))) Thank!
        1. smiths xnumx
          smiths xnumx 28 August 2013 22: 38
          +4
          I hope for protection from the moderator from the ban.
          1. Day 11
            Day 11 28 August 2013 22: 46
            +3
            Roma, where did you find such an alternative history?
            1. smiths xnumx
              smiths xnumx 28 August 2013 22: 48
              +4
              Cranberries on ru, how did it go?
              1. The comment was deleted.
                1. chehywed
                  chehywed 28 August 2013 23: 30
                  +1
                  Denis, Vladimir, Roman... Good evening. Everything flows, everything changes. Has anyone seen the movie "Jak Polacy i Rosjanie pomogli Berlin"?
                  1. smile
                    smile 29 August 2013 00: 25
                    +1
                    chehywed
                    No. have not seen. but I kept the name of the film and I will definitely find it :))) ... By the way, I heard the expression "The Polish army took Berlin, and helped Rossiysk" for the first time in 6-7 years ... from the Poles .... later it turned out that some Poles They believe in it. :))) The basis is the involvement of the Poles in the Berlin operation ... and the mental deficiency of their nationalists ... :)))) Thank you for the title!
                    1. chehywed
                      chehywed 29 August 2013 00: 36
                      +1
                      HA! I bought it! laughing So in the USSR they called the film "Four Tankmen and a Dog" laughing
                      1. smile
                        smile 29 August 2013 03: 08
                        +1
                        chehywed
                        Here ... a female dog ... :))) how are you ... Toucher! .. I raise all my paws ... :)))) I really didn’t know that this film was called so: )))) I will not eat a hat only because of the lack thereof .... :))))
                        Our man, I love poisonous .... :)))))
              2. Corsair
                Corsair 28 August 2013 23: 47
                +2
                Quote: smiths xnumx
                Cranberries on ru, how did it go?


                A - THAT! (Only something went wrong with the video request ) Thank you, and I hope the "modernists" will safely "blink" ....
                1. smile
                  smile 29 August 2013 00: 27
                  +3
                  Corsair
                  Why are you so fed up with them? It's cool ... I already copied ... :)))
                  Are such videos removed?
                  By the way, you set forth your hopes for the myopia of the moderators so that they do not miss the first time? :)))
                  1. Corsair
                    Corsair 29 August 2013 02: 18
                    +2
                    Quote: smile
                    Why are you so fed up with them? It's cool ... I already copied ... :)))
                    Are such videos removed?
                    By the way, you set forth your hopes for the myopia of the moderators so that they do not miss the first time? :)))


                    Here is the video, I just did not watch crying , "knocks out" the error.
                    More "worried" about comments smiths xnumx, because "those" about Romanians were deleted request
                    1. smile
                      smile 29 August 2013 02: 58
                      +1
                      Corsair
                      Well, I really liked those comments of our Romanian colleague that I read ... I don’t know why they removed him, although I have an assumption ... but ... they explained the reason to him .... otherwise can not. Any person will draw conclusions, all the more so clever as the blacksmiths of 1977 and will try to legally express their opinion. Therefore, do not worry, everything will be fine. :)))) Moreover, I am convinced that for most moderators the comments of the 1977 blacksmiths also impress .... :)))
                      And we’ll find the video ... or the like ... :)))) why look for something, they replicate similar films ..... :)))))
          2. smile
            smile 29 August 2013 00: 17
            +3
            smiths xnumx
            In vain, I hope, I’m no different from you and just as I am a bit of them, they just raised me a little (a stick is a great thing) and I select expressions more carefully than before:))) ... you even, in my opinion, much less scandalous than me .... I'm more toxic ... and our guys are normal guys. they’re just obligated to make sure that the site is decent ... at the same time, they beat their friends and foes alike ... they are all the same for them ... and rightly so ... this is the authority of the site ... if, don’t let God, I became a moderator, I would be kicked out of them in a day ... for cruelty ... and I'm not joking ...
            As an example, the day before yesterday I went to the legal site to read (I’m generally nowhere except VO registered) ... My God, I’ve never seen such a mess and curse anywhere except Polish and Bandera sites ... and all the fervor of swearing , they haven’t any energy left ... as they plunged into dirty water .... so that VO does not turn into such a thing, modernists and atrocities ...
            But, of course, if you contact me, I really like those of your comments that I read, and I will do my best. to help you ...
            And I do not believe that your film will be deleted ... in my opinion, it is quite useful. to understand the attitude of the Poles towards us ... and if they remove them, then without warnings and bans ... in my opinion, there’s nothing at all ...
            1. Apollo
              Apollo 29 August 2013 00: 20
              +2
              Quote: smile
              I became a moderator, I would be kicked out of them in a day ... for cruelty ... and I'm not joking ...


              ..................... wink
              1. smile
                smile 29 August 2013 00: 40
                +3
                Apollo
                :))) Yeah, and from the concentration camp guard, too ... :))) but I really am not joking, I would have been myself for a long time ... this ... I brought up (but this is by no means an appeal to action :)))) ... otherwise, I do not know how ... :)))
            2. Corsair
              Corsair 29 August 2013 02: 29
              +2
              Quote: smile
              In vain, I hope, I’m no different from you and just as I am a bit of them, they just raised me a little (a stick is a great thing) and I select expressions more carefully than before:))) ... you even, in my opinion, much less scandalous than me .... I'm more toxic ... and our guys are normal guys. they’re just obligated to make sure that the site is decent ... at the same time, they beat their friends and foes alike ... they are all the same for them ... and rightly so ... this is the authority of the site ... if, don’t let God, I became a moderator, I would be kicked out of them in a day ... for cruelty ... and I'm not joking ...


              That's right! Only ... that's just Mom and Dad taught not to complain to anyone (in this case, the administration) that they "offended", but to try to solve the problem YOURSELF.
              But time RULES something RULES.
              1. smile
                smile 29 August 2013 02: 41
                +2
                Corsair
                That's for sure ... I never complained either to the admins or to anyone at a conscious age ... because in the unconscious my parents and grandmother and grandpa explained that it was a shame ... that it was necessary to defend your position on your own. ..and about the RULES ... :)))) ... my grandmother still has a favorite saying: "There is such a word -" must ", there is no such word -" I do not want "..... :) )))
                1. The comment was deleted.
  16. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 29 August 2013 11: 15
    +2
    On August 6, 1930, Comrade Budnyak, the head of the State Gun-Weapon and Machine Gun Association, and Mr. Hugo Freisenstein, head of the Butast company, entered into a technical assistance agreement in Berlin. The company "Butast" undertook to provide technical assistance in organizing the production of six artillery systems in the USSR:
    1) 7,62 cm anti-aircraft gun;
    2) 15,2 cm mortar;
    3) 3,7 cm anti-tank guns;
    4) 2-cm machine;
    5) 15,2 cm howitzers;
    6) 3,7 cm automatic anti-aircraft gun.
    All of these guns were created by Rheinmetall. Under the terms of the agreement, the USSR paid 1 US dollars to the company. There were special articles in the agreement, according to which the USSR was not supposed to read out the terms of the deal, or the data of German guns, and Germany, accordingly, should not divulge information about Soviet artillery plants. The Butast company supplied the USSR with twelve 125-cm anti-tank guns with a total value of 000 thousand dollars, as well as sets of parts and semi-finished products for several artillery systems and full technological documentation. A curious detail - the 3,7-cm guns were delivered to the USSR with a horizontal wedge shutter with a quarter-automatic. After firing such shots, the loader opened the shutter manually, and after sending the cartridge case the shutter closed automatically. With semi-automatic guns, the shutter is unlocked and locked automatically, but the projectile is delivered manually. And finally, for automatic guns, the projectile is automatically fed and the calculation functions are reduced to aiming the gun at the target.

    The company “Butast” undertook, after the manufacture of the first 100 serial 3,7-cm guns in the USSR, to replace the quarter-automatic bolt with a semi-automatic one. However, she did not fulfill her promise, and all of the 3,7-cm anti-tank guns of the Rheinmetall company had a quarter-automatic shutter until the end of their production in 1942.

    The manufacture of 3,7 cm Rheinmetall anti-tank guns was started in 1931 at plant number 8 in the Podlipki village near Moscow, where the gun received a factory index of 1K. By order of the Revolutionary Military Council of February 13, 1931, the gun was adopted under the name "37-mm anti-tank gun mod. 1930 ".

    The shots of the Soviet and German guns were completely interchangeable.

    However, the 37 mm caliber did not suit the Soviet leadership, which wanted to increase the armor penetration of the gun, especially at long distances, and to make the gun universal - having the qualities of anti-tank and battalion guns. The 37 mm fragmentation shell was very weak, so it was desirable to have a heavy 45 mm fragmentation shell. So our 45 mm anti-tank and tank guns appeared. Soviet designers after lengthy modifications introduced in 1933-1934. semi-automatic shutter for 45 mm anti-tank and tank guns.
  17. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 29 August 2013 11: 19
    +2
    In the summer of 1937, a commission of prominent Soviet artillerymen visited the Skoda factory in Czechoslovakia. There, she was presented with projects of a 210-mm gun and a 305-mm howitzer. The barrel of the gun was lane, and howitzers - bonded. The gates of both systems are horizontal wedge, separate-shell loading. According to the contract D / 7782 of April 6, 1938, concluded by the People’s Commissariat for Foreign Trade and Skoda, the latter undertook to produce for the USSR one prototype of a 210-mm gun and a 305-mm howitzer with a set of ammunition and accessories. The deadline for the delivery of prototypes was set on December 1, 1939. In addition to the prototypes, sets of working drawings and other documentation for the manufacture of these artillery systems were to be transferred. The total cost of the order was $ 2,37 million (about 68 million kroons). The capture of Czechoslovakia by the Germans did not affect the supply of prototypes of guns and technical documentation. The company Skoda regularly fulfilled all the clauses of the contract with the USSR.

    Skoda presented for testing the swinging parts of the 210-mm gun and 305-mm howitzers instead of June (as planned) in October 1939 of the city. The tests were carried out in Slovakia in the presence of the Soviet selection committee. Factory tests of the 210-mm guns were completed on November 20 1939, and 305-mm howitzers - December 22 1939.

    The acceptance tests (delivery of the USSR) of both systems took place from April 22 to May 10 on 1940 at the test site in Gylbok in the territory occupied by the Germans.

    The Skoda report says that the 210-mm gun is stable when firing a small charge at angles from 0 to + 50 degrees, and with a full charge from + 16 to + 50 degrees. It is worth noting that the instability of the gun at small elevation angles was associated not with the design of the gun itself, but with the weakness of the soil on which the foundation stood. Thus, the Br-17 could be used in the coastal defense for direct fire, but for this it would be necessary to concrete the base of the gun.

    At the end of the tests, in accordance with the terms of the contract, the gun and the howitzer in its complete form, together with the ammunition, were accepted by the commission and sent to the USSR for further tests.

    In October, 1940 from the USA produced pneumatic tires for Skoda wheels in the number of 54 units (48 complete and 6 spare). Temporarily, before the domestic industry mastered the 12x24, 210-mm and 305-mm tires, it was decided to complete the wheels with 12-X20 wheels.
    1. smiths xnumx
      smiths xnumx 29 August 2013 11: 21
      +2
      A prototype 210-mm cannon Br-17, manufactured by factory No. 221, was presented to the customer 26 August 1940. After factory testing, this September 9 sample arrived at the Artillery Research Experimental Test Site (ANIOP) for conducting field testing. The shooting took place from September 21 to December 11 1940. In total, 110 shots were fired. Initially, there was a mechanical rammer on the loading farm. But it turned out to be inconvenient and was replaced by a hand-held “dosylnik” from collapsible rods of the barnik, and the head of the “towing” was made in ANIOP workshops. "Dunker" usually operated 6-7 people.

      The first 305-mm howitzer Br-18, made at the plant number 221, arrived at the ANIOP 21 September 1940 g. Shooting was conducted from October 2 to November 27 1940. Total 108 shots were made. During the shooting, three liners were tested, of which two were with normal cutting (one from Plant No. XXUMX, the other from Skoda) and one with deep cutting.

      The management was in a hurry and announced that the tests of the experimental samples of the Br-17 were not field tests, but field test forces, and according to the results their Br-17 cannon and a concrete-hammering shot were recommended for use. The high-explosive projectile failed the test.

      As is known, based on Czech guns at the Barricades factory in Stalingrad in the 1940-1941. Nine 210-mm Br-17 cannons and three 305-mm howitzers Br-18 were manufactured.

      In total, there were nine 210-mm Br-17 guns in the Red Army. They were put into combat readiness only in 1944. Then the firing tables were published for them for the first time and thousands of shells were made for 4,2.
      In December, 1944 based on four separate battalions of 152-mm cannon Br-2 and four separate batteries of 210-mm cannon Br-17, three separate special power regiments were formed (18-th Guards, 1-th and 2-th). They included three Br-2 two-gun batteries and one 210-mm cannon two-gun battery. By the end of 1944, these three regiments were descending to the front, and the formation of the fourth (No. 20) began only in 1945, and it did not hit the front.

      In 1945, the 1 th gun regiment of special power was part of the 8 th Guards Army of the 1 Belorussian Front. During the battle for the Seelow Heights and in the battle for Berlin, 930 210-mm shells manufactured in 1944 were spent.
      In 1944, for 21-cm of the Czech guns K.52 “converted”, heavy 232-kilogram fired projectiles were created. For them, Skoda manufactured smooth trunks.

      In 1944-1947 based on the experience of the war, Skoda created a unique X-NUMX-mm V-210 cannon, equipped with a powerful muzzle brake. Naturally, the company offered its products to the Soviet Union.

      The prototype was thoroughly tested in the USSR. For a time, several samples were in service in the Soviet army. But the document on its adoption by the author was not found. It is possible that the V-3 were listed "on supply". In 1950, the V-3 service manual was published in Russian. By the way, in the domestic documentation the gun was called both V-3 and B-3.
      1. smiths xnumx
        smiths xnumx 29 August 2013 11: 23
        +1
        In addition, the Czechs offered the USSR the X-NUMX-mm howitzer V-305, created on the carriage of the V-4 gun. The 3-mm howitzer barrel also had a muzzle brake.

        However, neither V-3 nor V-4 were launched in the USSR. Originally it was associated with the work of Vasily Grabin on a large duplex - 210-mm C-72 cannon and 305-mm C-73 howitzer. Well, by 1960, because of the voluntarism of Khrushchev, who believed that the artillery of a large and special power of the Soviet army was not needed, work was also stopped on the Grabin guns and on the modernization of the V-3.

        The barrel of the V-3 consisted of a free pipe, a casing, a breech and a muzzle brake. The breech is screwed onto the casing. The casing is mounted on the pipe with a gap. Muzzle brake dvukhkamorny, on both sides of it there are two windows. The slope is constant.

        Push-pull piston shutter with Bange-type plate obturator. Manual action only.

        A distinctive feature of the swinging part was the combination of a cylindrical cradle of the overwhelming type with rolling cylinders of recoil devices. Two gear sectors of the mechanism of vertical guidance are attached to the cradle. The horizontal guidance mechanism had two speeds. The mechanism for the rapid drive of the trunk in the loading position was not. The recoil brake is hydraulic, located at the bottom of the rolling away part, the nakatnik is hydropneumatic, located at the top of the rolling part. Rollback length is variable. Balancing mechanism of hydropneumatic type with two symmetrical columns.
        The base consisted of a fixed and rotating part. In the combat position, the base fell into the pit 600 depth mm. Inside the base was placed a ball epaulet, which allowed for the possibility of turning the gun by 360 degrees. The turntable, which with its upper plane connected to the machine tool, rested on the ball tackle of the base. On both sides of the turntable there was a platform for calculation.

        The back of the turntable (trunk support) is removable with a support plate at the end. On top of the trunk support attached iron rails, which was rolled on a trolley for loading.

        The turning mechanism had two speeds of guidance, the drive was manual — the system had no electric motors at all. With horizontal hovering, it was necessary to first lift the base plate and lower it again before firing.

        Charging devices included a rail track located on the turntable of the base and a trolley for loading. A projectile and one half charge were placed on the trolley by hand. When firing a full charge, the second half charge was brought to the gun with a single calculation number. Five numbers of calculation rolled a cart with a projectile to the gun on the track. On the final section of the path, the slope of the trolley corresponded to the angle of loading of the implement, that is, was 7 degrees. At the last moment of rolling the cart, its support entered into the gate of the barrel. To speed up the loading, two trolleys were attached to the gun. 6-7 people were manually sent to the chamber with a piper.
        1. smiths xnumx
          smiths xnumx 29 August 2013 11: 24
          +1
          Gun firing rate - 2 shot in 3 minutes. The design of the barrel allowed such a pace for 30 minutes. Next, the rate of fire was necessary to reduce to one shot in 3-5 minutes. When firing a full charge, the barrel survivability was 600 shots. With a charge of No. XXUMX - 2 shots, and with a charge of No. XXUMX - 1300 shots. Shooting without a muzzle brake was allowed only by charge # 1. I note that the Czechs, like the Germans, the charge weight increased with increasing charge number, and the maximum charge was the last charge, and the lowest charge was # XXUMX. In the Red Army it was all the opposite: the most powerful was the full charge, then the charge # 2400, and then with the increase in the number the charge decreased.

          The system in the stowed position consisted of three special carts: trunk carriages, machine tool carriages, and base carts. The barrel had a special wagon, and the machine and the base had only wheel travels and made up the hulls themselves. The carriage was attached by the pivot paw of the forward boom to the towing vehicle.

          In Czechoslovakia, a three-axle all-terrain vehicle served as a full-time tractor. In the USSR, tracked tractor Voroshilov or AT-T were used for transportation.

          Each wagon was transported by a separate tractor with the necessary devices to transfer the system from the traveling position to the combat position, with the tool and accessories for disassembling and assembling individual system groups and spare parts. Devices, tools and accessories could be transported on separate vehicles.

          The carriage casing is equipped with pneumatic tires. The carts had independent suspension on leaf springs.

          In the USSR, a new shot with a high-explosive projectile was designed for the V-3. The work on it was discontinued 15 February 1961
          The latest salvos of Br-17

          The final chord in the fate of Czech cannons in the USSR was quite unexpected. Experienced 210-mm Czechoslovak cannon from the 1960-s. kept in the backyard of the Artillery Museum in Leningrad. He was remembered during the shooting of the movie “Moonzund” based on the novel of the same name by Valentin Pikul. In 1987, a cannon was installed on an abandoned fort No.3 in Liepaja (Libau), where it “played the role” of an 305 / 52-mm open-shore battery installation at Cape Tserel. On the set, the gun even fired with reduced charges. The maid was taken entirely from the Rzhev polygon. After the shooting, the gun was sent back to the Art Museum, but this time it was installed in an open exhibition in front of the museum building. Now, in addition to St. Petersburg, this is far from the most common weapon in Moscow in the open area of ​​the Central Museum of the Armed Forces and in Verkhnyaya Pyshma in the Museum of Military Equipment, created by the Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company.

          http://www.oborona.ru/includes/periodics/armedforces/2012/1211/14239780/print.sh
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          1. smiths xnumx
            smiths xnumx 29 August 2013 11: 25
            +1
            Related photos:
            X-NUMX-mm gun V-210 in a position in the firing position with a raised barrel.

            Soviet gun Br-17 on one of the pre-war parades.

            1 - base installed in the pit.

            2 - trunk carriage aligned with the machine.

            X-NUMX-mm gun V-210 on a position in the combat position.