Military Review

Forgotten genius. On the 90 anniversary of the birth of the great Soviet cybernetics V.M. Glushkov

27
"A hundred times I said this oath:
One hundred years in the dungeon I better walk through,

One hundred mountains are more likely to be interpreted by me
Than the truth is stupid interpreted. "
Bahvalan Mahmoud


24 August marks the 90 anniversary of the birth of the great Soviet mathematician, cybernetics and one of the founders of the principles embodied in Russian early warning systems for rocket attacks, as well as directly developing and implementing the automated control systems at the defense enterprises of the Soviet Union.

Viktor Mikhailovich Glushko was born into a miner's family in the city of Shakhty, Rostov Region 24 August 1923.

21 Jun 1941 graduated from high school No. XXUMX in the same city with a gold medal. The outbreak of the Great Patriotic War hit Viktor Mikhailovich painfully - in the fall of 1, his mother was killed by the Nazis.

After the liberation of the town of Shakhty by Soviet troops, Glushkov was mobilized and participated in the restoration of the coal mines of Donbass.
After the end of the war he brilliantly graduated from the mathematics department of Rostov University. In the thesis work was engaged in the development of methods for calculating tables of improper integrals, finding inaccuracies in existing tables, which had survived for the 10-12 editions before.
After 1948, a promising young mathematician was sent to the Urals for distribution to a secret institution involved in the atomic project.

He headed the department of theoretical mechanics of the Ural Forestry Institute. The topic of the doctoral dissertation, successfully defended in the dissertation council of Moscow State University 12 December 1955, is devoted to the proof of the fifth problem of Hilbert.

In the late fifties, the scientist became interested in the capabilities of the rapidly developing electronic computing technology.

Remained after moving from Kiev to Moscow, S.A. His laboratory, in which the first computer in the USSR and continental Europe was created — MESM — was transferred to the Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, whose director BV Gnedenko invited Glushkov to supervise her in 1956. Having moved, since August 1956, he lived and worked in Kiev. In 1956, he became the head of the computer science laboratory at the Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR at the invitation of its director.

Laboratory employee Z.L. Rabinovich noted in his memoirs that with the arrival of Glushkov “not one of the works carried out in the laboratory was abandoned. On the contrary, everyone got a logical conclusion. "

Victor Mikhailovich's further activity was completely connected with computer technology - in December 1957 of the year, the Computing Center of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR was created on the basis of his laboratory, and he became its director. And in December 1962 of the year, the Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR was established on the basis of the CC of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Glushkov also became its director.

From 1958 to 1961, the year was developed by the Dnepr computer, which was actively used in various branches of the national economy of the USSR.

Forgotten genius. On the 90 anniversary of the birth of the great Soviet cybernetics V.M. Glushkov


A complex of two Dnepr computers (standing behind the screen) in the center of space flight control. Information from the 150 sensors enters the complex, which displays the satellite trajectory on the screen.

Victor Mikhailovich was actively engaged in teaching. From 1956, he taught a course in higher algebra and a special course on the theory of digital automatons at KSU, and from 1966 until the end of his life he headed the department of theoretical cybernetics.

From 1962 to the end of his life, Vice-President of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.

In 1963, Glushkov was approved by the chairman of the Interdepartmental Scientific Council for the Implementation of Computing Techniques and Economic and Mathematical Methods in the USSR National Economy under the State Committee of the USSR Council of Ministers on Science and Technology.

In the future, Glushkov was directly involved in the development and implementation of automatic production control systems (CAM) in the national economy, published scientific papers in the field of theoretical cybernetics, and he was also invited to write an article about cybernetics in the encyclopaedia “Britannica” in 1973.

In 1965, under the leadership of Glushkov, the first computer in the MIR-1 engineering series was created in the series.

Engineering Calculation Machine MIR11966 year


He was a member of the USSR State Committee on Science and Technology and the Committee on Lenin and State Prizes under the USSR Council of Ministers. He was an adviser to the UN Secretary General on Cybernetics. Under his leadership, defended more than one hundred dissertations.

Glushkov was the initiator and chief ideologist of the development and creation of the Nationwide Automated Information Accounting and Processing System (OGAS), intended for the automated management of the entire economy of the USSR as a whole. To this end, he developed a system of algorithmic algebras and a theory for managing distributed databases.



At this stage of his life is worth staying in more detail. Further cited by the book B.N. MalinovskyHistory computing technology in individuals. "

The task of building a nationwide automated management system (OGAS) for the economy was set up by Glushkov, first deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers (then AN Kosygin) in November 1962.

V.M. Glushkov, V.S. Mikhalevich, A.I. Nikitin et al. Developed the first sketch-project of the Unified State Network of EGSVTS Computing Centers, which included about 100 centers in large industrial cities and centers of economic regions united by broadband communication channels. These centers, distributed over the territory of the country, in accordance with the configuration of the system are combined with the rest, engaged in the processing of economic information. Their number we then determined in 20 thousands. These are large enterprises, ministries, as well as cluster centers serving small enterprises. The presence of a distributed data bank and the possibility of addressless access from any point of this system to any information after automatic verification of the requesting person’s authority was characteristic. A number of issues related to information security were developed. In addition, in this two-tier system, the main computing centers exchange information with each other not by switching channels and switching messages, as is customary now, broken down into letters, I suggested connecting these 100 or 200 centers with broadband channels bypassing the channel-forming equipment so that It was possible to rewrite information from a magnetic tape in Vladivostok to a tape in Moscow without any reduction in speed. Then all protocols are greatly simplified and the network acquires new properties. The project was secret until 1977.

Unfortunately, after reviewing the draft by the commission, almost nothing was left of it, the entire economic part was withdrawn, only the network itself remained. The seized materials were destroyed, burned, as they were secret.

As a whole, V.N. Starovsky, Head of CSB. His objections were demagogic. Glushkov insisted on such a new accounting system so that from any point any information could be immediately obtained. And he referred to the fact that the CSB was organized on the initiative of Lenin, and it copes with the tasks set by him; he managed to get assurances from Kosygin that the information that the CSB gives the government is enough to manage, and therefore nothing needs to be done.

Beginning with the 1964 year (the time of the appearance of my project), economists Lieberman, Belkin, Birman, and others began to speak out against Glushkov, many of whom later left for the United States and Israel. Kosygin, being a very practical person, became interested in the possible cost of our project. According to preliminary calculations, its implementation would have cost 20 billion rubles. Most of the work can be done in three five-year periods, but only if this program is organized in the same way as the atomic and space programs. Glushkov did not hide from Kosygin that it is more complicated than the space and atomic programs combined and organizationally much more difficult, since it affects everything and everyone: industry, commerce, planning authorities, the sphere of management, etc. Although the cost of the project was tentatively estimated at 20 billion rubles, the working scheme of its implementation envisaged that the first 5 billion rubles invested in the first five-year period at the end of the five-year period would return more than 5 billion, since the program cost was self-sustaining. And in just three five-year periods, the implementation of the program would bring in at least 100 billion rubles to the budget. And this is a very low figure.

But our pseudo-economists have confused Kosygin with the fact that, say, economic reform will not be worth anything at all, that is, will cost exactly as much as the paper on which the resolution of the Council of Ministers will be printed, and will result in more. Therefore, the Glushkov team was set aside and, moreover, began to be treated with wariness. And Kosygin was unhappy. Glushkov was ordered to temporarily stop the propaganda of OGAS and engage in lower-level systems. As it turned out, this was the beginning of the end of a grand project.

There are several reasons for this, but the main role was played by the inertia of thinking of some responsible party functionaries. This can best be illustrated with a fragment of Viktor Mikhailovich’s memories of a Politburo meeting, held after the Soviet leadership began to hear that Americans had already done a preliminary design of an information network (more precisely, several networks) before the Soviet leadership, that is, . two years later us. Unlike us, they did not argue, but did, and for 1966 the year they had a planned launch of the ARPANET network, and then SEIBARPANET and others, uniting computers that were installed in various US cities.

The same fragment contains the gloomy prophecy of Glushkov on the beginning of the economic recession of the USSR at the end of the 70s. Notes in brackets are mine.

“... Garbuzov (Minister of Finance of the USSR) spoke in such a way that what he said was suitable for a joke. He came to the podium and turned to Mazurov (he was then Kosygin's first deputy). Here, they say, Kirill Trofimovich, on your instructions I went to Minsk, and we examined the poultry farms. And there, at such a poultry farm (called it), the avians themselves developed a computer.

Then I laughed out loud. He shook a finger at me and said: "You, Glushkov, do not laugh, they are talking about serious things here." But Suslov interrupted him: "Comrade Garbuzov, you are not yet the chairman here, and it is not your business to bring order to the Politburo meeting." And he, as if nothing had happened, such a self-confident and narcissist, continues: “He performs three programs: turns on the music, when the hen laid an egg, turns off the light and lights, and so on. On the farm, the egg capacity has increased.” Here, he says what we need to do: first, automate all poultry farms in the Soviet Union, and then think about all sorts of nonsense, like a state-wide system. (And I really laughed here, not then.) Well, that's not the point.

A counter proposal was made, which reduced everything by an order of magnitude: instead of the Goskomupra, the Main Directorate for Computing Engineering at the State Science and Technology Committee, instead of the scientific center, VNIIPOU, etc. But the task remained the same, but it was technicalized, i.e. changed towards the State Network of Computing Centers, and as for the economy, the development of mathematical models for OGAS, etc. - all smeared.

In the end, Suslov comes forward and says: “Comrades, maybe we are making a mistake now, not accepting the project fully, but this is such a revolutionary transformation that it’s difficult for us to implement it now. Let's try this way and then we will see to be "and asks not Kirillina, but me:" What do you think? ". And I say: "Mikhail Andreevich, I can only tell you one thing: if we don’t do this now, then in the second half of the 70s, the Soviet economy will face such difficulties that it will be necessary to return to this issue anyway." But they did not consider my opinion, they accepted a counter-offer. ”

Ironically, the unrealized ideas embodied in OGAS were developed in the organization of an early warning system for a missile attack, which was actively built in the USSR in the seventies.

In addition, on his initiative and under his active leadership, automated control systems were introduced at the defense enterprises of the Soviet Union.

Victor Mikhailovich Glushkov and Admiral fleet Sergei Georgievich Gorshkov (left). The automation system for the design of submarines created at the Institute of Cybernetics and its Special Design Bureau has been put into operation. 70s of the XX century


Alas, but the long-term struggle of the scientist with inertia and bureaucracy was not in vain for him - in the fall of 1981, Viktor Mikhailovich’s health deteriorated.

A year later, on January 30, 1982, after a long illness, he died in Moscow at the Central Clinical Hospital and was buried in Kiev at the Baikovo Cemetery.

Victor Mikhailovich was awarded a large number of high government awards, including three Orders of Lenin and the Order of the October Revolution. Winner of the Lenin Prize and twice winner of the USSR State Prize. Hero of Socialist Labor.

The article was written using the materials of the popular science journal Propaganda (http://propaganda-journal.net/636.html), the book OGAS Like Pogus, and Academician V. Glushkov. Pages of life and creativity. Malinovsky B.N.— Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1993.— 140с. and the museum "History of the development of information technology in Ukraine" (http://www.icfcst.kiev.ua/MUSEUM/about_r.html).
Author:
Photos used:
Museum "History of the development of information technologies in Ukraine"
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  1. Eugene
    Eugene 24 August 2013 08: 20 New
    +7
    There were statesmen !!! What a scale !!
    1. Siberian German
      Siberian German 24 August 2013 21: 14 New
      +3
      and again his critics then left for Ezrael and the United States
  2. 6216390
    6216390 24 August 2013 08: 45 New
    12
    Bill Gates is resting, if Glushkov were not disturbed.
    1. Iraclius
      24 August 2013 14: 38 New
      12
      To compare Glushkov with Bill Gates is blasphemy, excuse me. Viktor Mikhailovich is on a par with Norbert Wiener and Alan Turing. yes
  3. Iraclius
    24 August 2013 10: 46 New
    +9
    Unfortunately, the volume of the article does not allow us to fully describe the amazing fate and ups and downs of the courageous struggle of Viktor Mikhailovich with bureaucrats in the party environment.
    The meaning of the article, in addition to paying tribute to the scientist and honoring his memory, is also to show the reader (especially the young age) that the USSR was the focus of advanced scientific thought and such an area as computer technology.
    The ideas laid down by Glushkov in the OGAS were ahead of their time and are only now beginning to be implemented to some extent in the West, but already in the form of the concept of "big data".
    As soon as the USA found out that there was a project of an ultramodern computer network in the USSR that could strengthen the country's economy, a terrible commotion arose, because considerable efforts of America were directed to undermining the Union’s economy.
    At first two articles appeared: one in the Washington Post of Victor Zorza, and the other in the English Guardian. The first was called "The punched card controls the Kremlin" and was designed for our leaders. It read the following: "The tsar of Soviet cybernetics, academician VM Glushkov proposes to replace the Kremlin leaders with computers."

    The article in The Guardian was intended for the Soviet intelligentsia. It was said there that Academician Glushkov proposes to create a network of computing centers with data banks, that it sounds very modern, and it is more advanced than it is now in the West, but it is not being done for the economy, but in fact this is an order of the KGB aimed at to hide the thoughts of Soviet citizens in databanks and monitor every person.

    This second article was transmitted by all the "voices" fifteen times in different languages ​​to the Soviet Union and the countries of the socialist camp.

    This was followed by a series of reprints of these dirty libels in other leading capitalist newspapers - both American and Western European, and a series of new articles. Then strange things began to happen. In the 1970, Glushkov flew from Montreal to Moscow by Il-62. An experienced pilot felt something was wrong when they were flying over the Atlantic, and returned. It turned out that they added something to the fuel. Thank God everything worked out, but it remained a mystery who did it and why. A little later, in Yugoslavia, a truck almost flew into Glushkov’s car - the driver miraculously managed to dodge the collision.

    And all our opposition, in particular the economic one, took up arms against the academician. In early 1972, Izvestia published an article "Lessons from the Electronic Boom" written by Milner, Deputy G. Arbatov - Director of the Institute of the United States of America. In it, he tried to prove that in the United States, the demand for computers has fallen. In a number of memoranda to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from economists who have been on business trips to the United States, the use of computer technology to manage the economy was equated with the fashion for abstract painting. They say capitalists buy cars only because it is fashionable, so as not to seem outdated. Such a massive attack on the Soviet leadership from the outside and from ... uh ... Soviet economists disoriented the leadership and ultimately resulted in the curtailment of the OGAS project.
    1. Eugene
      Eugene 24 August 2013 20: 01 New
      0
      To the topic !!!! Good luck !!
    2. AlNikolaich
      AlNikolaich 24 August 2013 21: 36 New
      +5
      Quote: Iraclius
      Such a massive attack on the Soviet leadership from outside and from ... uh ... Soviet economists disoriented the leadership and ultimately resulted in the winding up of the OGAS project.

      I agree with you completely. Our opponents used various ways to deal with the OGAS project. The real-time data transmission and processing system for managing the country's economy is a huge blow to internal detractors (you can’t write anything and it’s difficult to steal). And you don’t need to talk about external ones! They did not need a USSR with a developed economy ...
      Oh, if everything worked out then! The analogue of the Internet is ours, Soviet! And just as with time, it would have been brought into the free use of citizens! But that would be twenty-five years ago ...
      But these thoughts are already about an alternative story ...
      1. Iraclius
        24 August 2013 23: 10 New
        +4
        There is such a wonderful piece of music - the techno-opera by the Vladivostok composer Viktor Argonov "2032: The Legend of the Unfulfilled Future". Surprisingly solid, deep thing.
        According to the plot, the Union exists there and even acquired some new territories, such as the Mongolian Soviet Socialist Republic. There was a place there for Viktor Mikhailovich Glushkov, and the OGAS, which acquired the features of artificial intelligence.
        A very serious thing, which makes us think about the levers that govern history, about the severity of responsibility for decisions made and the relationship between man and machine intelligence ... A lot is mixed up there. Well, the music is wonderful, somewhat reminiscent of 80's electronic music. Recommend. good
  4. fzr1000
    fzr1000 24 August 2013 13: 24 New
    +4
    Why forgotten? Whoever knows the history of his country not from Wikipedia is not forgotten for that. And the article "+".
    1. Iraclius
      24 August 2013 14: 05 New
      +7
      Unfortunately, modern economists do not know this name. Checked repeatedly.
      Mathematicians are more familiar with the works of Viktor Mikhailovich in the field of Hilbert's 5th problem and topology. Computer scientists of an exceptionally old school remember his fundamental work "Synthesis of Digital Automata". Why, Anatoly Wasserman and he in his work "Communism and Computer" managed to call Glushkov Vladimir, for which he later apologized to the readers.
      But the names of such learned economists, such as academician Oleg Bogomolov, the author of the reform that killed OGAS, are much better known. It was he who persuaded Kosygin to stop creating the OGAS and begin the failed reform.
      And so, the communist, one of the main theorists of the construction of socialism, academician Bogomolov declares:
      “In the autumn of the 1917 of the year, a choice was made, which, as we see today, despite all the sacrifices and heroic efforts made, led to a dead end.” “It is time to stop swearing allegiance to the dogmas of the Marxist faith, and turn to common sense, universal human experience, eternal moral commandments that never let people down. Is there salvation and a way out of the impasse? ”

      Except as a traitor, after that it is impossible to name him in any way. request
      I was firmly convinced that among the party leadership (and the middle one!) There was such a fear of losing their sinecure that they began to dig in horror under the idea of ​​the OGAS, not hesitating to carry an open nonsense from high tribunes, like the same Minister of Finance comrade .Garbuzov.
    2. dustycat
      dustycat 24 August 2013 16: 02 New
      +3
      Quote: fzr1000
      Why forgotten?

      And you try to find who is the author of the concept of "relational databases".
      And without it, neither Dbase, nor Foxpro, nor the esquel are not a base, but a data dump.
  5. sso-xnumx
    sso-xnumx 24 August 2013 14: 36 New
    +3
    there were enough illiterate children in the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Council of Ministers of the USSR. Unfortunately, state officials were not respected there, they were disposed of as soon as possible ...
  6. dustycat
    dustycat 24 August 2013 15: 59 New
    +5
    Socialism is accounting. Who brought it out and when?
    And such a system made accounting total and cross-cutting.
    Where to sweep illiquid assets and for what bribes from enterprises to solicit when all the funds on the screen?
    That's where the collapse of the USSR began.
    CSB and Gosplan were the main bribe takers of the USSR.
    Sam and his mother went on her business trips to Moscow and Ivanovo (there was a regional branch of the State Planning Commission there).
    What goods were loaded onto the bus and in what quantities he himself saw. Yes, and carried to the office what they say if the box was able to.
    The construction of such a system made the work of the CSB transparent and unnecessary to the crowd of people who worked there.
    And so until now, all the bookkeeping is paper — and so paper that it’s possible to hide two more Gosplans there and two more will remain.
    1. Iraclius
      24 August 2013 23: 21 New
      +4
      Strictly speaking, from a mathematical point of view, even the built OGAS system could not completely eliminate the shortcomings of the planned system. I will explain why.
      From the work of Viktor Mikhailovich Glushkov it follows that the number of actions necessary to balance the production plan is proportional to the number of names of items whose production is planned, approximately to the extent 2.5, and to optimize the plan - to the extent 3.5, and mathematics does not see ways to further reduce this indicator.

      In the middle of the 1970's, when Glushkov published his first works on this topic, the total number of names of objects produced in the USSR exceeded 20 millions. It followed: the entire world computer park of the 1996 year could cope with balancing the Soviet-wide plan for the 1976 year for ten years, and with optimization - for the good billion years. Those. This computational task belongs to the category of trans-computing and cannot be solved by the available planetary means for a foreseeable period of time.
      But! No one forced to balance the entire plan. Some sectors of the economy could be perfectly regulated by natural market mechanisms. We see an example of such a hybrid economy in modern China. And Glushkov also wrote about this.

      PS By the way, if quantum computers still grow out of the nursery, then the task of balancing the plan can be solved in real time. So we will hear more than once about the socialist mode of production.
  7. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 24 August 2013 17: 02 New
    +3
    Glushkov was a genius. And thanks to the "old communists", the USSR lost the chance to create the Internet 15 years earlier than it appeared in this reality ... And about the same time, the development of the BESM and MIR line was shut down and, at the direction of the Central Committee, they began to copy IBM360 (ES EVM) and PDP ( SM computer), laying, so to speak, a time bomb for domestic microelectronics .... :(
  8. builder
    builder 24 August 2013 17: 35 New
    +7
    Iraclius
    The meaning of the article, in addition to paying tribute to the scientist and honoring his memory, is also to show the reader (especially the young age) that the USSR was the focus of advanced scientific thought and such an area as computer technology.

    The biography of the scientist is a refutation of myths about the persecution of cybernetics in the USSR.
  9. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 24 August 2013 23: 36 New
    +2
    Quote: stroitel
    Iraclius
    The meaning of the article, in addition to paying tribute to the scientist and honoring his memory, is also to show the reader (especially the young age) that the USSR was the focus of advanced scientific thought and such an area as computer technology.

    The biography of the scientist is a refutation of myths about the persecution of cybernetics in the USSR.

    So there was no persecution of cybernetics. There was "creativity" from especially bad humanitarians about the "anti-Soviet and idealistic orientation" of cybernetics and quantum mechanics, but IoT was not a stupid person, and bombs should explode, and missiles should hit where they needed to. Therefore, the zealous humanitarians were besieged. It's a pity that genetics went wrong ...
  10. GEO
    GEO 25 August 2013 06: 30 New
    0
    Victor Mikhailovich Glushkov and fleet admiral Sergey Georgievich Gorshkov
    ========================
    Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union
  11. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 25 August 2013 10: 41 New
    +3
    The project was not ruined by "bone party functionaries", or rather not only they. Undoubtedly, the then computer technology could not cope with planning in the form that they wanted to do "according to Marx." that is, to tell each worker what to do and to what extent. But the Burmese did not drown all this in vain! Can't you see? It's that simple!
    The OGAS made it possible to obtain any information about the state of the national economy and CORRECT VERIFICATION of this information in real time. Based on this project, it was possible to catch ALL thieves. Now it is clear who drowned the OGAS and destroyed it? Further, the classic scheduling algorithm was unsuitable. But, having all the data, no one interfered with Glushkov and his comrades looking and thinking. If the problem is not solved, you just change the approach, that's all.
    Yes, this very moment can be considered a turning point for the USSR. It was openly announced, already at the level of the Central Committee, that instead of breakthrough projects, socialist planning was turning into a farce, and the government was passing to fools-ass licking from the hands of intellectuals. The level of "computer poultry houses" was declared by the state policy and the speaker - the ideal of the manager. The finish...
  12. Iraclius
    25 August 2013 11: 00 New
    +2
    The author did not stigmatize or label anyone. I limited myself to examples illustrating the "scale" of thinking of a number of nomenklatura functionaries, such as the same comrade Garbuzov and shaky human and scientific decency, as in the case of Bogomolov. The rest is obvious.
    All this filthy snake ball can be clearly visualized using the examples of the Cotton Case and theft in Eliseevskoye - there was generally a finish line there - names, passwords, attendance. There is zero sense. The system began to work madly. Shchelokov's suicide is confirmation of this.
  13. Sirs
    Sirs 25 August 2013 11: 31 New
    +1
    We only had geniuses who left that left they lost their roots i.e. thoughts. let's not touch the nerds !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
  14. studentmati
    studentmati 25 August 2013 22: 32 New
    +2
    Great article! good
  15. saturn.mmm
    saturn.mmm 25 August 2013 22: 35 New
    +2
    Thank you for the article. In the United States, 10 two-hour films would have been shot about such a person, but we’ll be shot about thieves and bandits, and soon we will have that bright, turning point that will lead the country to prosper, as long as there are not those values, and the authorities remained mostly limited and selfish people whose main advantage is a velvety language.
    1. sleepy
      sleepy 26 August 2013 04: 51 New
      +2
      There were many such geniuses in the USSR.
      Unfortunately, many are not remembered.

      "On April 21, 2014, Igor Aleksandrovich Berezhny, the former Chief Designer of the Design Bureau of Automatic Systems, Professor, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, would have turned eighty years old."
      http://cosmopark.ru/ib.htm
      1. Eugene
        Eugene 26 August 2013 08: 22 New
        +1
        One hundred pluses! For Careful.
  16. Injennyrecy
    Injennyrecy 19 October 2013 06: 55 New
    0
    Among a large number of interesting and necessary sciences for mankind, parasitology is absolutely not the last. Just every day the inhabitants of the planet come into contact with parasites. They exist in the air, on the human skin and the skin of animals and birds, and even in our body. And, meanwhile, little is known about veterinary parasitology. Our portal was created in order to acquaint its guests with the basics of parasitology, as well as with the know-how and innovations in the field of veterinary parasitology. In order to do this as fully and broadly as possible, we took care of creating special subsections in which the topic of individual subspecies of parasites and methods of dealing with them are well disclosed. It is on this resource that you will learn about the very rare and most dangerous helminths, learn to recognize the safe representatives of parasites, and be sure to try to determine the symptoms of invasive ailments. The articles presented here are written by qualified parasitological veterinarians, so there is no doubt in their reliability. This portal was one of the first among us to open this entertaining topic so deeply, creating a very complete catalog of thematic articles. If you know nothing about parasites, welcome!
  17. candidate
    candidate 27 July 2020 20: 55 New
    0
    ... Than mediocrity is gifted,
    So with the ability to spread rot
    Therefore, this mediocrity
    Exclude from projects ...

    Drive into everyone's brain, without exception
    To avoid exception

    (Professor Preobrazhensky: But only a condition: whatever you like, whatever, whenever you like, but that it should be such a piece of paper, in the presence of which neither Shvonder nor anyone else could even come to the door of my apartment. The final piece of paper. Actual! Real !!)