Military Review

In a foreign territory - a little blood

18
Landings were landed on the Romanian bank of the Danube from Soviet armored boats and patrol boats. During the 2 of the day of battles, a bridgehead with a width of 75 km and a depth of 10 km was captured. Romanian troops defeated and fled. The population of villages Laskar and Karatzhiu met paratroopers with red flags.
This is not August 1944, but 25 and 26 on June 1941.


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Now we know that Soviet propaganda in the summer of 1941 was at times overestimated the losses of the Germans. But this time it was all true. During the 10 days of offensive battles on the Danube, 810 prisoners were captured, 327 enemy soldiers and officers were destroyed, several hundred injured. It was captured: 15 guns; about three thousand shells; 742 rifle.

With the seizure of the Satu Nou peninsula, the settlements of Staraya Kiliya and Pardina and the Tatar Islands, the Danube flotilla captured both banks of the Danube from Perivrava village to the mouth of the River Repida, thus obtaining a maneuverable bridgehead over 76 km and the necessary depth in which it was so needed .

So, in Ukraine and Belarus tank enemy divisions wedged hundreds of kilometers deep into our territory, Minsk, Lvov and Riga fell. And here, on the Danube, the war went according to the pre-war canons - “on foreign territory, with little blood!”

How could this happen?

26 June 1940 The People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs V. Molotov summoned the Romanian ambassador Davidescu and handed him a statement from the Soviet government. It said: “In 1918, Romania, taking advantage of Russia's military weakness, forcibly rejected part of its territory - Bessarabia - from the Soviet Union (Russia) and thus violated the centuries-old unity of Bessarabia, inhabited mainly by Ukrainians, with the Ukrainian Soviet Republic.

The Soviet Union has never put up with the fact of the violent rejection of Bessarabia, which the USSR Government has repeatedly and openly declared to the whole world. ”

The new border of the USSR with Romania passed along the Danube from Vilkovo to Reni, more precisely, to 294 km of the Danube. In the current military and political situation, the border troops for the protection of the Danube was clearly not enough, and in June 1940, the Soviet government decided to create a Danube military flotilla. In July, 1940 was appointed Rear Admiral N. O. Abramov as its commander. The flotilla was part of the Black Sea Fleet, and Ismail became its main base.

This was the eighth Russian naval flotilla on the Danube, but the first flotilla created in peacetime. All previous fleets were created during the war and disbanded after it ended.

2 July 1940. The monitors of the Pinsk military flotilla "Udarny", "Zheleznyakov", "Martynov", "Rostovtsev" and "Zhemchuzhin" left the Kiev raid and headed down the Dnieper. On July 8 they arrived at Ishmael and put the Danube military flotilla into service. In addition, the Kolkhoznik wheel minelayer was received from the Pinsk military flotilla.

The 1125 armored boats, armed with short caliber 16,5 76-mm 1927 / 32 guns, were listed in the Danube flotilla of the Baltic Fleet naval squadron. Moreover, the main part of the armored troopers - 18 units - arrived only by rail 9 June 1941 in Izmail from Oranienbaum.

By 22 June 1941, the Danube flotilla consisted of five monitors, 22 armored boats and a mine-collector “Kolkhoznik”:

- division of the minesweeper boats from seven minesweepers built 1939 – 1940;
- detachment of gliders (6 units);
- Auxiliary vessels: the staff ship "Bug" (wheeled, two machine guns); river wheel tugs IP-22 and IP-23; four boats KM; four boats of the “Yaroslavl” type; PM-10 floating workshop; hospital ship "Soviet Bucovina" and diving bot.

In addition to the above boats, in the early days of the war, two divisions of patrol boats of the Maritime Border Guard of the NKVD, based in the city of New Kiliya (Kilia Noue) and in the city of Vilkovo (Vylkov), joined the Danube Flotilla:

a) Vilkovo Division - four MO-2 patrol boats (No. 125, 126, 127 and 128), ZK boats (Zolotov boats) and up to 20 K-ZIS boats;
b) Kiliya division consisting of messenger ships (schooners, boats) ZK, KM and several boats K-ZIS and PS-3.

Thus, the flotilla in the early days of the war had about 100 units, including warships and auxiliary craft.
In addition to ships, the flotilla included:

- 96-I fighter squadron (X-NUMX fighters I-15);
- 46-th separate anti-aircraft artillery division;
- a separate local rifle company;
- 17-I machine-gun company;
- Danube coastal defense sector in the following batteries:

No. 725 – 152-mm (howitzer gun ML-20), mobile, located in the city of Izmail,
No. 724 – 152-mm (howitzer gun ML-20), mobile, located in the village Dzhurzhulesht,
No. 717 – 130-mm stationary, located in the village of Zhebriyana (Zhibrieni).

Our forces on the Danube were opposed by a large river fleet of Romania, the core of which was seven monitors.

Four monitors — Alexandra Lakhovari, Mikhail Kogalnicheanu, Laskor Cataragiu, Ion C. Bratianu — were laid out in Trieste in 1906 by request of Romania and launched in 1907 in Galati (Romania). In 1937 – 1938 they have been upgraded. Their full displacement 750 t, speed 13 knots, armament: three 120 / 50-mm guns. By 1941, their anti-aircraft armament consisted of one 37-mm automatic machine "Rheinmetall" and three 13,2-mm guns of Hotchkiss.

The remaining three monitors went to Romania when the river divided the Austro-Hungarian Danube Flotilla.

The Bukovina monitor (formerly Sava) was built in Linz in 1915. The displacement of the 550 t monitor, the speed of the 12 nodes. In 1939 – 1942 He has been upgraded. Two 120 / 45-mm guns, two 120 / 10-mm howitzers, 65-mm and 47-mm guns were removed, and four 120 / 50-mm new Skoda guns were delivered, five 37-mm and two 20- mm gun "Rheinmetall".

The Bessarabia monitor (formerly Inn) was built in 1913 – 1915. in Budapest. It is curious that in the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919, it was called "Marx". The monitor has been upgraded in 1940 – 1942. Data after modernization: displacement 770 t, speed of 12 nodes. Two 120 / 45-mm guns, three 120 / 10-mm howitzers and other old guns were replaced with four 120 / 50-mm Skoda, five 37-mm and two 20-mm Rheinmetall guns.

The Ardeal Monitor (formerly Temez) was built in 1903 – 1905. in Budapest. Displacement full 650 t, speed 10 nodes. During the Second World War, was modernized. Instead of two 120 / 35-mm guns, one 120 / 10-mm howitzer and small-caliber guns re-equipped with three 120 / 50-mm Skoda cannons, four 37-mm and four 20-mm Rhine-metal cannons.

Just before the start of the war, another “secret” monitor was added to the flotilla, which is still not found in any naval directory. The towing steamer “Haralambos” (speed of 13 nodes) was given the appearance of a monitor like “Bratianu”. Naturally, his tools were wooden. In the first weeks of the war, he produced several demonstrative exits on the Danube. And after the departure of the Russians from the Danube, he was again turned into a tug.

In addition, the flotilla consisted of several dozens of patrol boats with a displacement from 3,5 to 50 t. The most powerful were four boats of the Popescu Constantine type, built in 1921 in Naples, with a displacement of 9 nodes and were armed with one 15-mm cannon. As well as seven boats of the type "Nicolae Laskar", built in 37 in London. Their displacement was 1907 T, the speed of 50 nodes, armament: one 18-mm gun.

By 22 June 1941, on the formal grounds, the Romanian Danube Flotilla was superior to the Soviet flotilla. So, our authors claim that the weight of the volley of the Romanian flotilla was 2 times more than the Soviet. In fact, in the case of the “general” battle, our monitors and armored boats would have shattered the Romanians. Soviet ships were of a newer design, had more rapid-fire weapons, had better maneuverability, crews were better trained, and so on.

It should be noted that at the end of 1941, the balance of forces on the Danube should have changed dramatically. Romanians did not even plan to strengthen their river flotilla, and in Kiev at the shipyard “Leninskaya Kuznitsa” three large monitors were built.

Their standard displacement was 735 tons, and the full 800 tons. The power plant - two diesel 38-KP-8 on 800 l. with. - allowed to reach speeds up to 12 nodes. The armament consisted of two two-gun 130-mm B-28 turret installations and two 45-X turrets 41 K, as well as three 12,7-mm twin machine guns DShK M-2 B. The main armor belt had a thickness of 50 mm in the area of ​​the citadel and 16 mm in the extremities. The deck had a thickness of armor 30 mm in the area of ​​the citadel and 8 mm at the extremities.

Gun turrets

By 22 June 1941, the Vidlitsa and Volochaevka monitors were launched and completed afloat, and the main caliber guns had already been installed on them. These were the first four serial B-28 towers. Monitor "Kakhovka" was still on the stocks without weapons.

What tasks were set before our flotilla? The well-known Viktor Rezun (pseudonym - Suvorov) in the book "Icebreaker" states:
“In a defensive war, the Danube military flotilla could not only solve defensive tasks by the nature of its base, but defensive tasks could not arise here! The Danube Delta is hundreds of lakes, these are impassable swamps and reeds for hundreds of square kilometers. The enemy will not attack the Soviet Union through the Danube Delta! ..

In the defensive war, the Danube flotilla is not needed by anyone and is doomed to immediate destruction in its open parking areas at the coast swept by the enemy. But in the offensive war, the Danube flotilla was deadly for Germany: as soon as it climbed upstream 130 km, the strategic bridge near Chernovada would be under fire from its guns, which meant that the supply of oil from Ploiesti to the port of Constance was disrupted. ”

At the end of March, the 1918 of the Austro-Hungarian flotilla consisting of 4 monitors, 4 gunboats and a dozen other ships moved down the Danube, entered the Black Sea and April 12 arrived in Odessa, and in 5 days - to Kherson. The Austrians tried to climb up the Dnieper to Kiev, but the Austrian non-saturated threshold turned out to be too tough for them, and they went from Aleksandrovsk (now Zaporozhye) back.

We will return to the offensive capabilities of the Danube Flotilla later, but the defensive tasks of the Danube Flotilla, set by the command of the Odessa Military District through the headquarters of the 14 Infantry Corps, were as follows:

1) prevent the enemy from breaking through below the city of Reni;
2) prevent the enemy from forcing the Danube River from the mouth of the river to the city of Galati;
3) together with the units of the Red Army, repel the attempt of the enemy to strike from Galati - Dzhurzhulesht.

The port of Izmail, the main base of the Danube Flotilla, was fired from the field artillery from the Romanian coast, and therefore all the ships and boats of the flotilla were dispersed. Three monitors, four armored boats and two cutter-trawlers went up to the mouth of the Prut in the region of Reni. The Reni group was headed by the commander of the monitor division, Lieutenant Commander Krinov. The neighboring 724-I coastal battery and two artillery regiments of the Chapayev Division could interact with his ships.

Two other monitors, including the flagship “Udarny”, with the main body of armored boats and minesweepers, were hidden in the Kislitsky channel, and the fleet commander directly took control of this group. The rest of the armored boats went to the Danube estuary, in the area of ​​Kiliya-know and Vilkova. Not a single ship remained in Izmail for June 21.

What is it? Amateur commander flotilla? After all, half a century later, liberal historians have been proving to us that Stalin forbade putting units on alert, that the TASS statement from 14 June 1941 misinformed commanders, etc.

In fact, from the end of 1940 from Moscow to the western districts there was a stream of orders about the dispersal and disguise of troops and military equipment. But most of the chiefs in the field ignored them. As far back as 1940, Stalin was outraged that the air camps in Western IN are “gypsy camps” with crowds of wives, children, mother-in-law and other relatives. The fact that in the Governor-General in any of the air camps of the Luftwaffe did not smell like wives or kids, do not speak. The People's Commissar of Defense singled out large elevators for the removal of families of pilots. But the "night cuckoos" perekukovali Commissar.

By June 22 tanks were parks, aircraft - on the airfields wing to the wing. In May, the 1941 was delivered directly from the 480 – 152-mm ML-20 howitzer cannon with 10 ammunition kits to each gun to the district test site (former Polish) southwest of Baranavichy. At the end of the summer, the 1941. The howitzers-cannons were supposed to be used to complete the ten artillery regiments of the RGC. All of them were left unharmed by the Germans 23 – 24 June 1941.

Late in the evening 21 June 1941, the commander of the Western IN, Colonel-General Pavlov went to the theater, and the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Admiral Oktyabrsky, was already in the theater. Lunacharsky, and later with friends made a Sabantuy in his apartment.

And on the Danube, sailors and border guards only carried out orders and instructions. At 2 o'clock in the morning 22 June, the Danube Flotilla switched to operational readiness No. 1. The commander of the flotilla, Rear Admiral Abramov ordered to disperse and disguise the ships and to alert the units and units. The connection was switched to the flagship command post, deployed in advance in the shelter on the territory untailed from the Romanian coast.

In 4.15, the Romanian batteries opened fire on the Soviet side — Reni, Karal, Izmail, Calia, Vilkovo and the flotilla ships.
In 4.20, without requesting their superiors, Rear Admiral Abramov independently ordered to return fire and report the actions of the flotilla to the military council of the front.

During the artillery flotilla and coastal batteries did not suffer significant losses, but the port of Izmail was completely incapacitated.

On the morning of June 22 1941, eight Romanian aircraft IAR-37 raided Izmail. According to the Romanian version, one plane was shot down, and the second one was damaged, the pilot was seriously injured. And according to the Soviet version, three aircraft shot down fighters of the 96 th squadron, and one - 463-I anti-aircraft battery.

Even if you take the Romanian version, 25% losses for the first raid - not bad at all. Imagine if that were the case across the entire Eastern Front.
22 – 23 June Romanian troops in dozens of places tried to cross the Danube and Prut border rivers. Our border guards struck a counter blow. So, June 22 (!) Of the 79 frontier patrol squadron "being displaced beyond the cordon into the village of Laskar-Katorshi, broke into the pluton of the Romanian border guard, captured the 7 soldier and 1 officer and took them to the squadron". (RGVA f. 38658 op. 1 d. 1 l. 25).

On June 23, an “agent group” of the 79 frontier detachment, deployed in Lazar Katorshi, captured 10 Romanian soldiers. The trophies are 1 machine guns and 1 light machine guns and about 5000 cartridges.

On June 25, an “agent-combat group” of the 79 border detachment destroyed telephone communications between the cities of Kiliya-Veki and Tulcha.

The commandant's office on the boats forced the Danube River and took the town of Old Kiliya, destroyed at the same time along the site of the commandant's office of 12 Romanian pickets, 2 pluton, 1 company, captured over 500 people. soldiers and officers, up to 20 heavy machine guns, up to 30 light machine guns, about 700 rifles, 30 thousand rounds of ammunition and up to 1500 hand grenades.

And here is a report from the Prut River: 22 June 1941 of 17.30: “The 2 frontier detachment: the enemy in the area of ​​the 14 th outpost forced the r. Prut in the area of ​​the blasted bridge. Zastava together with the support of the Red Army is fighting. In 14.10, in the area of ​​Kota Morii, in the area of ​​the 12 outpost, a group of Captain Matyushin with a platoon of the Red Army leads the offensive, selected 6 killed Romanian soldiers, a light machine gun. The 13.15 opponent by force to one battalion in the area with. Medelen forced r. Rod. The 1-i outpost fights at the site of the 18-th outpost. Opponent after the battle went to the right bank. Throughout the site 4-th commandant from with. Chorydo to with. Leovo come to the border of the Red Army. "

Well, just like in the feature film 1938 of the year "If tomorrow is war."

As a result, all Romanian landings on the Danube and Prut in the first 10 days of the war were thrown into the water or destroyed.

On the night of June 24, the first landing operation of the Danube Flotilla began. For the landing, 4 armored boats were allocated, for the artillery preparation and support of the landing force, the “Shock” and “Martynov” monitors, stationed in the Kislytska channel, the coastal battery No. 725 and two batteries of the anti-aircraft division.

The landing of troops on the Danube from Soviet armored boats

With the dawn of June 25, coastal defense battery No. 725 and two 46 batteries of the zenith artillery battalion, the Udarny and Martynov monitors opened fire on enemy fortifications on the Satu Nou peninsula.

In 2.45, on command from the observation post of the 724 battery, which fixed the approach of the boats, the cover-fire artillery was moved deep into the Romanian defense. On the shore of the guns and machine guns the armored troopers themselves opened fire.

The Romanians resisted weakly, and after half an hour the battle on the peninsula stopped. Around 70, Romanian soldiers and border guards surrendered. About a dozen of heavy machine guns and light machine guns and two three-inch Russian guns were captured.

Our landing force almost did not suffer: neither among the sailors, nor among the border guards was there a single one killed.

The next morning, the armored boats and the trawling boats transported the 23 Infantry Regiment of the 25 Infantry Division through the Kiliya arm of the Danube. From our shore, the landing force supported the 99 artillery regiment of the 25 rifle division with fire.

The paratroopers swiftly attacked the Romanians, and already in 8 hours. 28 minutes. The town of Old Kiliya was taken. Romanians suffered a complete rout. 700 people surrendered, until 200 people were killed, the rest of them fled in a panic, and 96 squadron fired at them from a strafing flight. The paratroopers seized 8 guns, up to 30 machine guns, about 1000 rifles, a lot of ammunition and equipment.

Our casualties were 5 people killed, 7 injured. Three armored boats had minor damage.

A battalion of the 23 Infantry Regiment was left to guard Old Kiliya. By the end of the day on June 26, the Red Army units and border guards occupied the village of Pardina and the island of Tataru without a fight.

A few words should be said about the first minefield on the Danube, held on the night of June 24. Four armored men of the Reni group before the darkness received mines in Izmail 24. On the head boat went flagship Issar.

In 2 hours of the night, the boats took off and went in slow motion to Sulinsky girlu. But in the thick fog and darkness, the armored boats slipped past him, not seeing the branches, and climbed higher along the Danube deep into Romanian territory.

The error was discovered only after a detachment stumbled upon a monument to soldiers of the Ryazan regiment who had come out of the fog, who died during the crossing of the Danube in 1877, under Machin, an eight-meter cast-iron pyramid. Having found a mistake, the armored troopers fell backward. When they went down to Sulinsky girl and turned into it, it was already beginning to get light, and the fog began to thin.

Suddenly, a hundred meters from the headboat in the reeds, the board and towers disguised by branches of the Romanian monitor appeared. The parking of monitors turned out to be much closer than it was supposed to be on the flotilla. Having opened fire on the nearest monitor, the headboat began to turn around, simultaneously dropping mines. Of the three armored patrons following him who had developed the maximum speed, they did not have time to drop the mines. As a result, only 8 mines were delivered.

Simultaneously with the mines, the boats also began to drop smoke bombs - there was no equipment for putting a smoke curtain on them. The return fire of the Romanians was no less erratic than the fire of armored boats - only the BKA-112, which had to be towed, was seriously damaged.

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The unsuccessful actions of the SB bombers on the Romanian monitor are explained by the fact that our pilots operated at high altitudes - four or more kilometers, from which it is extremely difficult to reach such a small-sized target as a monitor. Since the SB planes did not have the opportunity to swoop on the target, it was necessary to use top mast bombing, that is, to bombard no higher than 40 – 70 m, flying literally over the masts of enemy ships.

25 June to 8 h. 18 min. nine SB planes bombarded Romanian monitors in the Tulci area. Our planes returned without loss.
Above all, finding a well-disguised monitor from the air was an extremely difficult task for pilots.

The commander of the Danube Flotilla Abramov from the very beginning of the war asked the commander of the Black Sea Fleet October to help at least torpedo boats. He decided to make a raid to the rear of the enemy and destroy the disguised Romanian monitors with torpedoes. Most of the boats of the Black Sea Fleet were boats G-5, which did not have good seaworthiness. But, as the war showed, they turned out to be excellent river boats. They put the rocket launcher M-8 and called mine boats. Our G-5 proved to be excellent on the Danube in 1944 – 1945.

After our BCA with mines nearly crashed into Romanian monitors, 26 Jun in 11 h. 45 min. in order to quickly destroy the Romanian monitors, at the request of Abramov, the Oktyabrsky telegram number 2094 ordered the commander of the Odessa naval base to urgently send four torpedo boats with eight prepared torpedoes to Izmail.

In 15 h. 50 min. The October telegram number 2107 set the following tasks for the commander of the Danube Flotilla: with the arrival of torpedo boats, after careful preparation, to carry out a bold operation to destroy the enemy's monitors; have accurate intelligence and achieve absolute surprise; the relocation of torpedo boats to produce covertly.

The boats arrived at Kislitsu only at 6 in the morning of June 28. For unclear reasons, the torpedo attack of the Romanian monitors did not take place. And on July 3, Oktyabrsky demanded an urgent return of four torpedo boats from the Danube to Ochakov.

Boats urgently needed for the defense of Ochakov ... the Italian fleet. While our border guards and sailors on the Danube and Prut were smashing the Romanians, Admiral Philip Oktyabrsky had a big war with the virtual Italian fleet, which for obvious reasons, we are still secret.

The Navy Commissariat for several pre-war months prepared seamen and border guards to repel Italian and German amphibious assault forces in the Crimea, Odessa and the Caucasus. And since the administration demands to discover the Italian fleet in the Black Sea, then ...

And already 22 June 1941 was in 13.00 received a report on the landing in Odessa near the village of Tatarka, and after an hour and a half - in the area of ​​Spartacus. Already 24 June in 11 h. 30 min. and in 13 h. 20 min. The gunboat “Krasnaya Armenia” near the Tendrovsky Spit was “attacked” twice by the enemy's submarine.

24 June, the commander of the Odessa naval base, Rear Admiral GV Zhukov, informed Admiral Oktyabrsky that on the Odessa raid of the boat three times they bombed a detected enemy submarine, and they even observed an oil stain on the water.

25 June to 11 h. 15 min. near Cape Sarych near Sevastopol a submarine periscope was noticed. Almost simultaneously, the frontier small hunter near the Shokhe River (between Tuapse and Sochi) discovered and attacked a submarine. A few kilometers away, another submarine was spotted from a land border post.

From the diary of Admiral Oktyabrsky: “June 28. V. G. Fadeev reports that, allegedly yesterday, between 8 – 10 hours, his hunting boats destroyed one enemy submarine in the area of ​​the main base. Signs: underwater explosions at the bombing site, oil stains, strong air etching. ”

Landing adversaries landed on the beaches of Sudak and Kerch. The Italian squadron with the German troops moved to Batum.

In this situation, Admiral Oktyabrsky urgently contacted Rear-Admiral GV Zhukov, commander of the Odessa naval base: “To organize opposition to possible enemy landing operations, I order you to immediately withdraw the Zhebryan’s Ochakov torpedo boats and constantly keep a detachment of torpedo boats in the Dniester liman with full amount torpedoes. "

So brilliantly failed the brilliant operation - the torpedo attack of the Romanian monitors. I note that the Black Sea Fleet on 22 June 1941 was not 6, but 78 torpedo boats, that is, more than in the fleets of Germany, Italy, Romania and Turkey combined. To do it in the absence of enemy ships on the Black Sea was simply nothing.

In addition to them, the Black Sea Fleet included hundreds of sea hunters, patrol boats, minesweepers, etc., a third of which would have been enough to capture the entire Danube Delta in June and early July 1941.

Let's look at the map. From the Soviet branch of the Danube to the main Romanian port of Constanta, just 150 km. It was from Constanta that Italian, Romanian and other tankers supplied German and Italian forces in the Mediterranean. The Germans built powerful coastal batteries near Constanta (up to the 28 caliber inclusive) and helped the Romanians put up numerous minefields.

These activities made the actions of Soviet surface ships and submarines in the region of Constanta ineffective. But, based in the Danube Delta, Soviet torpedo boats and sea hunters could interrupt the communication Constance - Bosphorus. And torpedo boats, and MO-4 could put minefields. Recall their success in 1942 – 1944. Well, the TKA could attack enemy tankers and cargo ships with torpedoes.

No doubt, the range of the TCA type G-5 is small - 300 – 430 km, that is right next to Constanta and back. But along the way they could refuel the same MO-4, mobilized seiners, etc. The range of the MO-4 – 774 km.

In addition, the Black Sea Fleet included three non-serial large TCAs: G-6, G-8 and D-3. Their travel speed (maximum / economic) was 50 / 28, 32 / 27 and 45 / 22 nodes, respectively. And the range - 783, 450 and 640 km. Thus, the G-8 and G-3 could attack ships and south of Constanta. As for the G-6, the torpedo tubes were removed from it, and it was removed from the torpedo boats. But instead of 90 tons of torpedo armament it was possible to put as many mines or barrels of gasoline for the G-12 on this 5-ton collar.

So, if the ships of the Black Sea Fleet and two or three rifle divisions transported from the Transcaucasian Military District, I’m not talking about the 14 corps, occupied the Danube delta, the Germans would have been very difficult to knock them out. Hundreds of channels, lakes, smooth. There you will not send tank divisions. A disguised monitor is not visible from the air, not like small G-5 or MO-4.

The departure of the Russians from the Danube gave a huge advantage to Germany and its allies. The Danube canal system is connected with a number of rivers in Europe. Thus, ships built in German, Dutch and French shipyards could get into the Black Sea. On the Danube to the Black Sea, the Germans in 1942 – 1943 transferred six small submarines of the II series, torpedo boats and other small warships.

Monitor "Zheleznyakov" on a pedestal in Kiev

The Germans, using the shipyards of conquered Europe, built hundreds of small flat-bottomed vessels of the river-sea type with a displacement of 150 – 400 tons, which delivered cargo from the Central Europe along the Danube for the Eastern Front to the ports of Odessa, Sevastopol, Feodosia, Kerch, and Anapa. This was very important for the Wehrmacht, taking into account the destruction of most of the Soviet railways, different gauges, partisan actions, etc.

The other part of the cargo traffic went through Constantinople to the ports of Greece and Italy. There, the German ships unloaded, took the new cargo and went back to the Black Sea and further to the Danube.

The draft of such vessels allowed them to move in shallow water along the coast, hiding behind minefields, coastal artillery and fighter aircraft. River-to-sea vessels carried powerful anti-aircraft armament that was camouflaged or hid in the hold during the passage of the Turkish Straits.

As a result, neither the Soviet fleet nor the allies failed to inflict significant losses on the Linz-Anapa communications on the Germans; Linz - the ports of Italy and Greece.
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  1. Luger
    Luger 26 August 2013 10: 09 New
    +7
    I have heard more than once that the Romanians are fighting so-so, even the Germans themselves complained about this fact, and here is one more confirmation.
    1. smile
      smile 26 August 2013 10: 32 New
      10
      Luger
      Well, they really are not really fighters ... but the Germans just did not blame anyone for the fact that they lost the war because of them .... according to them, everyone is guilty of this, led by the previously adored Fuhrer, except for themselves ... and us .... :))))) instead of us, the cold fought, and we stood aside ....

      And the Romanians, at first, helped the Germans very much by introducing hundreds of thousands of soldiers to the Eastern Front, and the number of Romanians we have always been very large .... they are bad fighters, not bad, but the numbers matter, the troops are the troops .....
      By the way, when we forced them to declare war on the Germans, the Romanians inflicted very significant damage on the Germans, having also lost about 50 thousand people in battles with them .... ours noted that at the end of the war they were more likely to go into battle with the Germans than with us .. . have suffered, apparently, a contemptuous attitude from the Germans ... though. of course. among them was full of convinced fascists .... and even now, as I look, there are ....
      1. smiths xnumx
        smiths xnumx 26 August 2013 14: 11 New
        +2
        The participation of the Romanian troops in the hostilities on the Eastern Front:
        1) "33-day battle" for the capture of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina (June 22 - July 26, 1941) by the forces of the 3rd and 4th Armies, with the participation of the German 11th Army.
        2) The Battle of Odessa (August 14 - October 16, 1941), conducted mainly by the forces of the 4th Army
        3) The campaign of the German (11th Army) and Romanian (3rd Army) troops in the direction of the Southern Bug - Dnieper - Sea of ​​Azov to the region of Berdyansk and Mariupol, also known as the "Nogai steppe" (August-October 1941) ...
        4) The battle for the Crimea, which took place mainly in the fall of 1941, when part of the troops of the 11th German Army, headed by General Erich von Manstein from September 1941, stopped their advance towards the Sea of ​​Azov, having retargeted, together with the 3rd Romanian Army, to eliminate the forces of the Red Army, located on the Crimean peninsula. Then, in the winter and in the early summer of 1942, units of the 11th Army and selected Romanian units stormed the Crimea, culminating in the capture of Sevastopol on July 4, 1942.
        5) The Stalingrad "epic" - in turn, divided into several periods: the campaign of the Romanian troops (the forces of the 3rd and 4th armies) together with the Germans towards Stalingrad (June 28 - September 1942). The 3rd Romanian Army operated as part of Army Group B, next to the 6th German, 2nd Hungarian, 8th Italian and 4th German Panzer, finally fortifying in the Don bend area, while The 4th Romanian army took up a position that was put forward directly to the city from the south-western side, in the so-called "Kalmyk steppe"; the storming of Stalingrad in September-November 1942; defensive battles after the start of the Soviet counteroffensive (November 19-20). The front of the 3rd Romanian army was torn in two, and at the same time the 15th, 6th and the main part of the 5th divisions were surrounded. Later, these formations, having formed the group of General Lasker, would in vain try to break out of the ring in the western direction. Military operations in the Kuban (February 1 - October 9, 1943), representing the retreating battles of the Romanian and German troops, whose task previously included the assault on the Caucasus and which, after the defeat of the main shock group at Stalingrad, left the positions they had conquered and retreated to the Azov sea ​​for further evacuation to the Crimea.
        Defense (October 1943 - April 1944) and the abandonment (April 14 - May 12, 1944) of Crimea, which took place under the blows of the Red Army from the north-east.
        The retreat of the German and Romanian armies (winter 1943/1944), under the growing pressure from the Soviet troops, carried out in the direction of Donetsk-Dnieper-Southern Bug-Dniester-Prut.
        The battle on the territory of Moldova (from August 20, 1944). After a widespread offensive in the Iasi-Chisinau area, launched by the forces of the 2nd and 3rd Ukrainian Red Army fronts, the Romanian-German units, squeezed by the enemy, were incapable of further resistance.

        In general, the Romanian ground army fought with the Red Army for a long time, lost more than 600.000 soldiers and officers on the territory of the USSR killed, wounded and captured, and in general very, very seriously helped Germany in its efforts to conquer the USSR. The efforts were unsuccessful - but the Romanians tried hard!
        1. smiths xnumx
          smiths xnumx 26 August 2013 14: 12 New
          +5
          By the way, Romanian aviation was also not a “whipping boy” for the Red Army Air Force. Romania put up more than 400 aircraft for the war with the USSR (in total, the Air Force included 672). These are 162 bombers: 36 German Heinkel-111N-3, 36 Italian Savoy-Marchetti SM. 79B, 24 French Potez-633B-2 and 12 Block-210, 40 English Bristol- “Blenheim” Mk I, 24 Polish PZLP.37B “Elk”, 36 Romanian IAR-37. These aircraft, although not the last word of aviation, cannot be called a “museum” in any way: these types or their analogues were in service with the warring countries of Europe in 1939 - 1941 and were in no way inferior to the main Soviet front-line bombers.
          For 116 Romanian fighters, the picture is even more interesting: 40 German Messerschmitts Bf-109E and 28 Heinkel-112, 12 English Hurker Hurricane Mk I, 36 Romanian IAR-80, whose performance characteristics are better than our I-16 and I- 153, and the “Messers" - no worse than the latest MiG-3, Yak-1, LaGG-3. Polish-made fighters PZL.P.11 and PZL.P.24 (120 more) - those, however, are no longer a “fashion cry”, but no more than our I-15s, I-153s and I-16s are outdated rarely participated in battles. Scouts Blenheim, IAR-39, seaplanes Kant Z501 and Savoy SM.55 and 62 are no worse than the R-5, R-10 or MBR-2 and Sh-2 of the eastern enemy.
          The Romanian armored forces on June 22, 1941 consisted of 126 R-2 tanks (Czech LT-35 of a special modification, at that time a very, very decent machine), 35 light R-1 tanks (as part of motorized regiments of cavalry divisions); in addition, there were 48 cannon and 28 machine gun Renault FT-17s in reserve. Plus, in the Romanian armored forces were included 35 Polish Renault R-35 tanks, interned in 1939.
          So, as the reader can be sure, the Romanian army was not at all as helpless and weak as it is sometimes presented in various kinds of “historical” literature!
          The Romanians fought against us until September 1944, constantly holding military contingents of 180.000 - 220.000 bayonets and sabers on the Eastern Front. This was a very significant support for the Wehrmacht, no matter what our marshals and generals later said in their memoirs.
          Yours! hi
          1. smile
            smile 26 August 2013 22: 05 New
            +4
            smiths xnumx
            Thank you very much for such comprehensive information. It is because of comments like yours that I love our (I may say so) website. In defense of our commanders, I’ll say, no one downplayed the merits of the Romanians in the field of struggle for the cause of the father of Hitler. all the same, more than a million soldiers are not a rookery of cockroaches in the system unit ... :)))) actually, I said that .... their fighting efficiency was really inferior to ours, German, Hungarian and Finnish ....
            my grandfather clashed closely with them near Stalingrad and liberated Odessa as part of KMG Pliev and also treated them scornfully-condescendingly, although he admitted that he had to seriously fight and normally fought ...
            I respect you too ...
            1. smiths xnumx
              smiths xnumx 26 August 2013 23: 34 New
              +1
              What was the Romanian army (Armata Romana) by June 22, 1941?
              The states of the Romanian units and formations basically coincided with the German ones, although they were much inferior and close to Soviet in the number and caliber of heavy weapons.
              The Romanian infantry regiment consisted of 3 infantry battalions of 3 infantry companies in the battalion, plus companies of heavy weapons (8 machine guns and 6 60-mm mortars) in each battalion; regimental company of heavy weapons (platoon of 81-mm mortars, platoon of 37-mm. anti-tank guns (6 guns), platoon of 47-mm. anti-tank guns (6 guns)) and reconnaissance company.
              As you can see, the Romanian infantry regiment in the sense of heavy weapons is hardly particularly inferior to the German or Soviet. Romanian infantry armed with Czech rifles ZB arr. 1924 (For comparison, the German infantryman had a Mauser rifle 98K of the sample of 1898. Needless to say, Czech gunsmiths were always famous for their craftsmanship, and even in the 26 years since the advent of the German rifle, the Czechs had time to create something better) using the German 7.92mm standard rifle cartridge. Also, the Orita M 41, 9-mm caliber submachine gun with a 20-round magazine began to arrive for arming. And what is interesting is that in terms of anti-tank guns, the Romanian infantry regiment was stronger than the German. Romanians also had 47 mm in the regiment. anti-tank guns, while the Germans only 37 mm. But the gun is 47-mm times one and a half more powerful.

              Spare regiments armed with Austrian rifles of Manlicher arr. 1895g, also converted to a German cartridge.

              A machine gun was issued for each infantry squad. Usually these were again excellent Czech ZB arr. 1930. The companies of heavy weapons had the Czech ZB-53 arr. 1937or Austrian machine guns Schwarzlose arr. 1907/1912. All under a single German cartridge 7.92mm.

              Thus, to say that the Romanian infantry is very much inferior in Soviet rifle and light artillery armament, to say no.
              1. smiths xnumx
                smiths xnumx 26 August 2013 23: 56 New
                +1
                The Romanian website "Romanian Armed Forces in the Second World War" claims that the Romanian infantry division was twice as weak in artillery as the German one, but almost equal to the Soviet division. At the same time, the Soviet division was smaller than the Romanian division in total. In the royal infantry division, there were 17500 people, and in the rifle division of the Red Army (staff number 04-400 from 5.4 1941) only 14483.

                The Romanian division had 3 infantry regiment, one partially motorized reconnaissance group, one anti-tank company (6 47-mm Schneider guns model 1936), combat engineer battalion and two artillery regiments.

                Already only the foregoing allows us to believe that it is impossible to discount the Romanian infantry and not take it into account. On the whole, the Romanian infantry division can be considered equal in strength to the Soviet infantry division, or even somewhat higher.
                The cavalry units and formations of the Romanian army were also hardly significantly inferior to the Soviet. Of the six cavalry brigades in Romania, three were partially motorized. Those. Of the three cavalry regiments of the brigade, one was transplanted from horses to vehicles.

                The partially motorized cavalry brigade consisted of one motorized cavalry regiment, 2 cavalry regiments, one cavalry artillery regiment (2 battalions of 2 howitzer 75 mm batteries), one motorized mortar squadron 81.4 mm, one motorized anti-tank squadron, one squadron, and one a motorized machine-gun squadron, one motorized sapper squadron, one motorized communications squadron and one mechanized reconnaissance squadron (2 platoons of light R-1 tanks, 3 tanks each, one motorized cavalry platoon, one motorcycle platoon).
                Such a brigade had 204 light machine guns ZB-30, 24 machine guns ZB-53, 20 large-caliber 13.2 mm anti-aircraft machine guns Hotchkiss arr. 1931, 7 60-mm mortars Sample 1935, 12 mortars of caliber 81.4-mm Sample 1927/31, 20 37-mm anti-tank guns Bofors Sample 1936, 16 75-mm field guns Krupp Sample 1904 and 6 tanks R-1 tanks.

                For comparison, the Soviet cavalry division had 64 light tanks, 32 field guns, 16 anti-tank guns, 20 anti-aircraft guns and 64 mortars. Those. quite, albeit with a stretch, one can equate two or three Romanian partially motorized cavalry brigades with one Soviet cavalry division. And certainly the Romanian cavalry corps (the only one in the Romanian army), which included all three partially motorized cavalry brigades, can be equated with the Soviet cavalry division.

                Note for further comparisons: Romanian Cavalry Corps = Soviet Cavalry Division.

                The Romanian mountain troops were essentially elite infantry, better trained and better armed than conventional infantry units. So, if an infantry platoon of heavy weapons had only 3 light machine guns, then the mountain platoon additionally had one 60 mm. mortar. The Romanian site "Romanian Armed Forces in the Second World War" calls the mountain units the elite of the Romanian infantry. True, starting from the level of the regiment, the mountain units and formations were weaker than the infantry in terms of artillery. Having the same number of guns as the infantry, mountain units and formations had mountain guns. which have significantly lower characteristics than usual.
                1. smiths xnumx
                  smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 00: 00 New
                  +1
                  Some examples of weapons of the Romanian army during the war:
                  Rifle Vz. 24 (Czech. Puška vz. 24) - Czechoslovakian shop rifle with a longitudinally sliding rotary bolt.

                  Submachine gun Orita M 41

                  Machine gun Zbrojovka Brno ZB vz.26

                  Machine gun Schwarzlose M / 07
                  1. smiths xnumx
                    smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 00: 10 New
                    +1
                    Machine gun Zbrojovka Brno ZB vz.37

                    The 37 mm Bofors anti-tank gun. 556 guns (formerly Polish) were purchased from Germany.

                    47-mm Italian anti-tank gun "Beler"

                    13, 2 anti-aircraft machine gun Hotchkiss Mle. 1930
                    1. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 00: 31 New
                      +1
                      Artillery of the Romanian army:
                      75 mm French field gun of the 1897 model

                      Light 7b-mm field gun, model 02, modernized by the Romanians in 1936

                      Skoda 100 mm field howitzer, models 14 and 14/19
                      1. smiths xnumx
                        smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 00: 37 New
                        +1
                        Continue: Romanian artillery
                        107 mm field gun of the 1910 model

                        Lightweight 20 mm Flak 38 anti-aircraft gun

                        Light anti-air 25-mm guns of concern "Hotchkiss" (produced in Romania under license

                      2. smiths xnumx
                        smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 00: 45 New
                        +1
                        A little more Romanian artillery and move on to the armored forces
                        20 mm Swedish Oerlikon anti-aircraft gun

                        The 37-mm anti-aircraft gun of the Schneider concern, model 1930, was produced in Romania under a license

                        Heavy 75-mm anti-aircraft gun of the 1932 model (French trophies handed over by the Germans)
                      3. smiths xnumx
                        smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 00: 55 New
                        +1
                        The first tanks of royal Romania, who fought during the First World War on the side of the Entente, received from France in the 20s. These were 76 Renault FTs (48 cannon and 28 machine guns), until the end of the 30s. making up the basis of the Romanian armored parts. In 1936, the re-equipment of the Romanian army with new tanks began. And since at that time Romania was an ally of Czechoslovakia under the so-called Small Treaty, an order for 126 tanks was placed at the Skoda plant.

                        By the summer of 1937 the Romanians wanted to get 15 cars. However, the Skoda company began manufacturing tanks for Romania only on September 1, 1938, and by February 22, 1939 had completed the entire order. These 126 R-2 tanks (Czechoslovak designation S-HA) entered service with the 1st Tank Regiment. In 1940, the 1st Panzer Division Great Romania was formed, which included the 1st Panzer Regiment, four battalions of the 3rd and 4th Rifle Regiments, as well as the 1st Motorized Artillery Regiment.

                        At the beginning of 1939, the 2nd Tank Regiment was formed, equipped with R-35 Renault tanks purchased in France (41 vehicles). In September 1939, 34 R-35s were added to them, from among the internees in Romania after the defeat of Poland. .
                        In 1939, even before the outbreak of World War II, as a result of the partition of Czechoslovakia and the collapse of its army, Romania got two Skoda OA.vz.27 armored vehicles and 12 Tatra OA.vz.30 vehicles, which were distributed between the headquarters buildings for reconnaissance and communications (according to other sources, OAvz.27 had three pieces, and OAvz.30 - nine pieces).

                        Numerous Romanian cavalry, similar to the French, decided to acquire tanks of a special design. Therefore, the Romanian military delegation, who arrived in Czechoslovakia at the end of 1935 to purchase armored weapons, simultaneously discussed two issues: the acquisition of the S-IIA tank for infantry and the “tank” (the Czech name for the light tank with machine guns in the turret) “ČKD- Prague »AN-p / for cavalry. On August 14, 1936, the contract was signed: the Czechoslovak side pledged to supply 35 such “tanks” to Romania.
                        The car received the factory designation AH-IVR (Romanian), in the royal army it was assigned the designation R-1 (Carul de Recunoastere R-1). By the beginning of 1939, tanks of this design arrived in combat units. Organizationally, each of the six Romanian cavalry brigades, converted in March 1942 into divisions, included a motorized cavalry regiment, whose reconnaissance squadron included four R-1s. The rest of the vehicles were either in the cavalry training center (Sibiu), or were attached to the headquarters of reconnaissance and communications units. This organizational structure was maintained until the beginning of 1943.
                      4. smiths xnumx
                        smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 00: 59 New
                        +1
                        In the late 30s. Romanian industry is making attempts to independently launch the production of armored vehicles. A license agreement was signed with France for the production of 300 Renault UE tankettes, called the Malaxa in Romania. The assembly was carried out at the factory of the same name in Bucharest, mainly from domestic nodes. Only the engine and gearbox were sourced from France. With the surrender of the latter, the receipt of engines ceased and in March 1941, after the release of 126 machines, their production was completed. Wedges were used as tractors for the 47 mm Schneider anti-tank guns, 12 vehicles each in an anti-tank company. In total, by the time of the attack on the USSR, the Romanian forces had 178 tankettes, both of their own production and transferred to the Romanians by Germany after defeating France, as well as several interned Polish TCs and TKS. On November 23, 1940, Romania joined the military-political bloc of countries “ Axis ”, and on June 22, 1941, together with German troops invaded the USSR. Romania used all of its tanks on the Eastern Front, with the R-2 and R-35 acting separately, since the slower Renaults could not keep up with the faster R-2s. To “liberate” Bukovina and Bessarabia, which had left the Soviet Union in 1940, the 1st Armored Division was given to the 3rd Romanian Army; The 2nd Armored Regiment acted in conjunction with the second corps of the 4th Romanian Army.

                        The 1st armored division “Greater Romania” crossed the Prut on July 3, 1941, and after heavy battles with units of the Red Army, entered Chisinau on July 15, 1941.

                        Completely the 1st armored division crossed to the left bank of the Dniester on August 5, 1941. It was tasked with it - to strike in the direction of the Black Sea and reach Odessa. For four days of fighting, the 1st Regiment lost 47 V-2s due to military operations, and by August 15, 20 combat-ready vehicles remained in the regiment, and 46 tanks were sent for repair to Romania. After the units of the Red Army left Odessa in October 1941, the Romanian units returned to their places of permanent deployment. The UMP tank workshops in Ploiesti and the Skoda factory in Pilsen took several months to repair damaged cars. But 25 R-2 could not be repaired, and they had to be written off and disassembled for parts.
                      5. smiths xnumx
                        smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 01: 01 New
                        +2
                        In June-July 1942, reinforcements arrived from Pilsen - 26 PzKpfW35 (l). The fully equipped 1st Armored Division (109 R-2 tanks) returned to the front on August 29, 1942. Two months later, the division received 11 PzKpfW IV Ausf.D and 11 PzKptW III Ausf.N. The division again became part of the 3rd Romanian army, covering the left flank of the 6th German army, tearing towards Stalingrad.

                        The main blow of the Red Army, which went on the counterattack and aimed at encircling the Axis forces near Stalingrad, went right through the Romanians. On November 19, 1942, Soviet infantry and tanks attacked the positions of the 3rd Romanian army on a 35-kilometer sector of the front. Parts of the 1st Romanian Panzer Division tried to strike back. But the Romanian R.-2 were completely powerless against the T-34 and KB, and therefore the 1st Armored Division was completely defeated in several battles. An acute shortage of fuel only accelerated the end. Only a few cars managed to escape to the other side of the Chir River. There, the remnants of the 1st Great Roman armored division received six German SdKfz 222 armored vehicles and five SdKfz 223 armored vehicles. At the end of 1942, all that remained of the 1st Armored Division was removed from the front and sent to Romania. The losses were enormous: 81 R-2 tanks (30 were abandoned due to lack of fuel, 24 were lost due to breakdowns, 27 were killed in battle], ten PzKpfW IV and ten PzKpfW III. 40 R-2 tanks that survived the defeat as not having combat value, transferred to the reserve.

                        At the same time, the Main Directorate of Motor Mechanization invited the Romanian Ministry of Arms and Military Industry to import armored vehicles from Germany. In 1943, Romania received 50 PzKpfW 38 (1), 31 PzKpfW IV and four StuG 40 assault guns, and the next year, another 100 PzKpfW IV and 114 StuG 40,

                        Along with the procurement of military equipment, the Ministry’s specialists searched for a quicker solution to the problem by resorting to modernizing existing models, actively using captured Soviet weapons. By June 1944, 34 Soviet T-60 tanks equipped with a 76-mm F-22 model gun of 1936 and 21 Skoda R-2 tanks, the standard armament of which was replaced with a 76-mm ZIS gun, were converted into TASAM self-propelled guns -3 arr. 1942

                        From TASAM T-60 formed the 61st and 62nd companies of self-propelled units, sent to the 1st Panzer Division and the 2nd Tank Regiment. TASAM R-2 cars were sent to the front in late July - early August 1944, but before the National Uprising in Romania (started on August 23, 1944) they did not have time to use them. TASAM T-60 with the transfer of Romania to the camp of the countries of the anti-Hitler coalition were confiscated by the Soviet side; TASAM R-2 was assembled in the 63rd company of self-propelled guns that participated in the liberation of Bucharest, Ploiesti and Northern Transylvania. Ten self-propelled guns were lost, and the remaining vehicles in service in November 1944 were included in the 2nd Armored Regiment, which, interacting with units of the Soviet Army, liberated Slovakia, Austria and Moravia. By the end of the campaign, I had only one machine of this type built in.
                      6. smiths xnumx
                        smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 01: 03 New
                        +1
                        During the first years of the war, the Romanian army captured a lot of Soviet armored vehicles of various modifications. On November 1, 1942, the Romanian army had one KV-1, 33 T-26, three T-38, two T-34, one T-40, two T-27, two T-28, 30 T-60, 36 "Komsomoltsy", 32 BT-7, 9 T-37 and 14 tractors and 103 armored vehicles booked by the Red Army during the defense of Odessa. During the battles in the Kuban and Crimea in 1943, 41 more were added to the trophies, including four MZ “General Lee”, five MZ “General Stewart” and five “Valentines.” Trophy equipment was used by the Romanians, as they say, “to the fullest”, until the machines finally failed or died in battle. Only the T-60 tank base and the Komsomolets tractor were adopted. They were re-equipped with licensed Ford engines produced at one of the Romanian factories. The T-60 was needed as a tracked base for the ACS, and the Komsomolets as a tractor 50- mm German cannon RAC 38. At the beginning of 1944, the 5th and 14th Infantry Divisions had 12 Komsomol members each, the 2nd Armored Regiment had six, and the 5th Cavalry Division - four.
                        In 1943-1944 30 Renault tanks R-35 French production were re-equipped with the Soviet 45-mm tank gun mod. 1932 g. And received the name R35 / 45. Since the end of the 1942 in Romania, the Maresal tank destroyer (Marshal) has been developed in the image and likeness of the German Hetzer.

                        Along with the rearmament program with new equipment, a regular reorganization of units and formations was carried out in order to increase their combat power. During the period from 1943 to 1944, the 8th and 5th cavalry divisions were fully motorized. This was achieved by transferring additional motorized regiments from the 1st and 7th cavalry divisions. However, during the hostilities this did not always help — in August 1944, due to a shortage of materiel, the 5th Cavalry Division had to be reorganized into an infantry division. Thus, in 1943 and until mid-1944, the 1st Cavalry Division remained, indeed, an equestrian division, and the 5th and 8th — motorized cavalry divisions.

                        During the next reorganization in 1943-1944. The 1st Panzer Division “Greater Romania” was armed with a new German-made materiel. Having reappeared at the front in the summer of 1944, it included 90 PzKpfW IV Ausf.H, 16 TACAM T-60, as well as eight Italian reconnaissance armored vehicles AB-41 and five SrJKfz 250 for the division reconnaissance company. Following the German “panzergrenadier” divisions, one of the battalions of the 1st Panzer Division was fully equipped with 40 Sd.Kfz.250 and 27 Sd.Kfz.251 armored personnel carriers. On August 21, 1944, as a result of a counterattack against Soviet troops in the Yass area, the 1st Panzer Division "Great Romania" suffered heavy losses, but its individual units and subunits still fought in the Carpathians, and then participated in the liberation of Transylvania from the German-Hungarian troops on the side of the anti-Hitler coalition.

                        After the transition of Romania to the side of the countries of the anti-Hitler coalition and in accordance with the signed peace treaty, on October 26, 1944, the 1st Panzer and 5th Cavalry Divisions were disbanded. Meeting the requirements of the Soviet Allied Control Commission, a Decree was adopted, according to which the 1st Tank Regiment was disbanded and merged with the 2nd Tank Regiment. In February 1945, the 2nd Tank Regiment, comprising eight PzKpfW IV Ausf.H, eight PzKpfW 38 (t). 40 Renault R-35 and R-35/45 and 23 self-propelled guns, was sent to the front. This part was commanded by Colonel Zatreana. The 2nd Panzer Regiment of the Romanian Army was under the operational command of the Soviet 5th Panzer Corps, and then the 27th Panzer Brigade. Together with these formations, the regiment participated in battles in Western Slovakia. April 3-4, 1945, the regiment supported the 141st infantry division during the capture of Bratislava
                      7. smiths xnumx
                        smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 01: 06 New
                        +2
                        During the fighting against the German-Hungarian troops in October-December 1944, the Regiment captured two Tigers, two Hetzer self-propelled guns, and one Zrinyi self-propelled guns. "Tigers" almost immediately transferred to the Red Army, and self-propelled guns were used in battle. In addition, at the end of 1944 and the beginning of 1945, units of the Red Army transferred a number of PzKpfw IV and SAUStuG 40 tanks to the Romanians. But despite this replenishment of the fleet, heavy losses of the material part led to the reorganization of the Romanian tank regiment into a company operating under operational command 27 tank brigade. At the end of April, the company was returned to Czechoslovakia to support the fighting of the 409th Infantry Division near Muzov. The Romanian tank company held its last battle on May 5, 1945. Near the village of Pasokhlavki, losing two StuG III, one R-2 TACAM, one R35 \ 45 and one PzKpfw IV Ausf.H. as a result of the German counterattack. After that, only six vehicles remained in the company, of which only two were combat-ready.

                        Pz.III Ausf.N of the 1st Romanian Panzer Division in the Stalingrad region. October 1942. On the starboard side we distinguish the German cross and the cross of St. Michael - the machine was transferred to the Romanians from the German tank unit

                        StuG 40 from the 2nd tank regiment of the Romanian army. Czechoslovakia. April 1945. A red star in a white circle is applied on board the car - this emblem has been used on Romanian armored vehicles since October 1944.
                      8. smiths xnumx
                        smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 01: 10 New
                        +2
                        Photos of Romanian armored vehicles

                        Romanian tankettes "Malaxa" captured by the Red Army at Stalingrad. January 1943

                        Romanian tank R-1 in trials. 1939

                        Romanian tank R-1.

                        R-2 tanks at a parade in Bucharest. October 1941
                      9. smiths xnumx
                        smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 01: 15 New
                        +2

                        R-1 captured by units of the Red Army near Odessa. September 1941. The number and three-color cockades are clearly visible on the front and side sheets of the tank hull.


                        Romanian self-propelled guns TACAM R-2.

                        T-26 captured by Romanians with Romanian markings
                      10. smiths xnumx
                        smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 01: 23 New
                        +2
                        R-2 1-th Romanian Panzer Division in the region of Stalingrad. Winter 1942
                      11. Corsair
                        Corsair 27 August 2013 01: 34 New
                        +2
                        Quote: Kuznetsov 1977
                        R-2 1-th Romanian Panzer Division in the region of Stalingrad. Winter 1942
                        Ah, well done!, SUCH work done ... (+)
                      12. smile
                        smile 27 August 2013 01: 54 New
                        +1
                        Corsair
                        Indeed ... it is unfortunate that few could read, the country is sleeping ....

                        smiths xnumx

                        I have a request-Novel-please, when an article appears in the topic, duplicate today's comments ... only at least during the day so that people can read them, especially since there is information for a good article, only dilute them with the practice of combat use, and you can bookmark ... although I will send it anyway .. + a few words of eyewitnesses and, so to speak, "users" of technology and those who opposed them .... sorry that we want too much ... nature is. .. :)))))
                    2. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 01: 51 New
                      +2
                      Well, let's move on to the Romanian Air Force:
                      22th of June 1941
                      Hour 0. Air Force Headquarters issues Combat Order No. 1001: all aviation formations must comply with Operational Directives No. 33, 34 and 35, developed between April-June 1941: reconnaissance and bomber aviation will cross the eastern border of Romania, r. Rod, at 4 o'clock in the morning! All aviation units read the Appeal to the Troops, signed by General Ion Antonescu, the Supreme Commander ("Soldiers, I order to cross the Prut!") And Order No. 1 for the Air Force, signed by the squadron general aviator Gheorghe Gienescu: "Flyers, you have the honor to carry the sky of Romanism, a tricolor cross! The task for today is this: if the crew used up all the ammunition, but could not win the battle, he directs his car to the enemy plane! (This I find it difficult to translate literally, but the meaning is this: if the cartridges are out, and the enemy not shot down - ram the enemy's plane!) Young flyers, the Motherland expects from you complete self-sacrifice ... "

                      GAL completed 12 combat missions: 5 for the bombing, 4 for long-range reconnaissance and 3 for short-range. 124 aircraft were involved (56 bombers, 64 fighters and 4 scouts).

                      At 03.50 a Bristol Blenheim aircraft (tail number 36) departed for long-range reconnaissance. Crew: Crew Commander, Lieutenant Commander Corneliu Batecui, Commander of the 1st Reconnaissance Squadron; junior lieutenant Nikolae Urytu - letnab; and junior military expert Vasile Caruntu - radiotelegraph operator. The aircraft did not carry defensive weapons and did not have fighter cover. He bombed the airfields in Ungheni and Belgorod-Dnestrovsk and discovered and transmitted by radio the coordinates of the airfields in Kulevcha and Bolgrad. In the Bolgrad area, the scout was intercepted by Soviet fighters and shot down. The pilots of this crew were the first losses of the Romanian aviation in the Second World War.

                      In the future, the departures of the bombers, from 03.50 to 13.15, were covered by fighters.

                      The results of the first day of the war: 48 enemy aircraft destroyed (8 in air battles, 3 shot down by anti-aircraft artillery and 37 destroyed on the ground). Own losses: 11 destroyed planes, 37 crew members were killed, injured or missing.

                      Squadron General Aviator Gheorghe Gienescu said later: "Small but determined, our Air Force rushed into the sky, starting a life-and-death battle with the enemy air spike."
                    3. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 01: 55 New
                      +2
                      The fighting in Northern Bukovina and Besarabia (June 22-July 26, 1941)



                      June 22, 1941 units of the Romanian army and the German Wehrmacht were on alert on the eastern border of Romania, on the river. Rod. In the north, in Bukovina, was the 3rd Romanian Army (commander: General Petre Dumitrescu). The following combat mission was entrusted to her: the liberation of Chernivtsi, the development of the offensive towards the Dniester and the Bug, bypassing the enemy group in the direction of Odessa-Crimea.

                      In the east, on the river. Prut, the 11th Wehrmacht Army was located (commander: General R. von Schobert). Objective: to advance in the direction of Chisinau-Tiraspol-Nikolaev, with the support of the forces of the 4th German Air Corps and the 1st Romanian Armored Division. On the same site was the 4th Romanian Army (commander: General Nicolae Chuperque) with the task of advancing southward towards Bolgrad-Belgorod-Dniester-Odessa. The combat air group (GAL) was given the task of supporting the actions of the 4th Romanian Army, mainly in the areas of crossing the river. Rod. The development of the 3rd Romanian Army offensive led to the liberation of Chernivtsi on July 5, 1941. Chisinau was liberated on July 16, 1941. The Soviet forces were pushed out of the river. The Dniester was completed by July 26, 1941, when Romanian troops entered Belgorod-Dniester.

                      But the fighting continued. GAL continued to carry out sorties over the river. Dniester and r. Bug against the retreating enemy.

                      The fiercest battles took place in the area of ​​the bridgehead near N. p. Falciu, area Tsiganka-Stoenesti-Kania, where the Romanian troops tried to gain a foothold on the left bank of the river. Rod. Ground troops from the 5th Romanian Army Corps were supposed to provide the right flank of the front and attack Chisinau in the area of ​​the hilly-forest area of ​​Cornesti. Operation for forcing the river. The Prut, launched on 4 July 1941, was provided with bomber and fighter aircraft from the GAL. By July 12, 1941, the situation of the 5th Romanian Army Corps became critical. The bridgehead near the settlement Falchiu was under threat. The GAL's intervention was quick and effective: 9 bombing missions for 113 aircraft (59 bombers and 54 fighters), between 08.50-19.40. This made it possible to cancel the retreat beyond the river, scheduled for the night of July 12-13. Rod of the 5th Romanian Army Corps. The Romanian pilots showed their best side, performing heroic deeds. So, junior lieutenant aviator Vasile Clara from the 2nd Fighter Flotilla, in an air duel with six enemy aircraft, having used up all the ammunition, rammed an enemy fighter with his IAR-80. The pilot's feat was duly appreciated - he was posthumously awarded the highest award of the Romanian army - the Military Order "Mihai Vityazu". On the same day, July 12, 1941, lieutenant reserve aviator engineer Ioan Lasku died a brave death. He was shot down on He 112 in the Tsiganka area. Returning from a combat mission against ground forces, he refused to be replaced, and on the next sortie he was shot down in an air battle. He was also awarded the Mihai Vityazu Military Order.

                      During the campaign in Bessarabia, Romanian aviation shot down 242 enemy aircraft (83 in air battles, 108 were destroyed on the ground and 51 were shot down by anti-aircraft artillery). 43 vehicles lost their losses (7 in air battles, 13 were destroyed on the ground, 4 were shot down by anti-aircraft artillery and 18 were not installed). Losses in crews - 117 people, of which 46 officers, 25 non-commissioned officers, 9 military specialists and 37 privates. In total, the loss of personnel of the Romanian aviation was as follows: 252 people, of which 57 were killed, 108 wounded and 87 missing.
                    4. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 01: 57 New
                      +2
                      Battle of Odessa



                      The mastery of Odessa was one of the priority tasks of the Romanian army. Odessa was a powerful naval base and posed a constant threat to Romania, as it was 150 km from Sulina and the mouth of the Danube, about 300 km from Constanta and the bridge over the Danube at Cernavod, and 200 km from Bucharest and the Ploiesti oil region Valya Prahovey. The offensive of the 4th Romanian Army against Odessa lasted 70 days, from August 8 to October 16, 1941. In total, in 1941 the Romanian troops fought 118 days. Of the 4th Romanian Army alone, 340223 military personnel (12049 officers, 9845 non-commissioned officers and 318329 soldiers) were involved in the attack on Odessa. Of these, 90000 were lost dead, wounded and missing (officers - 28,5%, non-commissioned officers - 14,6% and soldiers - 28,7%).

                      The operations of the GAL combat aircraft in this operation were impressive: 5594 aircraft were involved; 1733 sorties were completed (163 reconnaissance, 344 bomber, 714 fighter and 512 liaison). 1249 tons of bombs were dropped on the enemy; 151 enemy aircraft were shot down. Its losses amounted to 20 aircraft destroyed.

                      The Soviet landing at Chebanka-Grigoryevka, east of Odessa, on the night of September 21-22, 1941, posed a real threat to the Romanian troops. The 5th Romanian Army Corps and the 13th Infantry Division were forced to retreat. GAL for ten hours (07.55-18.10) deployed 94 aircraft (32 bombers and 62 fighters), of which 71 operated directly in the landing zone. N.p. Dalnik, east of Odessa, on the night of October 1, 2, Soviet troops managed to encircle units of the 1941th Romanian Army, whose position became critical. And only the active intervention of GAL aviation (4-40 aircraft were involved daily) saved the situation, and even then, only by October 60.

                      During the offensive operation on Odessa, on August 21, 1941, near the settlement of Vasilievskaya, the commander of the 7th Fighter Group, captain-commander (posthumously) Alexandru Popishtyanu, holder of the Mihai Vityazu order was killed in an air battle.

                      On October 16, 1941, Romanian troops entered Odessa, and thus the 1941 campaign was almost over. Parts of the GAL have returned to their homeland to make up for losses. In the combat zone remained various aviation units subordinate to the 3rd Romanian Army, as well as military units located in Tiraspol, Nikolaev and Odessa. The result of the GAL’s activities in the 1941 campaign was impressive: 7857 aircraft flew out on missions; 2405 sorties were completed; 266 enemy aircraft were destroyed; 1974,86 tons of bombs were dropped. Its losses amounted to 40 aircraft.
                    5. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 00 New
                      +2
                      Restoration of aviation units. Air Force Equipment Plan for the 1942-1943 Campaign



                      Restoration of aviation units in the winter of 1941-1942. It was a difficult and complex process, which involved the psychological and physical recovery of crews, repair of equipment, replenishment of losses and replacement of equipment. For 1942-1943 A plan was adopted to equip the Air Force through the import of equipment from Germany and the local aviation industry. A large role was given to the IAR Brasov factory, which covered 50% of the Air Force's requests (IAR-80, 81, 37, 38, 39 aircraft, aircraft engines and other equipment) and was one of the largest aircraft plants in Southeast Europe (about 5000 workers )

                      He also provided for the creation of the required number of anti-aircraft batteries for:

                      a) air defense of the country,

                      b) air defense of ground units at the front,

                      c) support for aviation units.

                      This plan was only partially implemented, the rapid development of events did not allow suppliers to fulfill their obligations.

                      At the beginning of 1942 on the Eastern Front there were only units, aviation and anti-aircraft, subordinated to the 3rd and 4th Romanian Armies, since the enemy air units were not active.
                    6. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 01 New
                      +1
                      Romanian aviation on the Stalingrad front and at the bend of the Don (1942)



                      By September 16, 1942 at the bend of the Don were the following units of the Romanian Air Force:

                      1) GAL (commander: squadron general aviator Yermil Georgiu) with 17 squadrons (2 - reconnaissance, 4 - heavy bombers, 3 - light bombers, 6 - fighter, 2 - fighter-bomber / assault);

                      2) Air Force of the 3rd Army with 3 reconnaissance squadrons and an anti-aircraft artillery regiment (8 batteries: 2 - 75mm, 5 - 37mm and 1 - 13,2mm);

                      3) 4th Army Air Force with 3 reconnaissance squadrons and anti-aircraft artillery grouping (6 batteries: 2 - 75mm, 3 - 37mm and 1 - 13,2mm);

                      4) 4th Air Defense Brigade with 21 batteries (8 - 75mm, 11 - 37mm, 1 - 13,2mm and 1 - radar); and

                      5) Advanced Aviation Zone with 2 regional technical bases, 5 mobile workshops, 1 ambulance transport aircraft, 1 air transport group and 3 motor transport columns.

                      The aviation units subordinated in the operational plan to the 4th German Air Fleet were located at two base airfields, Tatsinskaya and Morozovskaya, located between the Don and the Donets and four advanced airfields, Karpovka, Shutov, Bukovskaya, Pereyaslovsky. The actions of the Romanian aviation were aimed at supporting the 6th German Army in the region of Stalingrad and the 3rd Romanian Army at the bend of the Don. In the battle of Stalingrad, Romanian fighter aircraft escorted German bomber aircraft during all of its flights. Basically, bombs were dropped on the northern part of the city, on fuel and lubricant depots and railway tracks. At the same time, Romanian aviation operates in the northern direction of the offensive of the 6th German Army in the Kotluban region. She bombed clusters of infantry, armored and convoys, railway tracks and buildings at the stations of Kotluban, Katlinino, Ilovinskaya and Frolov. In September-October 1942 alone, 46 enemy aircraft were declared downed in air battles (38 were confirmed). Until November 19, 1942, the Romanian reconnaissance aircraft informed the command about the accumulation of enemy troops in the Klettskaya and Serafimovichi sectors and at the Chebotarev bridgehead, immediately in front of the positions of the 3rd Romanian Army.

                      The Soviet counterattack on November 19-25, 1942 in the zone of the 3rd Romanian Army forced it to retreat and in March 1944 reached the north-eastern borders of Romania. The 6th German Army was surrounded and capitulated in Stalingrad, as well as most of the Romanian ground units at the bend of the Don. Due to adverse weather conditions, the actions of the Romanian and German aircraft were very limited.

                      The surrounded group of General Michael Laskar was supplied with aviation as far as possible. On the morning of November 22, Captain Valentin Stanescu circled the encircled troops on the Fieseler Storch and landed at the village of Golovsky, which was the headquarters of the 6th Romanian Infantry Division. He brought to General Petra Dumitrescu, commander of the 3rd Romanian Army, the last message of the encircled, signed by generals Laskar, Mazarin and Sian:

                      "1. The situation is very difficult. This morning (22.XI) a very powerful tank attack began, with the support of Katyusha on the left of sector D.5I, on the right of sector D.6I and on the left of sector D.15I. The ring is shrinking every hour.

                      2. Only 40 artillery shells remained. Most mortar mines are used up. The infantry has very few rounds. Anti-tank artillery of all calibres is ineffective against enemy tanks. Infantry dies under the tracks of tanks.

                      3. A very large number of injured, but very few medicines.

                      4. We can hold out at most until tomorrow. The people did not eat for three days. A breakthrough in the direction of Chernyshevskaya is planned on the night from 22 November to 23 November. "

                      The 7th YAG located at the Karpovka airfield on November 22 and 23 was forced to repel enemy attacks and evacuate to the West, to the Morozovskaya airfield, using guns from Bf.109G aircraft.
                    7. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 04 New
                      +1
                      1st Romanian Royal Air Corps



                      In the period April-June 1943, at the Kirovograd airfield, with the support of the Luftwaffe, the 1st Romanian Royal Air Corps was created. The German side provided aircraft for all types of aviation (fighter, bomber, assault, reconnaissance), which were bought by the Romanians; training of crews and ground personnel; provision (repair, fuels and lubricants, etc.). Operationally, the Corps was subordinate to the 4th German Air Force. On June 16, 1943, the 1st Romanian Royal Air Corps (commander: Squadron General Aviator Emanoil Ionescu, nicknamed "Pipitsu") entered the battle. He conducted both independent operations and in support of the Romanian-German troops operating on the Eastern Front, in the areas of Mius-Izyum-Donets, the bend of the Dnieper-Dnieper, Bessarabia, Moldova, covering their retreat to the West.

                      On June 15, 1943, the combat component of the 1st Romanian Royal Air Corps included: 1 reconnaissance squadron with 12 Ju.88D-1 aircraft; 1 fighter air group (3 squadrons) with 40 Bf.109G aircraft; 1 heavy bomber air group (3 squadrons) with 25 aircraft (12 less than the statewide requirement) Ju.88A; 1 air group of dive bombers (3 squadrons) with 29 aircraft (12 less than the statewide allowance) Ju.87; 1 transport squadron with 4 Ju.52 aircraft; 1 liaison squadron with 10 Fieseler Fleet and IAR-38 aircraft; 1 anti-aircraft artillery regiment (3 divisions) with 78 anti-aircraft guns to provide air defense for airfields. In August 1943, the 8th Assault Air Group (3 squadrons) with 34 Hs.129 aircraft arrived at the front. Thus, in the 1st Romanian Royal Air Corps, there were 140 combat and 14 auxiliary aircraft, and 78 anti-aircraft guns.

                      Intensive use of equipment (5-6 and even 8 sorties / day / attack aircraft and 4-6 sorties / day / fighter) from the very first months of fighting led to heavy wear of equipment (less than 52% of combat-ready aircraft). For the period 16.06.43-16.06.44, fighter aircraft had the largest number of days with sorties (256) and sorties (6006); the next was attack aircraft (185, 3869), dive bombers (160, 3644), and heavy bombers (161, 2579). Heavy bombers dropped 3742,5 tons of bombs on the enemy.

                      According to archival data, the fighter aircraft of the 1st Romanian Royal Air Corps for this period won 299 confirmed air victories with the loss of 109 of its aircraft (all types). In total, the Air Force won 401 victories, of which: 62 anti-aircraft artillery, 13 heavy bombers, 12 dive bombers, etc. The largest casualties were among attack aircraft - 40, the next were fighters - 25, heavy bombers - 21, dive bombers - 15 and scouts - 7. (I know that the sum of these numbers is not 109, but so in my source) Of the total losses 86 were combat and 23 were lost in various accidents. Another 391 aircraft of the 1st Romanian Royal Air Corps were damaged in various accidents, but had to be repaired in the field or factory. Thus, 500 aircraft were disabled.

                      Human losses for the above mentioned period amounted to 84 people. The greatest losses were among officers (pilots) and non-commissioned officers (pilots) in bomber (12; 4) and assault (4; 9) aircraft ...

                      The large losses of aviation are explained by the complexity of the tasks performed (low altitude, density of anti-aircraft fire, etc.) and the numerical superiority of the enemy (1: 3, and even 1: 5 for fighter aircraft).

                      In 1944, the 1st Romanian Royal Air Corps was deployed in the south of Bessarabia and in Moldova. In March 1944, the eastern and north-eastern part of Romania again became a theater of operations. Until August 20, 1944, the front stabilized at the line of the Carpathians-Pashkans (or rather Pashkan) -Iasi-Chisinau.
                    8. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 06 New
                      0
                      In the period April-August 1944, the following events occurred: the retreat of German-Romanian troops from Crimea and the US-English bombing of Romanian territory, in particular the Ploiesti-Prahova oil region.
                      Evacuation of German-Romanian troops from Crimea
                      The evacuation of the German-Romanian troops from Crimea was carried out in two stages, and each time only with the personal permission of Hitler, who did not want to cede Crimea, adhering to the geopolitical principle: "Whoever owns Crimea controls the Black Sea."

                      On April 9, 1944, from the Romanian troops in the Crimea were: 65083 people (2433 officers, 2423 non-commissioned officers and 60227 privates); 27472 horses; 7650 carts; 1811 motor vehicles, including motorcycles; 206 guns; 293 anti-tank guns; 12 tanks and others

                      The results of the first phase of the evacuation of German-Romanian troops from the Crimea (April 14-27, 1944): 72358 people were evacuated by sea, 25 convoys escorted warships and partially by aircraft. Of the total number of evacuated, only 20779 were Romanians, of whom 2296 were wounded. By air, Romanian and German military transport aircraft, 6365 people were evacuated, of which 1199 Romanians (384 wounded).

                      The second phase of evacuation (May 9-12, 1944) took place with heavy losses, since naval convoys, deprived of air cover, were constantly subjected to attacks by Soviet aircraft. Losses amounted to: 9 sunken and 5 damaged ships, and about 9000 people killed, of which 3000 Romanians.
                    9. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 07 New
                      0
                      Against the Germans



                      On August 23, 1944, a revolution took place in Bucharest and King Mihai officially announced the start of a war with Germany and its allies.

                      This development of events was a complete surprise to both Romanian and German pilots. The seizure of aircraft and property of the Luftwaffe began. The Romanians got only 228 aircraft, but most of the airborne vehicles were transferred to the new allies - the Red Army Air Force. Here is what the famous Soviet ace Skomorokhov recalled about this: "... German planes - Me-109 and FV-190 were captured at Romanian airfields. We were given the opportunity to fly them, better study their strengths and weaknesses. And we immediately took advantage of this. We quickly got used to the booth equipment of captured equipment and began to try it in flight. Then we conducted a series of training air battles: "Messers" and "Fokkers" against "Bench". We managed to identify many interesting features in enemy vehicles, which later invaluable benefit ".

                      The cars that escaped confiscation received the identification marks of the new Romanian Air Force - red-yellow-blue cockades.

                      The first combat flight of the Romanian Air Force was an attack by a pair of IAR-81C small posts in Thundery. As a German officer captured later claimed, after a raid of 80 garrison soldiers, only 27 remained alive.

                      Almost immediately, the Germans began to bombard Bucharest. The fighters of the 7th and 9th fighter groups, which were transferred to the Popesti - Leordeni airfield, were raised to defend the capital. They did not have to be bored. So, already on August 25, Captain Cantacuzino (the best Romanian ace of the Second World War) led a six Bf-109G to intercept 11 He-111 heading for the city. The bombers went without cover, and as a result, the Luftwaffe lost six cars (three cars were shot down and three more were damaged). On the way back, the Romanian pilots found the Ju.87 group, which was also marching without cover. It was not a sin to take advantage of this, and soon one "piece" was already burning down on the ground. Only a small amount of fuel and ammunition left by the attackers saved the "laptezhniki" from complete defeat. The next day, the Messers shot down three more German aircraft and destroyed two Ju-52s on the ground.

                      In total, until August 31, only the 9th IAG completed 41 sorties. The pilots scored 7 confirmed victories, three more were recorded as presumptive and two were destroyed on the ground. After the "battle for the capital", the 7th IAG was disbanded (due to the presence of literally several airworthy vehicles) and joined the 9th IAG (Captain Lucian Toma was appointed as the new commander).

                      On September 1, the creation of the 1st Romanian air corps (Corpul 1 Aerian Roman) was announced to support the Soviet offensive in Transylvania and Slovakia. Almost all of the available cars were transferred to air bases in southern Transylvania. New conditions dictated and new rules - a radical reorganization of the air forces took place.
                    10. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 09 New
                      0
                      And at the beginning of September, the Corps was:



                      Fighter Command



                      2nd Fighter Group (YAG): 65th and 66th Fighter Squadrons (IAE) (IAR-81C)

                      6th YAG: 59th, 61st and 62nd IAE (IAR-81C)

                      9th YAG: 47th, 48th and 56th IAE (Bf-109G)



                      Bomber Command



                      3rd Group of dive bombers: 74th and 81st squadron of dive bombers (Ju-87D5)

                      5th Bomber Group: 77th and 78th Bomber Squadrons (Ju-88A4)

                      8th assault group: 41st and 42nd assault squadrons (Hs-129B2)



                      11th and 12th reconnaissance squadrons (IAR-39)

                      2nd Long Range Reconnaissance Squadron (Ju-88D1)

                      transport squadron (Ju-52 and IAR-39, DFS-230 glider towers)



                      A total of 210 aircraft, half of which are German-made, which created simply enormous difficulties in operation.



                      On September 20, the following units were added to the group:

                      44th IAE (IAR-80B, IAR-81A and Bf-109G)

                      85th air diving bombers (Ju-87D5)

                      60th Assault Air Force (Hs-129B2)

                      14th and 15th Reconnaissance Aero (IAR-39)
                      Transylvania



                      In Transylvania, IAR-81Cs were the first to appear, which on September 7 were relocated to the Tournizor airfield. Two days later, the pilots performed their first combat mission. The most unpleasant surprise of the first day of combat for the pilots was the fact of shelling by Soviet anti-aircraft gunners, which damaged one plane. The anti-aircraft gunners who had had time to study well the silhouettes of "Henschels" and other German-made aircraft opened fire without bothering themselves with the study of identification marks. Most could not even imagine that the Hs-129 or Ju-87 could fight on the side of the Red Army.

                      The Hs-129B-2 flight to the German position in the Turda area near Koloshvar on September 14, 1944 ended even more tragically. Two Romanian aircraft shot down German Bf.109 from the 52nd fighter squadron and two Soviet anti-aircraft artillery. However, the most severe was the loss of flight personnel - one pilot was killed, and another was seriously injured in the hospital.
                      On the same day, after the attack on the airfield in Someseni, the pilots of the IAR recorded one Gotha transport glider destroyed on the ground. On September 15, the Messerschmitts also "visited" the same airfield (not far from Cluj). The pilots came from the north (from where they were not expected) and, as at the range, they shot all the equipment that was on the runway. Among the destroyed were Re-2000, Fw-58 and three transport gliders of the Hungarian Air Force.

                      On September 16, the IAR pilots first encountered German fighters. During the cover of the He-111H group, the six IAR-81Cs were attacked by a pair of Bf-109Gs. Romanian fighters by that time were morally and physically outdated, and therefore the Messers, despite the enemy's numerical advantage, shot down one plane - adjutant Iosif Ciuhulescu (adj. Av. Iosif Ciuhulescu). On the same day, during a similar flight, one bomber was shot down and one fighter was damaged.

                    11. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 13 New
                      0
                      September 18 was marked by the first battle of the Romanian "Messers" with their German counterparts. The score was in favor of the latter - one Romanian fighter was shot down, and the pilot of the second made an emergency landing. After that, the Messers were transferred mainly to escort attack aircraft and bombers.
                      On September 25, the Aviation Corps immediately lost 4 aircraft and 3 pilots (all IAR-81C). Four days later, another plane was lost (and again the pilot died). So in a short time, the 2nd fighter group lost 12 aircraft and 8 pilots killed and two wounded. Such catastrophic losses (such a level was not even near Stalingrad in 1942!) Led to a complete decline in morality. The pilots began to actively express dissatisfaction, and ultimately the old IARs were transferred to the assault work.

                      But the "Messers" distinguished themselves - Captain Tom shot down a Ju-188, but he himself was forced to land in the field (the arrows of the German bomber tried). Captain Constantin Cantacuzino again took command of the group. In total, Romanian Bf 109s made 314 sorties in September.

                      In October and November the weather was very bad and the number of flights was minimal. In early November, the remaining IAR-81Cs were transferred to the Turkeve airfield in Hungary. However, the Romanians managed to make their first sortie only on the 17th. The task was to attack the German column, very little is known about the results, only Lieutenant Gheorghe Mociornita (Lt. av. Gheorghe Mociornita) recorded himself a destroyed truck (apparently, this was the only loss of the enemy). Five days later, the same pilot was able to destroy two more trucks, and adjutant Mihai Momarla (adj. Av. Mihai Momarla) destroyed the anti-aircraft battery. However, the losses were also large enough: three aircraft were damaged during such attacks (two aircraft were able to make emergency landings in "friendly" territory). These were some of the last flights in Transylvania, in December the group was transferred to the Miskolc airfield.

                      On November 17, a lone Ju-87D flew off to attack the enemy’s positions south of Budapest (by the way, it’s completely unclear why one). Naturally, German fighters attacked him. The damage was very large, and the Adjutan pilot Nicole Shtan (adj. Sef av. Nicolae Stan) was seriously injured (it is strange that there is no information about the gunner). Fortunately, Romanian fighter jets appeared in the area and the Germans threw a bomber, considering it shot down.

                      However, despite the unfavorable development of events, Nicolae was still alive and after two unsuccessful attempts, he was able to land on the Soviet airfield. He only had the strength to open the lantern. The pilot was immediately sent to a field hospital, where he met the end of the war.

                      The fighting in Transylvania continued until October 25, when the Romanian troops reached the modern Hungarian border. For seven weeks of fighting, Romanian aircraft suffered heavy losses.
                    12. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 15 New
                      0
                      Slovakia



                      The first combat missions over Czechoslovakia, Romanian aviation performed as part of the 5th Air Army of the Red Army Air Force. Attack aircraft worked in the interests of the 27th and 40th Soviet combined arms armies. In the second half of December, when the fighting moved to Slovakia, there were 161 combat aircraft in the Romanian aviation corps. Actually, the number of aircraft suitable for flight was much smaller: due to the lack of spare parts, the combat readiness did not exceed 30-40%. The largest group that the Romanians sent to combat missions was six, but more often they flew fours. The critical situation with spare parts for German-made equipment forced us to cannibalize several serviceable aircraft. Several serviceable and damaged captured aircraft were handed over to the Romanians by the Soviet command.

                      Despite all the efforts of the Romanian pilots, they were unable to satisfy the requirements of the Soviet command that were far from reality. Two or three sorties a day to attack the positions of the German-Hungarian troops seemed an overwhelming task. Nevertheless, the constant strikes that the Henschels and Junkers inflicted on fortified defense points, railway stations, and reconnaissance brought tangible benefits to the Red Army troops. The importance of the actions of the Romanian pilots was repeatedly noted with thanks in the orders, some pilots received Soviet military orders and medals.

                      On December 19, ten Hs-129B attacked the Rimavsk Sobot railway station in two waves, and then attacked a convoy of German troops on the highway leading from the city. According to the pilots' reports, one train was burned at the station, and four trucks were destroyed on the highway. Most likely, this was the first combat flight of the Romanian aviation over Slovakia.

                      The first losses came with the first success. Already on the same day (December 19), five Romanian Henschels were intercepted by eight German Bf 109s, one attack aircraft was hit. The slightly injured pilot managed to make an emergency landing in the Miskolc area, during which the plane received minor damage.

                      On December 20, Romanian planes again appeared over the Rimavsk Sobot station, they attacked the columns of German troops retreating to the west. Another object of the raid on this day was the Filakovo railway station and the bridge located near it. On December 21, units of the 27th and 40th Soviet combined arms armies struck in a general direction at Lucenec. With the improvement of weather conditions, aviation activity grew. 19 aircraft from the Grupul 8 Asalt / Picaj attacked targets located in southern Slovakia and reappeared above the Filakovo station. On December 22, three Henschels attacked a convoy of troops on the street of Zelen. First, the aircraft dropped bombs, and then - fired at the convoy with cannon and machine gun fire.
                    13. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 17 New
                      0
                      The commander of the 27th Combined Arms Army, Colonel-General Trofimenko, expressed gratitude in the order to the Romanian pilots for their actions in the period from 20 to 22 December 1944. Romanian aviation continued to carry out combat missions on 23 December. The Henscheli bombed a convoy of German troops numbering 150 vehicles near the village of Kälna. 15 cars were set on fire. On the same day, Filakovo station was subjected to another raid. On the same day, while escorting several Ju-87Ds, German pilots from JG.52 intercepted a lone Messer in whose cockpit Adj. av. Ioan Marinciu. At first he fought with two opponents, but soon there were already four of them. It is clear that he had very little chance of survival. The Romanian's plane was practically wounded, the pilot was wounded in the face, arms and legs. But despite the huge blood loss, he was able to emergency land his Bf-109G6 near Zelok. Thanks to the Soviet soldiers, the pilot was immediately sent to a field hospital and survived. By the way, an interesting detail - to this day Ioann is sure that Erich Hartmann shot him down.

                      On December 24, only one attack aircraft remained in the Henschel group, so only Ju-87 dive bombers flew on combat missions. Moreover, upon their return, three "pieces" were intercepted by four "Messers". The German pilots mistook them for their own and, waving their wings, to the delight of the Romanian pilots, retired.

                      On Catholic Christmas Day, December 25, the Romanian Air Force suffered another loss. Three IARs of the 2nd fighter group flew into armed intelligence in the Lutsenek region. After they attacked ground units, a pair of Bf-109G took off to intercept them. The battle could not be avoided in the battle of Adj. av. Dumitru Niculescu died, and adj. av. Nicolae Pelin made an emergency landing.

                      The first day of the last year of World War II turned out to be cloudy. Thanks to bad weather, the pilots and technicians of both opposing sides were able to calmly celebrate the New Year. On January 2, it froze, the fog cleared, and the war came into its own again. Romanian "Hensheli" that day stormed convoys on the roads near the Tomaszów railway station and on the Lucinec-Poltar highway. The 41st Squadron continued active hostilities on January 3 and 5, 1945. The targets of the Hs-129 attacks with Romanian cockades on the wings and fuselages were the Kalnya and Luchinets railway stations, and the retreating columns of German troops in the Tomashovets, Breznichki, Poltar regions. On January 5, the plane of the adjutant Konstinu Bogian was hit by an anti-aircraft shell, but the pilot was able to bring the damaged car home to the Miskolc airfield. In all sorties, attack aircraft covered Bf. 109G from Grupul 9 Vinatoare (9th Fighter Group). There was practically no German aviation in the air, so the Romanian Messerschmitts joined the attack aircraft and attacked ground targets. For three days in January, the Romanian aviation made 107 sorties and dropped 36 tons of bombs.

                      On January 12, 8 IAR-81s were transferred to Debrecen to strengthen the city's air defense, although the benefits from them were minimal. However, they distinguished themselves once: on February 9, a pair of such "fighters" intercepted Hs.129, whose pilot was trying to desert to the German side. It is clear that the attack aircraft simply did not have a chance. The reality of the war was such that all three pilots knew each other very well, since during the Eastern campaign they served in the same unit!
                    14. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 19 New
                      0
                      The next day (that is, January 13), the commander of the 74th dive-bombers squadron lt. av. Badulescu led 7 Ju-87D5s to Budapest. The target was the Elisabeth Bridge - the main transport artery connecting Buda and Pest and therefore well covered by air defense. Soviet bombers made several attempts to destroy it and now it was the turn of the new allies. Having gained an altitude of 4000 meters, when approaching the city, they received cover - Yaki. The bridge was attacked by Romanian and Soviet pilots from a dive. The strike was successful - four bombs hit the bridge, and the loss was only one plane, the pilot of which was able to land the car at the nearest airfield. However, the bridge continued to function and the four remaining Ju-88A-4s were raised to bomb it. They were led by lt. av. Gheorghe Georgescu (very experienced pilot - 200 sorties throughout the war). Even before approaching the target one "Junkers" turned home - a worn out engine failed. Therefore, the bridge was attacked by only three aircraft from a height of 5000 meters. From a height of 1500 meters, they dropped their deadly cargo and at least two 250-kg bombs hit the bridge. Despite heavy antiaircraft fire, all the vehicles returned home.

                      January 19 began the traditional winter offensive of the Soviet troops. The blow was delivered from the boundary of the western and northern spurs of the Carpathians in the direction of the Vistula and Oder rivers. The right flank of the 2nd Ukrainian Front also took part in the winter offensive operation. The troops of the 2nd Ukrainian attacked on the territory of Czechoslovakia. On the first day of the operation, the activity of aviation was restrained by low cloud cover and blizzard.

                      The next day, the weather improved, the command of the 1st Romanian Air Corps threw into battle all airworthy aircraft. "Hensheli" and "Junkers" of the Romanian Air Force worked directly on the battlefield and struck at the enemy's close rear. At about 16:00, several Ju.87s set off to attack the Banske Bystrich railway station. When approaching the target, the pilot of one car (adjutant Ion Radu), board. No. 2, was forced to land emergency due to engine stop. Unfortunately, this happened on the other side of the front. A Fieseler Fi.156C was sent to help the crew, but it got stuck in deep snow. Then the Romanian command sent Fleet F.10G (it is not clear what caused this decision - after all, the plane is a two-seater !!), but there was no one at the landing site. German mountain riflemen captured Ion Radu, his gunner - Sergeant Constantin Peridzhesku and pilot "fizler" - reserve lieutenant Emil Mog. But this was not known and the pilots were recorded as missing. In fact, they were taken to Banska Bystrica. But after the retreat on March 23, the Germans simply forgot them ... The Romanians stayed without food and water for three days, until the Red Army entered the city. But their adventures did not end there. The pilots were in German flight uniforms, without documents, and the SMERSH officers "just in case" arrested them. The investigation dragged on for a long time and only on June 12, 1945, they returned to their homeland.

                      It is interesting that the damaged "piece" was sent to the nearest aircraft repair shop, but did not have time to be repaired.

                      During the day, the Henscheli twice attacked the positions of German heavy artillery near Tomashevets and the Lovinobania railway station. The strongest explosion testified that the bombs dropped from the Hs-129 hit the train with ammunition. According to Romanian data, nine attack aircraft were in the air for 10 hours 40 minutes and dropped 2700 kg of bombs on the enemy. However, only seven cars returned home. Two sub-cotenants, Alexandru Nicolai and Constantin Dumitru, have been reported missing. The exact cause of the death of the pilots (the fire of the German anti-aircraft artillery or the attack of fighters) remained unknown.
                    15. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 21 New
                      0
                      On February 14, the air war became even more fierce. Five Hs-129s destroyed four trucks and several carts in the vicinity of Podrichan. Then "Hensheli" together with Ju-87 dive bombers attacked the Lovinobania railway station. This day was also not without losses: one Henschel crashed in Miskolc during a fly-over after repairing engines, pilot adjutant Vasile Skripcar died. The violinist was known in Romania not only as a pilot, but also as a talented reporter and artist.
                      On January 15, the first goal of the offensive operation was achieved - Soviet troops liberated Lucinets. During the offensive, Romanian aviation carried out 510 sorties, flying 610 hours and dropping about 200 tons of bombs. The pilots bombed nine combined trains, three fuel trains, three important bridges and a large number of pieces of equipment. The reports of the Romanian pilots were reflected in the operational reports of the command of the Soviet 27th combined arms and 5th air armies.

                      After several days of respite, the Romanian aviation resumed combat work, now combat missions were carried out to the area of ​​the city of Roznava. Soviet troops entered Roznava on the night of January 22, a garrison of 1700 Hungarian and German soldiers surrendered. The weather did not allow the use of aviation until 15 February. The Romanians used three weeks of "vacation" to relocate from Miskolc to Luchinets, closer to the front. On February 15, the commander of the 41st squadron, Lazar Munteatnu, performed two weather reconnaissance flights (on Hs-129 with hull numbers 336 and 331). Later that day, 26 planes struck the railway stations Zvolen, Brezhno and Hayanachka, dropping 8 tons of bombs. Adjutant Stefan Pushkach destroyed a locomotive and four carriages with cannon fire. His "Henschel" was damaged by anti-aircraft fire, but Pushkach held out on the Luchinets airfield, after landing in an attack aircraft, they counted 14 holes. In total, during the war, Pushkach five had to make forced landings, and once behind the front line, while the pilot was lucky every time! After the war, Pushkach remained in socialist Romania, and made an excellent political career.

                      The next day, Hs-129 attack aircraft and Ju-87 dive bombers attacked the railway stations of Kremnica, Khronska Breznitsa and Hayanachka. The Soviet command gave the order for the 40th combined arms and the 4th Romanian armies to go on the offensive and by decisive actions to push the German troops to the eastern bank of the Hron river, the date of the start of the operation was set on February 24. At 19.00 on February 20, the commander of the 1th Air Army, General Ermachenko, and the chief of staff of the 5th Army, General Sharapov, arrived at the command post of the 40st Romanian Air Corps. The generals discussed with the Romanian officers a plan of upcoming actions. On the morning of February 21, the guidance officers of the 1st Air Corps of the Romanian Air Force moved to forward observation posts to study the terrain in detail and prepare the data necessary for planning air strikes. In his speech to the Romanian pilots, the technicians, the Soviet general, in particular, said an interesting phrase: "... we hope that our Romanian comrades will not let us down."
                    16. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 25 New
                      0
                      Direct air support for the advancing troops was assigned exclusively to the Romanian Air Force. Bad weather postponed the start of combat aviation by one day. On February 25, the sky cleared of clouds, the planes were able to take off. This day is marked in the history of the Romanian Air Force with unusually high activity, victories and losses. In 148 sorties, Romanian pilots dropped 35 tons of bombs on German positions in the Ochova-Detva-Zvolesnka Slatina triangle. The pilots reported three destroyed half-track armored vehicles, one self-propelled artillery installation, two cars, five horse-drawn carts and eight machine-gun nests, and many enemy soldiers and officers killed. When attacking ground targets, the Henschel of adjutant Viktor Dumbrav received a direct hit from an anti-aircraft gun projectile, the pilot hardly pulled over the front line and flopped into an emergency landing near Detva.

                      The 25th was a busy one for fighters too. On the fifth sortie that day, Captain Cantacuzino and his wingman adj. Traian Dвrjan. Above the front line, they found eight Fw-190Fs storming the Soviet troops. Without hesitation, they rushed into battle, and one by one. It was not difficult for Cantacuzino to shoot down one attack aircraft, but the carelessness of the Romanians was taken advantage of by a link of "Messers" from I./JG 53. The squadron commander, Hauptmann Helmut Lipfert, shot down Trajan, and the rest took up the captain. Drayan apparently died in the air (the irony of fate lies in the fact that it was Lipfert who "put Trajan on the wing" - he was his instructor during the squadron basing at the Tiraspol airfield). Cantacuzino fell near the Romanian positions and the next day returned by car to his airfield. He told about what had happened, but he did not actually see the shooting down of his wingman and stated: "Trajan must be shot down."

                      The second victory of the day (and the last in the Second World War) was won by Romanian fighters during the battle with the Bf-109K. Its author was adj. Constantin Nicoara. Not a single aircraft was lost, but two were damaged.

                      The intensity of the Romanian air strikes decreased slightly the next day. By evening it started raining, and visibility dropped to 100 meters. In the last days of February, the air temperature was +4 degrees, constant rains and melting snow turned the airfields into a sea of ​​water and mud, aviation could not operate until March 4. Combat missions resumed on 4 March. Grupul 8 Asalt / Picaj planes took to the air eight times (15 sorties). The targets of the Henschel strikes were the positions of the Germans in the Zvolen-Lishkovets-Zholna triangle. The Junkers were operating in the same area and suffered a loss. In the Ivanka area at 20:45 (Moscow time) Lieutenant Sereda from the 178th IAP shot down a "piece" that, according to his report, was German. In reality, he shot down a Romanian plane, fortunately, the crew managed to use parachutes.

                      On March 5, eight Hs-129 appeared on Leshkovitsy three times, completing the work of the previous day.

                      On March 6, the target of the raids was the railway station Zvolen, columns of troops, artillery positions 2 km from Zvolen. The German artillery batteries of the Romanians finally suppressed on March 7 with two air raids from Grupul 8 Asalt / Picaj ("Henscheli" flew on combat missions in triplets that day). In the third raid, three Hs-129s destroyed a convoy on a street in the village of Slach.

                      The morning of March 8 for Romanian pilots began with the ringing of faceted glasses raised in honor of International Women's Day, in which a clear liquid with a pungent odor was poured. The holiday did not last long, a few minutes after the toast, the pilots took places in the cockpits of their aircraft. The goals have not changed: Zvolen, Zholna, five machine-gun nests at an altitude of 391 near Zholna.
                    17. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 26 New
                      0
                      On March 9, the Henscheli attacked the same targets again.

                      There were no flights on March 10 due to bad weather. On March 11, Henscheli made 21 sorties (five group combat sorties). Lieutenant Munteanu made four sorties that day (all on Hs-129 with tail number 228), Munteanu flew to Zvolen, Montova, Zholna and again to Zvolen.

                      March 13, weather conditions deteriorated again, the weather did not allow aviation to operate for ten days.
                      On March 22, General Traian Bardulu took command of the 1st Romanian Air Corps, replacing General Emanuel Ionescu, who became Minister of Aviation in the Government of Petro Grozu. The change of corps commander had almost no effect on the daily life and combat work of personnel. On the day of the change of command, the eight Hs-129 stormed the highway west of Zvolen. Romanian aircraft bombed a car park in Kovacov, ten horse-drawn carts were destroyed on the streets of Zvolen.

                      On March 23, 24 and 25, the weather chained the Henscheli to the ground. On March 26, only two sorties were made. But on that day, two Romanian pilots in Bf-109G deserted to the nearest German airbase.

                      It was on March 26 that the city of Zvolen was liberated by Soviet-Romanian troops. The total retreat of the Germans from Slovakia began. After crossing the Gron River, the offensive of the Soviet troops successfully developed in a westerly direction. Improving the weather allowed the Romanian aviation to resume combat work. The iron fist of the command of the 1st Romanian air corps was attack aircraft and dive bombers of the 8th group. Precise air strikes against the enemy cleared the way for ground forces.

                      On April 1, the four Henschels attacked retreating German columns twice on the highway leading from Levin to the west, destroying 11 horse-drawn carriages and five trucks. On April 2, the Romanians flew 19 sorties to attack the military echelon at the Nemanka station and an artillery battery located near the station. IAR-81C attacked two trains north of Kremnica and damaged one of the locomotives.

                      On April 3, the Hs-129 troop made the only sortie; planes hit cars in the area of ​​the village of Yalovets. During the raid, Lieutenant Antonescu’s plane got into the right engine. A train of smoke stretched behind the engine, flames appeared. Antonescu immediately went on an emergency landing. The plane after landing had to be written off, but the pilot escaped with bruises and bumps - a sturdy armored capsule withstood a collision with the ground.

                      On April 4, two four Henschels struck a concentration of German vehicles and military equipment in the Brezhno area, destroying six units of equipment. Towards evening, eight Hs-129s attacked the Brezhno railway station, the pilots reported on the steam locomotive and four cars destroyed as a result of the impact.

                      On April 5, twin-engine attack aircraft appeared over Bodorova. Aircraft left behind 15 burning wagons and the same number of wrecked cars.

                      On April 6, the aircraft of the 1st Romanian air corps relocated to the Zvolen airfield. The flight time in the area of ​​the White Carpathians and the Lower Tatras was reduced. The first combat sorties from Zvolen were made on Kosice, Belush, Nozdrovice. On April 7, Pukhov, Belusha and Kosice suffered air attacks.

                      On April 11-13, Romanian aviation operated in the areas of Nemtsov, Rajec, Zilina, Poluvsi, over the Slovak-Moravian border. The next day, the planes did not fly due to bad weather.
                    18. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 29 New
                      0
                      With dawn on April 15, the weather improved and air attacks resumed. Three waves of "Henschels" (18 aircraft) bombed and stormed the highway leading to Makov, the railway stations of Nizhna and Shumitsa. Five and a half tons of bombs were dropped, the pilots reported 30 wrecked cars, two trains and one steam locomotive. Adjutant Vasile Pescu suffered internal injuries as a result of exceeding the permissible overload at the exit from the dive. Sand managed to return to base. Friends pulled the injured pilot from the cockpit of the attack aircraft and immediately sent to the hospital. The 20-year-old man, who had made 225 sorties by that time, remained disabled for the rest of his life.

                      On Monday, April 16, the Minister of Defense of Romania, General Vasile Raschanu, arrived at the front with a visit, who personally presented awards to distinguished ones. In front of the minister, the two Hs-129 troopers, led by the squadron commander Lazar Munteanu, left for the combat mission. Over Banov, his plane got hit in the right plane of the wing, as a result the fuel tank exploded and the engine failed. On one motor Munteanu pulled across the Vash river and sat on the Trenchin airfield just left by the retreating Germans. During a rough landing, the car received additional damage, and Munteanu himself suffered. The plane and the pilot immediately came under fire from small arms and mortars from your right bank. The life of the Romanian pilot was saved by the commander of the Soviet artillery battery, Lieutenant Tunev, who, on his orders, opened heavy fire on the borders of the airfield, preventing the Germans from approaching the aircraft. The lieutenant personally dragged Munteanu to a safe place, from where the commander of the Romanian assault squadron was sent to the hospital. Munteanu’s wounds were not dangerous - on April 21 he returned to his unit.

                      On April 17, the pilots of the 41st squadron flew into battle four times without their commander. 16 "Henschels" with bombs and shells struck at the concentration of enemy infantry and equipment, first in the area of ​​Dritomna, then - Hungarian Brod, Prakshitzi and Korytne. Under Korytnaya, attack aircraft scattered a column of 60 horse-drawn carts and 30 cars.

                      Romanian ground services began rebuilding the Trencin airfield directly under enemy fire, but bad weather prevented the relocation of aircraft here. For several days, the aircraft made only reconnaissance flights. Only on April 20, five Hs-129B were able to strike at Korytna, the planes crushed a mortar battery located on the edge of the forest southwest of the village.

                      On April 21, the three "Henschels" in one sortie first struck at the German positions in the Dolne Nemchi area, then at Slavkov. In the next three, the weather worsened again, only once the four Hs-129В managed to bomb Dolna Nemčy. On the same day, the pilots of IAR-81C distinguished themselves again - thanks to improved weather, they completed 31 sorties. During the day, 11 trucks and many infantry were recorded destroyed. But this success was paid for by the death of av. Gheorghe Mociornita (IAR-81C no. 426), whose plane was shot down by air defense. Two and a half weeks remained until the end of the war ...

                      The statistics of the combat work of the Henschels in the period from March 25 to April 24, 1945 is as follows: 160 sorties (34 group sorties) were carried out with a total duration of 177 hours and 20 minutes; 48,9 tons of bombs were dropped, 122 cars, 91 horse-drawn carts, 4 trains, 3 artillery positions, 1 tank and 1 bridge were destroyed. The Romanian aviation did not take part in air battles due to the complete absence of enemy aircraft in the air. The losses amounted to two Hs-129Bs.
                    19. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 33 New
                      0
                      With the arrival of spring, it became clear to everyone that the end of the war was not far off, but the end had not yet arrived. On April 26, the Hungarian Brod became the area of ​​active operations of the planes of the 8th group. The Henschel troika bombed and stormed the city eight times. In all combat missions, the group was headed by Lieutenant Munteanu, who on that day flew on an aircraft with tail number 222B. Eight raids on Hungarian Brod were carried out by dive bombers from the brotherly Escadrile 74 Picaj. The first time on April 26, the planes took off at 7 am, the target of the strike was a bridge near the village of Sucha Lodge. The attack aircraft covered the IAR-81 fighters, but since there was no enemy aircraft in the sky, they joined the Henschels, striking the bridge. The bridge was seriously damaged. During the day, attack aircraft attacked enemy positions in the areas of the settlements of Sucha Lozh, Hungarian Brod, Dolne Nemchi, three times Hs-129 stormed artillery positions near Nivinitsa. During the day, the Henschels dropped 72 tons of bombs and made 57 sorties. The pilots of the 2nd fighter group flew 68 sorties, firing 23100 bullets and 4140 rounds. As usual, it was not without losses - Adj was killed on IAR-81C. av. Constantin Prisacaru. Again, the German anti-aircraft gunners distinguished themselves, by the end of the war they had rich combat experience.

                      On April 27, in the order on the occasion of the liberation of the Hungarian Brod of the Soviet command, it was noted: "The capture of the city became possible only thanks to the actions of aviation."

                      On the same day, ten Henschels struck Tishnov in three waves. On April 28, the aircraft did not fly, on April 29, the Romanians bombed and stormed enemy columns on the roads in the vicinity of Dobikovets. On April 30, Romanian planes dropped 2100 kg of bombs on the villages of Nidachlebitsa and Boykovitsa.

                      On April 27, the last Junkers in the war was also shot down. In the area of ​​Dobikovice, the plane was shot by German anti-aircraft gunners. Pilot - adjutant Paul Lazaroiu was able to use a parachute and was captured, and his gunner (Sergeant Georje Popescu) was killed.

                      In April, according to official data, the Messers of the 9th IAG carried out 225 sorties.

                      On the first day of May 1945, aircraft flew in spite of heavy rain. During one of the raids, the four Henschels scattered an infantry column southwest of Olomouc. On May 2, the attention of Romanian pilots was attracted by the Kholisov railway station. The raids on the station and the city continued on 4 and 5 May.

                      On May 6, the last offensive operation of the war in Europe began - a jerk to Prague. Romanian aviation supported the ground forces advancing on Proteev. On May 7, Romanian pilots managed to destroy 15 vehicles northwest of Proteev.

                      On May 8, pilots stormed columns of enemy troops and equipment on the roads in the vicinity of Urchitsa and Vysovytsya. The 2nd fighter group lost its last pilot in the war - it was slt. av. Remus Vasilescu.

                      On May 9, 1945, only IAR-39 biplanes flew into the air under the escort of Messerschmitts, who scattered leaflets. The Germans surrendered without resistance.
                    20. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 35 New
                      0
                      However, the war for the Romanian aviators ended a little later. On May 11, the Romanians performed strikes against parts of the Russian Liberation Army of General Vlasov. The Vlasovites had nothing to lose, and they desperately resisted in the forests near Hungarian Broad. On the evening of May 11, 1945, airplanes (several bombers under cover of four Bf-109Gs) returned from the last combat mission of the Romanian Air Force in World War II. Romanian pilots fought over the territory of Czechoslovakia for 144 days.

                      In total, until the end of the war (on May 12, 1945), the 1st Corps accounted for 8542 sorties and the destruction of 101 enemy aircraft (along with anti-aircraft gunners). Losses amounted to 176 aircraft shot down by fighters, air defense and crashed in numerous accidents in the conditions of bad weather in winter - spring of 1945.

                      Specific data is available only on the participation of "henshels", on the rest - the data is fragmentary. So, in five months of hostilities, from December 19, 1944 to May 11, 1945, the pilots of the 41st assault squadron (Hensheli) flew 422 sorties, having flown 370 hours and dropping 130 tons of bombs. As a result of the squadron's actions, 66 columns of enemy troops were scattered, 185 cars and 66 horse-drawn carts were destroyed, at railway stations the Henschel pilots smashed 13 trains, among other destroyed enemy property - artillery, mortars, machine guns. The squadron lost eight HS-129B attack aircraft. Pilots of "pieces" only in Slovakia made 107 sorties, having flown 374 hours. They dropped 210 tons of bombs at 37 railway stations and 36 enemy positions. The destroyed were recorded 3 tanks, 61 trucks and 6 anti-aircraft batteries.

                      During the entire war, the Romanian Air Force lost 4172 people, of whom 2977 were fighting for Germany (972 dead, 1167 wounded and 838 missing) and 1195 fighting against Germany (356, 371 and 468, respectively).

                      The end of the war the Royal Romanian Air Force met even in worse condition than June 22, 1941. In fact, the aviators were left alone with their problems amid the complete cessation of the supply of spare parts for aircraft. The future was foggy ...
                    21. smiths xnumx
                      smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 38 New
                      0
                      Fighters "Hurricane" in the Romanian Air Force
                      After the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Romania remained isolated. Romanian politicians immediately turned to their traditional allies - England and France.

                      After debate, the British Parliament agreed to supply Bucharest in 1939 with three torpedo boats, 40 Bristol Blenheim bombers and 12 Hawker Hurricane Mk.1 fighters.

                      To fulfill this contract, a military delegation headed by Captain Draganeshku went to England. He personally circled all the planes, personally controlled their dismantling and accompanied the transport to Constanta. Then the planes were unloaded and transported to Piper airport, where the British mechanics assembled all the fighters.

                      Interestingly, in a nearby hangar, the Germans collected Me-109E for Romanians. Despite the fact that there was already tension between Great Britain and Germany, there were no incidents.

                      All aircraft were included in the 53rd squadron of the 5th group, the pilots of which retrained in the spring. During training flights, the squadron commander Captain Draganeshku was killed.

                      Squadron pilots embarked on combat sorties in the spring of 1941, covering the Pipera airfield.

                      On May 5, 1941, while on patrol, an I-16 battle from the 67th IAP with the Romanian Hurricanes took place, which ended in the loss of one Hurricane.

                      Both lost aircraft were replaced by vehicles captured in Yugoslavia. After the war in the Balkans, the Croatian government inherited several Hurricanes. Three of them were sold to Romania in May 1941. In September of the same year, Romania bought three more fighters from Croatia to be disassembled for parts.

                      In June 1941, the squadron took part in the attack on the Soviet Union and by the end of the year declared 35 victories, having lost only two fighters. The Romanians won their first victory on June 23, repelling the raid on Constanta. The pilot, Captain Horia Agarichi, operating on an inoperative Hurricane, declared three downed DB-3s, one of which, he said, fell into the sea. Most likely, the pilot managed to shoot down two SB-2. The best among the pilots of the 53rd Squadron proved to be Radulescu, who declared seven confirmed and four probable victories.

                      The losses of the Romanians were not very big - only two fighters. One of them was shot down by pilots of the 69th IAP in the Odessa region on September 12, 1941.

                      The summer campaign was the culmination of the career of the Romanian Hurricanes. The aircraft remained on the first line until mid-1942, but the lack of spare parts and the related accident rate forced the remaining aircraft to be withdrawn to the rear and used for training purposes. Instead of the Hurricanes, the 53rd Squadron received Bf109G aircraft. The Hurricanes continued to fly until early 1943, when they were all sent for a major overhaul, from which not all of the vehicles returned. The last Hurricane was scrapped in the fall of 1944.

                      10.07.1941/1/3 lt Konstantin Kantakuzino XNUMXxDB-XNUMX
                      11.07.1941/1/3 Luchian Toma XNUMXxDB-XNUMX
                      13.07.1941/1/3 lt Konstantin Kantakuzino XNUMXxDB-XNUMX presumably
                      13.07.1941/2/3 lt Konstantin Kantakuzino XNUMXxDB-XNUMX or SB?
                      15.07.1941/1/16 lt Konstantin Kantakuzino XNUMXxI-XNUMX
                      15.07.1941/1/16 lt Konstantin Kantakuzino XNUMXxI-XNUMX ​​presumably
                      01.08.1941/1/XNUMX l-t Horia Agarichi XNUMXx "Hurricane" ?? *
                      01.08.1941/1/XNUMX lt Choria Agarichi XNUMXx ??
  2. smile
    smile 27 August 2013 02: 21 New
    +1
    smiths xnumx
    If the combat accounts can be called into question because the German comrades and their allies are recognized leaders in lies in victories ... even compared to the Americans of that time .... anyway, we cannot take away what some of our enemies showed heroism, overcoming the resistance of our people ...... yeah, the heroism of a robber trying to overcome the resistance of the victim ... who, only because of her inherent good nature, spared the enth aggressor himself ....
  3. smile
    smile 27 August 2013 01: 25 New
    0
    smiths xnumx
    Yeah ... I read so many bad reviews about this Komsomolets, and you took the feats ... into service ... well, that you didn’t accept waterfowl is understandable, I liked them, I’m only a reason ...
  • smile
    smile 27 August 2013 00: 27 New
    +3
    smiths xnumx
    Very helpful information. especially for those who consider more than a million Romanians on our earth to be annoying nonsense, not worth attention .... I do not know what the real number of Romanian compounds was at that time, but I know that on average it was very good. if two times lower than the regular one ... and there were divisions of one and a half or two thousand bayonets ... so that regardless of their fighting spirit, they were quite a serious and dangerous enemy ....
    Thanks again to the blacksmiths 1977 .. Here!
    But my grandfather said that shortly before the assault on Odessa, the Romanian cavalry unit attempted to attack that Kuban Cossack division, which he served in the artillery regiment, on horseback ... he did not know the numerical ratio ... ours responded with a counter attack ... they did it right, the attack was from a beam, our guns really didn’t manage to use artillery and machine guns, the Romanians attacked simultaneously with a fire raid .... ours answered the same ... according to my grandfather this was the only case about which he knew when the Cossacks fought in horse riding .... oh yes, the Romanians just knocked out ....
    Colleague, if you have info about this fight, give a link, eh? Really needed...
  • smile
    smile 27 August 2013 00: 06 New
    +3
    smiths xnumx
    But I didn’t know for sure ... according to the Germans of the period of the beginning of the Stalingrad defeat, it was the anti-tank defense that suffered from the Romanians (then of course they said differently), therefore the Germans tried to strengthen their defense with disparate means available at hand ... . Moreover, it was at that time that they said that the Romanians fought quite worthily. I remember in the diaries taken from the corpses even some commander of the Romanian division was mentioned, he himself raised the infantry in a counterattack, which was nonsense for the Germans ... but then, of course, the Germans dumped everything on the Romanians ... :))))
  • Corsair
    Corsair 27 August 2013 02: 28 New
    +2
    Quote: Kuznetsov 1977
    By the way, Romanian aviation was also not a “whipping boy” for the Red Army Air Force.

    Seeing a photo of this aircraft with "unknown" identification marks, I was amazed that it was a plane of the Romanian Air Force of the Second World War - IAR-80.
    Moreover, the plane, no matter how "real", is Romanian, that is, manufactured in Romania, and moreover, it is also designed by ROMANIAN ENGINEERS !!!
    And, moreover, struck the "lines" of the aircraft, its contours. The technique actually does not look "handicraft" and for its time demonstrated quite sane characteristics:

    LTH:
    Modification IAR-80A
    Wingspan, m 10.52
    Length, m 8.97
    Height, m ​​3.60
    Wing area, m2 15.97
    Weight, kg
    empty 2110 aircraft
    normal takeoff 2720
    Engine type 1 ПД IIAR 14K IIc32
    Power, hp 1 x 1000
    Maximum speed, km / h 485
    Cruising speed, km / h 424
    Practical range, km 730
    Maximum rate of climb, m / min 670
    Practical ceiling, m 10500
    Crew 1
    Armament: Six 7.92 mm Browning FN machine guns
  • I'm Russian
    I'm Russian 26 August 2013 11: 27 New
    13
    The fact that Stalin until the last moment forbade bringing the troops on alert is the same fairy tale as the fact that he fought on a globe. The USSR could not put into action the entire plan to cover the border - Hitler would immediately accuse the Union of aggressive intentions, and Stalin needed the status of a victim of aggression. However, from June 10-12, the troops began to prepare for war on the sly, "manually." They delivered ammunition, food, medicines to the warehouses of units, screwed fuses to shells, stuffed machine-gun belts, checked field kitchens, prepared for delivery soldering ... After these measures, the parts can be raised by alarm in 2-3 hours. From June 16-18, the troops of the border districts began to similarly secretly move into the concentration areas. This was the case everywhere except for the Western Special Military District, where everything was sabotaged at the highest level, orders were not executed (report of the communications chief of the Western District of Grigoriev), and after the telegram of the General Staff from June 18, the troops of the district were not put on alert ... And then they stretched the picture for the whole army: soldiers in their underwear, rushing under fire in the courtyard of the barracks. Although it belongs to the only 4th army of the western district ...
    1. chehywed
      chehywed 26 August 2013 22: 52 New
      0
      Quote: Russian
      So it was everywhere, except for the Western Special Military District, where everything was sabotaged at the highest level, orders were not executed (report of the chief of communications of the Western District Grigoryev), and after the telegram of the General Staff from 18 on June, the district troops were not put on alert ...

      Yes, the attack was sudden everywhere. But the disaster of the 1941 of the year is, first of all, the disaster of the Western Front. If the Western Front had resisted, much could have been different. Sorry for the stamps.
      1. Vladimir73
        Vladimir73 11 September 2013 15: 30 New
        0
        I could not resist. The main blow was inflicted on the Western Special Military District. The complete set of parts is incomplete, the combat effectiveness of more than half of the parts is low, because units only formed called up in the spring of the 41st year. Commanders are usually recent college graduates. And the attitude of Comrade Pavlov to the troops to his subordinates is also well known - much has been written about this (drunkenness, intrigue ...).
  • Asan Ata
    Asan Ata 26 August 2013 12: 15 New
    +3
    Such Abramovs were the backbone of the country. His fate is interesting, who knows?
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 26 August 2013 12: 38 New
      +4
      Quote: Asan Ata
      His fate is interesting, who knows?


      If I’m not mistaken, I participated in the defense of Kherson and Sevastopol, some landings were with his participation (to my shame I don’t remember in detail), after the war I was the commander of the Polish Navy, he died at the beginning of the 60.
    2. anip
      anip 26 August 2013 13: 31 New
      +1
      Quote: Asan Ata
      Such Abramovs were the backbone of the country. His fate is interesting, who knows?

      For a start:
      http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%90%D0%B1%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%B2,_%D0%9D%
      D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B9_%D0%9E%D1%81%D0%B8%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D
      1% 87
  • malikszh
    malikszh 26 August 2013 13: 27 New
    +3
    Now we know that Soviet propaganda in the summer of 1941 at times overestimated the losses of the Germans. But this time, everything was true. Over 10 days of offensive battles on the Danube, 810 prisoners were captured, 327 enemy soldiers and officers were destroyed, several hundred were wounded. It was captured: 15 guns; about three thousand shells; 742 rifles - Are you sure that there is no lies here? Or with this word do you want it says that the heroism of our grandfathers was not ?? that you write the last articles about the war that our stupidly could not fight and retreat and come with heavy losses, and the Germans, as always, the fine fellows clearly tactfully fought, but for some reason lost the war.
  • washi
    washi 26 August 2013 13: 55 New
    +6
    In fact, from the end of 1940 from Moscow to the western districts there was a stream of orders about the dispersal and disguise of troops and military equipment. But most of the chiefs in the field ignored them. As far back as 1940, Stalin was outraged that the air camps in Western IN are “gypsy camps” with crowds of wives, children, mother-in-law and other relatives. The fact that in the Governor-General in any of the air camps of the Luftwaffe did not smell like wives or kids, do not speak. The People's Commissar of Defense singled out large elevators for the removal of families of pilots. But the "night cuckoos" perekukovali Commissar.
    By June 22 tanks were parks, aircraft - on the airfields wing to the wing. In May, the 1941 was delivered directly from the 480 – 152-mm ML-20 howitzer cannon with 10 ammunition kits to each gun to the district test site (former Polish) southwest of Baranavichy. At the end of the summer, the 1941. The howitzers-cannons were supposed to be used to complete the ten artillery regiments of the RGC. All of them were left unharmed by the Germans 23 – 24 June 1941.
    Late in the evening 21 June 1941, the commander of the Western IN, Colonel-General Pavlov went to the theater, and the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Admiral Oktyabrsky, was already in the theater. Lunacharsky, and later with friends made a Sabantuy in his apartment.
    And on the Danube, sailors and border guards only carried out orders and instructions. At 2 o'clock in the morning 22 June, the Danube Flotilla switched to operational readiness No. 1. The commander of the flotilla, Rear Admiral Abramov ordered to disperse and disguise the ships and to alert the units and units. The connection was switched to the flagship command post, deployed in advance in the shelter on the territory untailed from the Romanian coast.
    In 4.15, the Romanian batteries opened fire on the Soviet side — Reni, Karal, Izmail, Calia, Vilkovo and the flotilla ships.
    In 4.20, without requesting their superiors, Rear Admiral Abramov independently ordered to return fire and report the actions of the flotilla to the military council of the front.
    Why did the others not follow orders and directives? Maybe not everyone was imprisoned in 1937? The same Oktyabrsky "distinguished himself" several times.
  • misterwulf
    misterwulf 26 August 2013 15: 06 New
    +4
    And Oktyabrsky freak out nipadetski! Especially with the defense of Sevastopol! Although, against the backdrop of Zhukov or Konev (for example), he looked quite sane commander. And against the background of Pavlov or Tymoshenko, it’s a genius at all.
    It was then that Rokossovsky, Chernyakhovsky, Vatutin and others appeared in the "higher power".
    And so - Oktyabrsky, to say objectively, was no more an "idiot" of all the others, even the "best" military leaders.
  • smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 26 August 2013 15: 50 New
    +4
    Well, Oktyabrsky was eccentric, so eccentric. Not only did he not like the surname. In 1924 he changed his surname Ivanov to the surname Oktyabrsky, in honor of October, but it was okay then to wear "revolutionary" surnames, but in the absence of an enemy on the Black Sea, since the fleets of Turkey and Romania are nothing serious they did not represent themselves, and the appearance of a strong enemy in the Black Sea was excluded, he came up with a horror story - the Italian fleet.
    By June 1941, the Italian fleet with great difficulty kept its communications with Libya. Benito Mussolini suffered from a stomach ulcer, but when his wife Rachel asked why he frowns and pats his stomach, Mussolini replied: "I suffer from attacks on our African convoys." It came to shelling the British battleships of Genoa and other Italian cities. The remaining Italian battleships and cruisers were afraid to even attack the British convoys that regularly crossed the Mediterranean Sea from Gibraltar to Alexandria and Port Said. In such a situation, sending the Italian fleet to the Black Sea would be a disaster for Italy and personally for Benito Mussolini. To do this, it was necessary to sacrifice the Italian army in Africa and leave the Italian coast without protection. And this in the conditions of a catastrophic shortage of fuel for the Italian fleet in the summer of 1941. Finally, the British would hardly have missed a chance to destroy the Italian fleet on the way to the Dardanelles. In the Black Sea, the Turks had no basing places for a large fleet, and the ports of Istanbul and Izmir did not have sufficiently good air defense.
    It is impossible to calculate how many military exits to the sea in 1941 were made by our cruisers, destroyers, patrol ships and boats in search of a virtual enemy off the coast of the Crimea and the Caucasus. In 1941, only submarines carried out 84 military campaigns to carry out patrols at their naval bases, lasting a total of over 730 days. Need I say how the mechanisms of surface ships, boats and submarines worn out during this time ?! But in 1941 the Black Sea Fleet lost ship repair bases in Odessa, Kherson, Nikolaev, Sevastopol and Kerch. In the Caucasian ports, the ship repair base was almost absent by the beginning of the war. As a result, during the decisive battles of 1942, a significant part of our ships and submarines found themselves in a non-operational state.

    Meanwhile, the atmosphere of expectation of the enemy surface and underwater armada, constantly heated by the Moscow and Sevastopol authorities, made itself felt. So, on the afternoon of July 8, 1941, the MBR-2 seaplane, which was searching for Italian submarines, attacked the M-52 submarine, which was on patrol at Novorossiysk, waiting for the Italian squadron.

    Just a week later Novorossiysk had a similar clash. On the morning of July 14, near the Cape Utrish, the Kuban transport tried to ram an Italian submarine. Our M-51 turned out to be Italian, replacing the M-10 submarine at position No. 52.

    And on September 23, at 20 minutes, the M-44 submarine, which was at position No. 1 20 miles from Sevastopol, fired a torpedo at an Italian cruiser going to destroy the main base of the Black Sea Fleet. Returning the next day to Sevastopol, the commander of the boat, Senior Lieutenant A.A. Nikolaev immediately learned two news: the bad - the torpedo passed by, and the good - the Italian cruiser turned out to be our slow-moving (speed less than 111 knots) Vostok transport. Etc. etc. Yours faithfully! hi
  • smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 42 New
    0
    Romanian trophies
    During World War II, a large number of different trophies fell into Romanian hands. Among them were airplanes. Some of them were in flight condition and included in the Air Force, some were suitable only for spare parts.

    The largest number was captured of course I-16. So, three cars - at the airport of Izmail, 4 - in Feodosia, 1 - Dear and another 8 - in the original packaging on the roads of Besarabia.

    I-16, captured on July 13, 1941 in Dorogoye, was flown over by Lieutenant Popescu Tsiocanel. The characteristics of the fighter were compared with the IAR 37 of the neighboring 19th Squadron. The plane was marked with Romanian identification marks and the number "1".

    In August 1941, one of the I-16s was transferred to Bucharest, where it was demonstrated at the exhibition of captured weapons. Three months later, another fighter was handed over to test pilots at the Brasov airfield (by the way, the IAR airfield was also located there).

    On March 18, 1942, a MiG-3 landed at the Melitopol airfield, which at that time was occupied by Romanian aviators, with a deserter pilot in the cockpit. The plane flew around immediately, there is no information about the fate of the pilot. And on July 14, Lieutenant Cantacunzino drove the trophy all the way to the same Brasov airfield. The aircraft received a new camouflage and number "2".


    In 1943, after the end of Operation Tidal Wave in the Ploiesti area, the Romanian military discovered a number of B-24Ds. The order was immediately given to repair and fly one copy. No sooner said than done, and a few days later Sergeant Alexandru Dudu Frim drove one bomber to Brasov. Next, two more bombers of this type were found and repaired. There was even an idea to create a squadron of such aircraft - fortunately there were enough spare parts, but the Anglo-American air raid on the airfield put an end to this enterprise.

    In January 1944, the Romanians got Boston, which landed in the Novoznesenka area. Of course, he was also driven to Brasov.


    On January 16, 1942, the same fate befell the Pe-2 (tact. Number "1"), which made an emergency landing in the Sudak region. And on March 20, 1944, an AirCobra landed near Izmail in good condition.

    In July 1944, Romanian pilots forced B-24J to land on the Rosiori di Vede airfield.

    In addition, after the outbreak of the war against Germany, several dozen former German aircraft were included in the Air Force.

    It should also be added that after the capture of Yugoslavia, the Luftwaffe command "presented" a pair of Hurricanes and Blainheim from the Yugoslav Air Force.
    Trophy romanian MiG-3 with romanian identification marks
  • smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 47 New
    0
    Gallery of the Romanian Air Force
    Romanian bomber HE-111

    Romanian-made fighter-bomber IAR-81 with identification marks after Romania joins the anti-Hitler coalition

    Romanian scout of own production IAR-37

    Romanian fighter Hauker "Hurricane" Mk.1.

  • smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 02: 55 New
    0
    Romanian fighter of own production IAR-80

    Romanian fighter of own production IAR-81C

    romanian fighter polish production pzl p-24

    He 112B1 (E) 52 Romanian Air Force Squadron
  • smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 03: 05 New
    0
    Polish bomber PZL-37B Romanian Air Force

    Ju.87d-3 Romanian Air Force

    downed Romanian fighter IAR-80

    Romanian-made JRS-79 bomber
    [/ Center]
  • smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 03: 14 New
    0
    Polish medium bomber P-23B 73 Esk RKSP Romanian Air Force, 1941

    French light reconnaissance bomber Potez 633 Romanian Air Force

    Romanian pilots posing against the backdrop of the Me-109 fighter

    romanian reconnaissance bomber of English production Bristol-Blenheim Mk.1
  • smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 27 August 2013 03: 25 New
    0
    German attack aircraft Hs.129b-2 Romanian Air Force

    romanian fighter polish production pzl p-24

    Romanian scout of own production IAR-37

    Romanian fighter of own production IAR-80
  • Eugene
    Eugene 27 August 2013 10: 05 New
    +2
    Just yesterday I read a report on the Kerch-Feodosia operation. Landing. Rear Admiral Abramov commanded a landing in the region of Mount Opuk. He drew attention to a little-known surname. I read about this story back in Soviet times. Actually, Romanian border guards drove Romanians.
  • R150
    R150 27 August 2013 14: 04 New
    +3
    interesting article, thanks!
    I also heard about this before, but not in such detail.
    Commenting special thanks! but you don’t need to delete them, the meaning of the discussion is lost.