On page 296 of the book “Odessa Red Banner” (1985), it is told: “And how rejoiced the hero-city Odessa, meeting its envoys who honestly fulfilled the international duty to assist the Czechoslovak people. A sea of flowers, a sea of smiles ... There was a meeting in Odessa and Bulgarian soldiers returning to their homeland from Czechoslovakia. ”
The joy of the meeting was overshadowed by memories of the dead compatriots. So, a member of the Soviet crew tank Petr Demyanovich Kazarik, saving children and women who were on the road, sent an armored car into the abyss. At the same time, crew members Yu. I. Andreev and E. P. Mahotin were killed along with him. Petr Demyanovich grew up on Zaporizhzhya land in with. Split. He worked at the Zaporizhzhya electric car repair plant. The memory of the feat of Peter Kazarik does not fade. He was forever enrolled in the factory brigade, where he worked before serving in the Armed Forces. Internationalist warriors remember him.
But are those events currently being evaluated? The mighty state disappeared - the Soviet Union. Changed power. Other people came, and other ratings appeared.
As is known, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, President of the USSR M. S. Gorbachev is the direct culprit of the elimination from the leadership of the great country of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Warsaw Pact and the countries of the socialist orientation of Europe. Accordingly, the strengthening and advancement to the east of NATO and its vanguard is the United States.
It’s impossible to say that Gorbachev did this without meeting resistance in the country. Suffice it to recall the speeches of economist I. Rodionova, people's deputy Soot Umalatova, director of the nuclear center in Chelyabinsk-70 V. Nechay, academician D. Sakharov. Finally, to give an example of how 4 in November 1991, Viktor Ivanovich Ilyukhin, head of the department for supervision over the implementation of state security laws of the USSR Prosecutor General’s Office, initiated a criminal case against Gorbachev under article 64 of the RSFSR Criminal Code (treason) of the USSR State Council decree on September 6 1991, No. XXUMX-GS “On the recognition of independence of the Republic of Estonia”. But the USSR Prosecutor General Nikolai Trubin closed the case, and after a day's 3, V. Ilyukhin was dismissed from the prosecution authorities.
Not disdained the general secretary and direct forgery in relation to his country. What 18 of June 2012 was. The European Court made a sensational decision that the “documents” provided under Gorbachev and Yeltsin, indicating that the execution of tens of thousands of Polish officers near Katyn was faked by JV Stalin and the Soviet side .
But in the article we will talk about something else. As for Gorbachev, at the last time of his reign, he cared about one thing - how to remain president, even if nominal. Having destroyed trust inside his country, he relied on support from the outside and, for the sake of it, “thinned out” our defense arsenals more than was expected of him in the West. For example, he launched the Pioneer MBR (SS-20) located in the Far East and Central Asia, although the “zero solution” from Ronnie Reagan didn’t provide for this. It looked like this.
1. The USSR was to destroy 1752 BR medium and short range RSD-10 "Pioneer", P-12, OTR-22, OTR-23 "Oka", and also to stop the production of long-range cruise missiles RK-55.
2. The United States, in return, reduced in Europe 859 nuclear carriers weapons: 108 BR "Pershing", 581 medium-range cruise missile ("Tomahawk") and 170 OTR "Pershing-1". But the United States simply took out missile weapons from Europe to America, and the USSR (under the control of the United States) destroyed everything.
3. It was necessary to mutually destroy operational-tactical missiles (OTR), starting with a range of up to 400 km (OTR-23 "Oka" for the USSR), and for the USA - 500 km.
Thus, the agreement concluded by Gorbachev before the collapse of the USSR, still binds Russia hand in hand, it does not have missiles to protect the western frontiers, liquidated workshops for their production in the cities of Votkinsk, Volgograd, Sverdlovsk, Petropavlovsk. At the same time, the United States produces Tomahawk and Cruise cruise missiles with a 1800-2200 km cruise missile, Persing-1А tactical missiles with a 700 km range (Magne, Middle River, San Diego). 1000-5000 km), tactical missiles "Lance-1" with a range of 170-200 km (450-470 km).
Not entered into the contract 1987, long-range cruise missiles, which are in service with the atomic triad - the Navy and the US Air Force. The rocket systems of England and France remained outside the framework of the 1987 Treaty (INF): the medium-range 162 BR and the Mirage and Vulcan bombers capable of carrying 128-600 nuclear charges. This is how Gorbachev went to the Nobel Prize.
Washington hinted at the possibility of temporary preservation for us, the USSR, of some strongholds in the Baltic States. Zero interest! The caressing rays of the Nobel Peace Prize covered the real horizons for him. 9 November 1989 began the destruction of the Berlin Wall.
2-3 December 1989 in the Mediterranean Sea near Malta on board the M / V “Maxim Gorky” an informal meeting was held between US President G. Bush and Gorbachev.
I wonder how this meeting was prepared. At the beginning of November 29, 1989. Gorbachev, with his wife and their attendants, left for Italy at the invitation of the President and Government of the Italian Republic. In Rome, they met with Italian Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti and Italian President Francesco Cosiga.
30 November 1989 was published an interview with the Minister of Defense of the USSR Marshal Dm. Yazova, in which it was noted that the international atmosphere is now changing more and more for the better, mutual understanding and trust between states of different systems are deepening, and political dialogue is developing. An important impulse will be the upcoming meeting of the leaders of the USSR and the USA.
The second day of the Italian meeting was the culmination. Either because of the signing of a number of documents and agreements, or because of the delivery of December 1 from the pacifist organization Italian Center for Disarmament Documentation, the Golden Dove of Peace prize. Which was presented to President Gorbachev by the president of this organization, Luigi Akderlini.
And immediately the motorcade went to the Vatican City. Although the USSR did not have diplomatic contacts with the Vatican, it maintained contacts. The meeting was evidence of positive changes. "Historical"The visit of the Secretary General of the CPSU Central Committee to the Pope began at 11.00. Gorbachev’s conversation with John Paul II was held face-to-face, as the pope spoke Russian. Then the Pope presented commemorative medals to Gorbachev and his wife in recognition of the changes in the Soviet Union.
After the Vatican on the same day, the Soviet leader and accompanying with a stop in Milan arrived in the capital of Malta - Valletta, and the motorcade headed for Marshalokk Bay, where the Maxim Gorky ship was waiting for them.
December 2 in the presence of cruisers - the Soviet "Glory" and the American "Belknap" - negotiations began on board the Soviet ship. The first conversation was one on one with translators. There was also a meeting at the level of foreign ministers. On the second day, the third round of the meeting was held in the library of the ship. Initially, in an expanded composition, then again one by one.
December 3 joint press conference of the two presidents ended a two-day meeting. There, the Soviet and American leaders spoke about the content of the negotiations: a political decision was made to end the Cold War; disarmament; USSR-US bilateral relations; hot spots of the planet and Europe, economic cooperation between the USSR and the USA. 50 Percentage Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty.
On the same day, the Soviet delegation headed by Gorbachev left for Moscow.
4 December 1989 Moscow hosted an informational meeting of the leaders of the States parties to the Warsaw Pact. There, the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, Gorbachev, presented to the leaders of the allied countries detailed information on his conversations with US President George W. Bush.
On December 4, Gorbachev held meetings and talks with Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the GDR H. Modrow, Secretary General of the RCP, President of the SRR N. Ceausescu. Gorbachev met with General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan K. Urbanek and Chairman of the Government of Czechoslovakia L. Adamets attended N. Ryzhkov, A. Shevardnadze and A. Yakovlev. It was stated that the CPSU and the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia give an identical assessment of the introduction of troops of the five Warsaw Pact states into the territory of Czechoslovakia in 1968. This action was interference in the internal affairs of Czechoslovakia, incompatible with the norms of relations between sovereign states. December 6 1989 was published in Pravda No. 340 “Statement by the leaders of Bulgaria, Hungary, the GDR, Poland and the Soviet Union”: “The leaders of Bulgaria, Hungary, the GDR, Poland and the Soviet Union, gathered at a meeting in Moscow on December 4 1989 g ., stated that the entry of troops of their states in Czechoslovakia undertaken in 1968 was interference in the internal affairs of sovereign Czechoslovakia and should be condemned.
Having interrupted the process of democratic renewal in Czechoslovakia, these illegal actions had long-term negative consequences. History confirms how important it is, even in a difficult international environment, to use political means to resolve any problems, to strictly observe the principles of sovereignty, independence and non-interference in internal affairs in relations between states, which meets the provisions of the Warsaw Treaty.
Soviet government statement
Czechoslovak society is in the stage of critical rethinking of the experience of its political and economic development. The process is natural, through which, in one way or another, many countries pass.
In 1968, the then Soviet leadership took the position of one side in an internal dispute in Czechoslovakia around objectively urgent tasks. Justification for such an unbalanced inadequate approach, interference in the affairs of a friendly country was seen at that time in the acute confrontation of East and West.
We share the point of view of the presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and the government of Czechoslovakia that the entry of the armies of the five socialist countries into Czechoslovakia in 1968 was not justified, and the decision on it in the light of the facts now known was erroneous. ”
As Sigismund Sigismundovich Mironin notes, “there is a myth that, they say, the Soviet Union used force where care and patience were needed. No, the USSR did not hurry - on the contrary, showed slowness bordering on the criminal. Exactly! The Soviet Union suffered an unusually long time. This, I quote the Internet, “was explained by the fact that after a warm meeting with Dubcek in January 1968, Brezhnev believed him and defended before other members of the Politburo. When his hopes were not justified, it became clear that Dubcek was his personal mistake, and from the category of serious ones. And Brezhnev did not like to admit his mistakes. Therefore, from March to August, there were long, difficult, dreary negotiations with the participation of the leaders of other Allied Communist Parties. ”
At the end of July 1968, relations became so acute that a “frontal” meeting of two Politburos took place right on the border, in a small club at the Czechoslovak station Cherna nad Tissoy. The Czechs at this meeting behaved defiantly. Someone F. Krigel was especially distinguished, he did not hide his anti-Soviet convictions at all. When P. Shelest passionately announced that this “Galician Jew” was not a partner for him, the delegation of the CHR defiantly left the hall and never returned to it. Leonid Brezhnev, having forgotten about pride, had to go across the border to A. Dubcek in his car. After a difficult conversation, we agreed on a new meeting - in Bratislava, with representatives of other allied communist parties. The meeting adopted a general document with mandatory in such cases assurances of the inviolability of the socialist camp.
Behind the scenes, the CPSU delegation agreed with the Czechs to "stop the controversy." A grand rally "in defense of A. Dubcek" was organized on one of the central squares of Bratislava. Speaking from the balcony in front of tens of thousands of people, J. Smrkovsky delivered a hysterical speech, stirring up the mood of the masses against the USSR and its allies, and to heighten the effect he tore his shirt off by the light of powerful searchlights. 17 August L. Brezhnev wrote a letter to A. Dubcek in which he argued that the anti-Soviet, anti-socialist propaganda in Czechoslovakia does not stop and that this contradicts the agreements reached in Chierna and Bratislava. A. Dubcek did not respond to this letter. And 18-th Brezhnev received an already well-known letter from Johnson. "
Only then was it decided to enter the Warsaw Pact troops.
On February 15, 1989, the withdrawal of 40th Army internationalists from Afghanistan ended without honor. On February 26, 1991, a general outbreak began, also without thanks, but with claims for the damage caused, the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, and Poland. As Captain 1st Rank Alexander Aleksandrovich Kalinicheko noted in his book “Through Obstacles to the Goal,” “the Soviet Navy began to take off tactical nuclear weapons from ships and submarines. A sharp decrease in the number of naval personnel carrying military service on the seas and oceans began. The targets in the homing systems of intercontinental ballistic strategic missiles were “nullified”. Soon in the Pacific navy the Sakhalin Flotilla of Dissimilar Forces, the 6th Squadron of Diesel Submarines and the 17th Operational Squadron of Dissimilar Forces were disbanded. In 1990, an exceptionally zealous executor of a criminal order ceased to exist in the 28th division of the Pacific Fleet’s nuclear submarines, although, according to his statements, 4 nuclear submarines were K-14, K-133, K-151, and K-259 "- were in combat-ready condition. In the Black Sea Fleet in the period 1991-1993 the 14th diesel submarine division ceased to exist. This happened in the Baltic and North. The unilateral reduction of 1,5 million Soviet troops began. The reduction of staff in all types of the Armed Forces of the USSR began. ”
24 December 1989 The American Times magazine has elected the Secretary General of the CPSU Central Committee, Chairman of the USSR Supreme Council Gorbachev as the man of the “decade” (!!!).
Gorbachev did the same with Afghanistan. In February, 1986 in a report at the XXVII Congress of the CPSU, he told the congress delegates that a plan for the phased withdrawal of Soviet troops was worked out with the Afghan side, it will be executed immediately after a political settlement is reached. He instructed the Politburo to find a solution to the Afghan problem through political means.
However, at a meeting of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU at the beginning of April 1986, when the Afghan issue was being heard, Secretary General Gorbachev supported those who spoke of the need to provide comprehensive assistance and support to the Afghan leadership. He added: “We can’t be dragged from Afghanistan by any means, otherwise we will spoil relations with a large number of our foreign friends.” 12 December 1989 in the 10.00 in Moscow opens the Second Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR. At the congress, a presentation of the committee of the Supreme Council on international affairs was made and. about. Committee on the political assessment of the decision to enter the Soviet troops in Afghanistan.
The members of the committee got acquainted with the documents of the Soviet government and the Central Committee of the CPSU, the materials of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Defense and the KGB, and many people were interviewed.
As a result of a thorough analysis of the available data, the committee concluded that the decision to send Soviet troops into Afghanistan also deserves moral and political condemnation. The overall international situation in which the decision was made was undoubtedly difficult ...
Then they realized it and said: “Dear people's deputies! Politically and morally condemning the decision to enter the Soviet troops, the committee considers it necessary to declare that this in no way casts a shadow on the soldiers and officers on their way to Afghanistan. ”
25 December 1989 only “Pravda” placed “a report of the Supreme Council Committee on International Affairs” - “Resolution of the USSR Congress of People’s Deputies on a political assessment of the decision to bring Soviet troops into Afghanistan in December 1979 of the year”: “The Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR supports political assessment this decision of the Supreme Council’s international affairs committee on the deployment of Soviet troops in Afghanistan in 1979, and believes that this decision deserves moral and political condemnation. ”
27-29 December, Budapest hosted a meeting of the committee of defense ministers of the States parties to the Warsaw Treaty. The Ministers of Defense of Bulgaria, Hungary, the GDR, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union took part in it. From Czechoslovakia - Deputy Minister of National Defense, Lieutenant-General E. Lishka. The commander-in-chief of the united armed forces of the states participating in the VD is General of the Army P. G. Lushev and Chief of Staff of the General Directorate - General of the Army V. N. Lobov. The Minister of Defense of Hungary, F. Carpati, presided. At the meeting, the USSR’s readiness to accept further significant unilateral reduction of its tactical nuclear missiles in Europe was accepted with the approval of NATO countries to begin such negotiations. As subsequent events showed, the NATO countries did not go to such negotiations.
At the beginning of 1991 during the war in the Persian Gulf of the USSR, together with the countries of the world community, condemned the actions of Iraq. For many decades, this was the first time that the USSR sided with the leading countries of the world against its former allies, although it did not take part in hostilities.
In the summer of 1991, for the first time, the Soviet president was invited to the annual traditional meeting of the leaders of the seven leading countries. The meeting discussed measures to assist the USSR to overcome the economic crisis and the transition to a market economy. The deterioration of the domestic economic situation forced the Soviet leadership to make large, often unilateral concessions to the West in the hope of obtaining economic assistance and political support. Especially after the signing of 31 July in Moscow 1991. of the START-1 agreement between Gorbachev and Bush. After the meeting of the leaders of the USSR and the UK, restrictions were introduced on the BZHRK patrol routes (1990) - 3 rocket divisions deployed, armed with BZHRK ICBMs RT-23UTH (unique combat railway missile system equipped with the Molodets RT-23 UTTH missiles (according to the NATO classification) SS-24 Scalpel). Creation started in 1969.) From this point on, they were on combat duty at a point of permanent deployment, without leaving the country’s railway network.
The final verdict to the railway complexes was made by the START-2 agreement of 3 in January of 1993. According to it, all RT-23UTTHs went under the knife. After that, the United States withdrew from the treaty unilaterally.
Gorbachev has about fifty different awards. Mostly foreign, received after the collapse of the USSR. Exactly one year later, on October 15, Gorbachev is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. And 10 December 1990, he gets it. A year later, December 25 1991, Gorbachev resigned, and the red flag of the Soviet Union was lowered over the Kremlin. 26 December 1991 officially ceased to exist in the USSR.
3 May 2011 in Moscow, Russian President D. Medvedev, in connection with the 80 anniversary of his birth, presented the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called to Gorbachev. According to futurologist Maxim Kalashnikov, “it was a slap in the face for the Russian people ...”
Given the high status of the award, a number of politicians have already responded to the news of Gorbachev's award. Thus, the chairman of the Russian National Union, Sergei Baburin, said that after this the order of Andrew the First-Called loses its value for him. “Why, for services to the US, award the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called, I do not understand,” the Kommersant newspaper quoted as saying. In turn, the chairman of the Yabloko party, Sergei Mitrokhin, believes that Gorbachev is entitled to such an award. “Freedom has come at a high price — at the price of the collapse of the country; one can argue about his fault, but his legacy has historical proportions,” he explained.
But the Nobel Prize and the highest award of Russia - the Order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First Called from Dm. Medvedev - you must take away from Judas M. S. Gorbachev ... And this is not only the author’s desire.