Military Review

"Sturm-S" - anti-tank shield of ground units

23
Sturm (according to the NATO AT-6 Spiral codification) is a Soviet anti-tank missile system (ATGM) based on the 9X114 Kokon supersonic rocket, which is equipped with a radio command guidance system on the target. The chief designer of the complex was the well-known Soviet weapons designer S. P. The Invincible. The complex was created in several versions: the 9K113 "Sturm-V" helicopter for the Air Force and the self-propelled "Sturm-S" for the needs of the Ground Forces. In 1996, on the basis of the 9М114 ATGM, a multipurpose 9M120 “Attack” guided missile was created, which was distinguished by an increased power of the warhead, the missile was the same for the Sturm-V and Shturm-S complexes. In 2010, its upgraded version of the 9М120-1 was created, equipped with a combined radio command and laser beam target targeting system.


The Sturm-S self-propelled anti-tank system (9P149) was the first multi-purpose vehicle that was able to fight not only with tanks and other enemy armored vehicles, but also successfully hit his manpower and field fortifications and even low-speed low-flying air targets (helicopters, UAVs). However, the main objective of the complex still remained the fight against enemy armored vehicles.

The complex was developed in the middle of the 1970s in the Kolomna machine-building design bureau, in 1979 it was adopted by the Soviet Army. The Sturm-S complex has proved itself quite well during the military campaigns in Afghanistan and Chechnya. At the maximum range, he ensured the defeat of a target meter-by-meter (he fell into caves, embrasures, etc.). The probability of hitting a missile point targets in combat conditions was - 0,9. The “Attack” complex that replaced the “Sturm”, thanks to the same dimensions and the same seats, ensures its use on all existing old carriers.

"Sturm-S" - anti-tank shield of ground units

The Shturm-S complex used a multipurpose 9М114 guided missile, which was equipped with a single-piece cumulative warhead, which was covered with a live-out fairing. The rocket was made according to the aerodynamic "duck" scheme with a semicircular wing and with a folding front tail; in the off position, the wing was pressed against the cylindrical body of the rocket. The rocket's high speed of flight - up to 530 m / s was provided by a solid-fuel dual-mode cruise engine. In this case, the armor penetration standard monoblock warhead was 550-600 mm.

Missiles were delivered in special transport and launch containers (TPK). In the aft part of the TPK pipe there was a starting accelerator - a booster engine, which was separated from the rocket after its work was completed. Like all the other ATGMs belonging to the 2 generation, the Sturm missile was supplied from the manufacturer and operated in parts in the glass-plastic mater. The design of the TPC provided the rocket with axial rotation at the time of launch, in addition to this, the container allowed the rocket to be stored in it for at least 10 years.

Also the Shturm-S complex can be equipped with an 9М114F anti-tank system equipped with a thermobaric, that is, volume-detonating warhead. The use of this rocket allows you to simultaneously hit not only the enemy's manpower, but also destroy its field fortifications, long-term firing points and other engineering structures. In connection with the emergence and spread of dynamic protection of tanks, a new rocket was developed, which received a tandem warhead. This missile had an increased range and was able to penetrate armor, which was equivalent to 800-mm homogeneous armor.


The ATGM target guidance system is semi-automatic, radio command, using an infrared tracking signal. The control teams were transferred to the front compartments of the ATGM through cables that were laid in a special pipe running along the longitudinal axis of the combustion chamber of the cruise solid-fuel rocket engine. In the tail part of the guided missile behind the two-nozzle engine block were elements of the radio command control system. At the rear end of the marching stage of the rocket was located the source of infrared radiation, which was recorded by helicopter or ground-based equipment of semi-automatic control, also there was a radio antenna.

The ATGM guidance system has a high noise immunity due to the use of fixed codes in the 2's rocket guidance, as well as fixed frequencies. It should also be noted that due to the supersonic speed of a rocket flight, it is impossible for it to deliver radio interference by means that exist at a given point in time. To control the shooting, a special program is used (“Dust” mode), which allows the ATGM to fly at the initial segment of the trajectory above the line of sight, and at the moment of approaching the target at a distance 5-500 meters is reduced to hit the target.

As the main base for the 9P149 combat vehicle, part of the Sturm-S complex, the well-known MT-LB multi-purpose light armored transporter-tractor, which had been mass-produced at the Kharkov Tractor Plant, was chosen to be well-known among the troops. Compared with the wheeled chassis of the BRDM-2 family used in the Konkurs complex, this combat vehicle was distinguished by better maneuverability and internal volume, which made it possible to install a retractable launcher (PU) and automatic loader. The ammunition of the installation included 12 missiles, and this despite the fact that TPK "Sturm" was more than 1,5 times longer than TPK "Konkursta".


In the stowed position, the PU of the “Sturm-S” complex is hidden inside the case, where the mechanism is located (gearbox and special rotating drum). 12 launch containers with anti-tank guided missiles are located on the lodgments of the drum. When firing the launcher captures the container and automatically transferred to the combat position. After the shot is fired, the used container is discarded and the process of reloading the missiles is carried out fully automatically. The time from the moment you press the start button to the exit of the missile from the TLC is only 1 a second. The process of reloading takes time, which is less than the time of the flight of the missile to the target.

A feature of the 9P149 combat vehicle was large angles of horizontal focusing within ± 85 °, vertical guidance is possible in the range of - 5 ° to + 15 °, as well as a launcher carrying only one TPC with a missile. In general, the “Sturm-S” complex is characterized by a fairly high rate of fire - 3-4 shots / min. Located on the left side on the roof of the machine, the optical sighting device has a built-in channel for tracking the infrared emitter of the guided missile. The aiming complex allows firing at targets moving at a frontal speed of 80 km / h and with a flank speed of up to 60 km / h. In addition, an ATGM launch was also implemented from the afloat position when the combat vehicle was moving at a speed of up to 5 km / h. A low silhouette of a combat vehicle (height on the roof of the entire 1,8 m.) And low placement of the center of gravity make it possible to apply the “Sturm-S” on fairly steep slopes.

The combat vehicle of the Sturm-S complex is equipped with a crew protection system against damaging factors of weapons of mass destruction. It consists of a device for chemical and radiation reconnaissance, a filtering unit, as well as a device for sealing the body. In addition, the Sturm-S anti-tank complex is equipped with communication facilities with a range of up to 40 km. and night vision devices. On the highway "Sturm-S" mass 12,3 tons can accelerate to 70 km / h. The power reserve of the machine is 500 km. The transition time of the Sturm-S complex to the combat position is only 15 seconds, to the traveling position - 12 seconds. The crew of the complex consists of 2-x people.


The self-propelled anti-tank complex "Sturm-S" was adopted in service of army and front-line units in the 1979 year. With the presence in the military units of a much more popular complex “Competition”, the anti-tank missile system “Sturm-S” was initially considered as a means of preventing possible breakthroughs of enemy tank units into the depth of our defense. That is, he had to play a role similar to that performed by the anti-tank artillery of the Reserve of the Supreme Main Command during the Great Patriotic War. It is worth noting that, fortunately, it was not necessary for the Sturm-S complex to perform such a role. During the anti-terrorist operation in Chechnya in 1999 – 2000, the Sturm-S complex was mainly used to defeat the militants' long-term firing points. Currently, the complex continues to be in service with the Russian army, as well as with the armies of the republics of the former USSR.

Project Evaluation

The disadvantages of the project included the impossibility of detecting targets at night by the 9P149 combat vehicle without using external target illumination. However, this deficiency was corrected in the Sturm-SM and Sturm-SME complexes.

At the same time, the advantages of this complex include:
- Various types of missile warheads;
- Supersonic speed of flight of rockets both on the line of sight and along the trajectory above the line of sight;
- Missile launch time less than 1 seconds;
- Interference-free channel guidance (millimeter);
- Ensuring the buoyancy of the 9P149 combat vehicle, as well as the possibility of firing rockets afloat.

Performance characteristics "Sturm-S":

Chassis - MT-LB floating tracked tractor.
The mass of the 9P149 combat vehicle is 12 300 kg.
Calculation - 2 person.
Ammunition - 12 missiles.
The firing range of the complex:
- minimum - 400 m.
- maximum - 5000 m.
Average flight speed ATGM - 400 m / s
ATGM caliber - 130 mm.
Rocket length in tpk - 1832 mm.
Rocket weight in tpk - 46,6 kg.
Maximum speed of targets hit:
- frontal - 80 km / h.
- flank - 60 km / h.
Rate of Fire - 3-4 rds / min.
Time to bring the complex into a firing position - 15 with.
Operating temperature range: -40 + 50 ° С
Maximum travel speed - 70 km / h.
The range of the complex fuel - 500km.

Information sources:
-http: //otvaga2004.ru/kaleydoskop/kaleydoskop-miss/shturm-s
-http: //kollektsiya.ru/raketi/110-samohodnii-ptrk-9p149-shturm-s.html
-http: //worldweapon.ru/tank/shturm_s.php
-http: //ru.wikipedia.org
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  1. Terrible ensign
    Terrible ensign 21 August 2013 07: 24
    +7
    Thanks for the article! .. Finally, materials related to military equipment were sent. Political reviews, of course, are good, but not all ... (Apparently, the time for vacations has come to an end? ..)
    When I studied at SVVPTAU (88 years old), we studied this machine but very fluently. The RAV instructors said that in the troops there was basically a "competition" based on the BRDM-ki. Colleagues who served on Sturm, share your impressions of the machine ...
  2. Akim
    Akim 21 August 2013 07: 54
    +1
    Quote: Scary ensign
    (88 years old), studied this machine but very fluently. The RAV instructors said that in the troops there was basically a "competition" based on the BRDM-k

    He also taught at the institute, but then I could not touch it. In the troops, as part of an anti-tank battery, I saw.
    1. solomon
      solomon 21 August 2013 11: 47
      +2
      Quote: mirag2
      An old device ... Suitable only for nostalgia. Although, in principle, in theory, it can destroy any production technique until the end of the 80s inclusive.

      A little clarification: "Old, but smart. Can destroy any equipment."

      Also, the Sturm-S complex can be equipped with a 9M114F ATGM equipped with a thermobaric, that is, volume-detonating warhead. .... a new missile was developed that received a tandem warhead. This missile had an increased flight range and was able to penetrate armor, which was equivalent to 800 mm homogeneous armor.

      The development of new ammunition allows the complex to win the Defense-Defeat fight.
  3. mirag2
    mirag2 21 August 2013 09: 17
    -4
    An old device ... Suitable only for nostalgia. Although, in principle, in theory, it can destroy any production technique until the end of the 80s inclusive.
    1. Akim
      Akim 21 August 2013 09: 21
      +2
      Quote: mirag2
      .Suitable only for nostalgic.X

      I do not agree. The complex is not without a reserve of modernization
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas 21 August 2013 16: 56
        0
        Quote: Akim
        The complex is not without a reserve of modernization

        Only with such a guidance system is it not needed. The need to maintain visual contact with the goal makes the use of the complex dangerous for use. Not to mention the fact that it is not difficult to set the noise interference with smoke ...
        1. Akim
          Akim 21 August 2013 17: 13
          0
          Quote: Nayhas
          The need to maintain visual contact with the goal makes the use of the complex dangerous when used

          Then there is nothing to the tank and TOURS. And the ammunition load in the PTKR (s) itself will cost more than it.
        2. svp67
          svp67 22 August 2013 01: 54
          0
          Quote: Nayhas
          Only with such a guidance system is it not needed.
          It may be so, it's just that this ATGM has such a speed fellow that the shortcomings of the guidance system just do not have time to tell how the target is already hit ... tongue
    2. Old skeptic
      Old skeptic 22 August 2013 22: 02
      +2
      Another cabinet wise guy ....
      Quote: mirag2
      An old device ... Suitable only for nostalgia. Although, in principle, in theory, it can destroy any production technique until the end of the 80s inclusive. crying

      Why did something fundamentally new appear in tanks over the past 20 years in the field of countering ATGM?

      Quote: Nayhas
      Only with such a guidance system is it not needed. The need to maintain visual contact with the goal makes the use of the complex dangerous for use. Not to mention the fact that it is not difficult to set the noise interference with smoke ...

      Not with smoke, but with an aerosol curtain (smoke does not mask too effectively in the infrared range, and GOS PRUR, as a rule, have precisely this range). The aerosol curtain consists of the smallest metal particles (usually copper or bronze) for masking in the IR and radio ranges. Well, something like this.

      I suppose you are the sweetest supporter of the "lined and forget" principle, or even better from hiding and without even looking at the target, well, with very "smart ammunition" - "let the rocket find the target itself, recognize and destroy."

      So - not a single clever technique can replace a person’s intellect, experience, training and intuition, and even the most perfect technique is a piece of iron in the hands of a savage.

      And to rub, let's imagine: I’m with this junk, and you’re on a modern tank (punching is not discussed, this is a matter of warheads).
      Distance 3000 m. I shoot first from the shelter (equipment in the trench, above the parapet parapet and guidance system see the drawing of the machine) the approach time is slightly more than 8 seconds. Attention is the question: at what distance, sitting in the tank, will you notice that you fired a rocket (I, of course, will not shoot at the frontal projection)?

      I think from about 2000 m. (You have about 4 seconds left for the reaction).

      My ATGM search zone is 1000 m. In the search zone there are smoke, fires, and of course I took camouflage measures.

      To the effective fire distance you are another 500 m.

      Your actions? Time has gone ....
  4. mirag2
    mirag2 21 August 2013 09: 48
    10
    Yes! I do not like the fact that there is so little old in the army. And for us patriots, such topics are written that in the 80s we had 1 BMP50s and we could roll out the whole Europe. YES! It was! But now it is different time! The army must have modern weapons! And small arms are truly NEW, Europe cannot be rolled out with tanks, they are not actually needed, the hell will come directly to clashes. The war is going on or another, economic. Our people must live better than in gay Europe ", everywhere there are problems - instead of saying that" they "have gays hanging around the streets in droves, it would be better to say about what has been done to increase our ridiculous minimum wages, beggarly pensions, what has been done besides showcase law banning foreign accounts for embezzlers (lave can always be transferred to another person, children understand) - and in general, the blockage of cheap propaganda in the style of Channel One broadcasts is scary. Not that propaganda. Not at all the same, instead of lava information about a bad life "on In the West "there should be an avalanche of information about what has become better in our country. there is no positive in the country except for the resignation of Serdyukov (who was kept for SO LONG, despite the failure of the state defense order for 000 or TWO YEARS !!! Remember Zurabov, who sat dead in his place, selling drugs to the state with a 2% markup! What is this? Or say, Putin is alone, it’s hard for him ... Nonsense, he’s not alone. I don’t know about the severity, but WHY DO WE HAVE ON KEY POSTS, on which the country's security and well-being, the standard of living, the social sphere, are such people? that besides you, from below, no one sees from above? I really respect Putin, he leads his foreign policy firmly, and tries for the main business of the state (Gazprom, oil industry). But where is everything else? Where is the end of felling and theft of the forest, which is also costs a lot of money and which we then buy at IKEE (paying more than "gayevropa"). By receiving tax in the state pocket, you can reduce the budget deficit, and not limit the time of maternity capital in 400, but pay it further. Etc. etc. This is what I cannot understand. And vague, absolutely bespontovye explanations, such as: well, this is Russia, well, they steal from us, for example, they don’t suit me. I don’t like it when they steal around, when they climb into MY POCKET, I don’t steal ( now) and I don’t want others to steal, it’s not good, it’s bad to steal from a neighbor, it’s bad to steal those lave on which they clean the streets I walk on, and paint the houses of my neighbors. I want it to be in my city, (village , country) was clean and people did not pinch themselves in expenses and could buy housing when they needed it ...
    1. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 21 August 2013 22: 22
      0
      I agree completely.
    2. Old skeptic
      Old skeptic 22 August 2013 19: 42
      +1
      Dear, your post from the category "Better to be rich and healthy than poor and sick." But here we are discussing a specific weapon.

      It’s not worth it to hunt the pros so clearly, it’s not beautiful. You minus for offtopic.
  5. Volkhov
    Volkhov 21 August 2013 13: 25
    -1
    Well, it looks like Competitions in Syria were wasted and didn’t get any sense - they add this miracle - weapons.
    I have already seen three-rulers in deliveries for jihadists - Russian warehouses are completely swept out.
  6. Iraclius
    Iraclius 21 August 2013 13: 44
    +3
    The idea of ​​a missile tank in the USSR was buried together with the IT-1 and received a kind of reincarnation in the form of "Sturm". I never cease to be amazed at the scientific and technical groundwork of the Soviet Union, which we will use for a long time to come.
  7. mish-nukem
    mish-nukem 21 August 2013 14: 21
    +3
    In my opinion, Sturm has another drawback - the near-zero probability of a missile hitting a target in manual mode. I myself served as a platoon commander in the PTB SME at 9p148. There, too, there is a manual missile control mode, but the rocket speed is lower and there is a small chance to hit the target with at least one out of five missiles. Manual firing mode may be necessary if the enemy uses light interference (the equipment begins to take any brightly glowing object for a rocket and gives incorrect commands to a real rocket). During the service, he fired 5 missiles, 3 of them were fired in semi-automatic mode and hit, and two were fired manually, he didn’t hit both times, but he realized that it was still possible to hit.
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 21 August 2013 16: 39
      0
      Quote: mish-nukem
      In my opinion, Sturm has another drawback - the near-zero probability of a missile hitting a target in manual mode.

      But what about the need for direct line of sight of the target? Isn't that a flaw?
      1. svp67
        svp67 22 August 2013 01: 57
        0
        Quote: Nayhas
        But what about the need for direct visibility of the target? Isn't that a disadvantage?
        Here a lot depends on the ability to use the capabilities of the rocket, and they are such that the enemy simply does not have time to react to the launch ...
      2. mish-nukem
        mish-nukem 22 August 2013 12: 23
        +1

        what about the need for direct line of sight of the target? Isn't that a flaw?


        I do not understand the question. Are there really cheap PT installations that can hit tanks with the same probability as 9p148 or 9p149 out of line of sight of the target?
  8. Htuek
    Htuek 21 August 2013 19: 23
    0
    Uaaaa, nice to see the car with which the service took place. After the launch of each rocket, only officers and warrant officers fired, the gunmen said, "Again they shoot with zhuguli" (they seem to be similar in price) The conscripts don't care, not shooting. We only drove them to the training ground and back. We shot only in an imitator at the Shishigi base.
    1. Alie78
      Alie78 10 December 2020 07: 13
      0
      I had a chance to shoot military unit 44783 Vladikavkaz! tongue
  9. Prohor
    Prohor 21 August 2013 20: 36
    0
    With a colossal number of tanks in the USSR, as well as RPGs and ATGMs in SMEs, was there really a need for "Competition", "Storm", anti-tank units? The cars are good, but anti-tank regiments, brigades - are they needed? what
    1. svp67
      svp67 22 August 2013 02: 01
      +3
      Quote: Prokhor
      Cars are good, but are anti-tank regiments and brigades needed?

      During the Soviet era, the use of tactical nuclear weapons between NATO and Warsaw Pact armies was taken for granted. As a result, no amount of military equipment could be considered sufficient. It is now colossal, and after two or three attacks by tactical nuclear weapons, it is already insufficient ... And besides, the tanks had to go to the English Channel, and with something else it was necessary to protect them from the flanks ...
  10. Yurgens
    Yurgens 21 August 2013 21: 23
    +1
    Quote: Nayhas
    Quote: Akim
    The complex is not without a reserve of modernization

    Only with such a guidance system is it not needed. The need to maintain visual contact with the goal makes the use of the complex dangerous for use. Not to mention the fact that it is not difficult to set the noise interference with smoke ...

    He studied at the very place where the motoliga is on the first photo) Kolomna) He shot from this machine. I’ll say one thing about smoke, a car of purely defensive type, which means 90 percent of this battery is defending as part of a battalion or regiment, so that the tanks will hide the smoke, and then what?) When you attack)
  11. Yurgens
    Yurgens 21 August 2013 21: 28
    +1
    Quote: Prokhor
    With a colossal number of tanks in the USSR, as well as RPGs and ATGMs in SMEs, was there really a need for "Competition", "Storm", anti-tank units? The cars are good, but anti-tank regiments, brigades - are they needed? what
    and you with RPG and Ptur (manual control) at a distance of 2000-4000 meters will put in a point called a tank. when a regiment is stretched, for example, in a field at a decent distance)
  12. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 21 August 2013 22: 20
    0
    Quote: Akim
    Quote: mirag2
    .Suitable only for nostalgic.X

    I do not agree. The complex is not without a reserve of modernization

    Actually, he can also launch an "Attack" with a tandem warhead. The one that Sturm-SM
  13. max702
    max702 21 August 2013 22: 54
    0
    The main enemy right now is not a tank or other armored vehicles, but a mujahideen with a machine gun and RPG7 and nothing will change in the near future, and if we are fighting with the enemy’s armored vehicles this again means a betrayal of 08.08.08 when the peacekeepers were left face to face with the Georgian tanks or a global conflict with NATO or With China, and in this case, toys of a completely different weight category will go into the business, and it certainly won’t reach this unit (there will be no one)
  14. Yurgens
    Yurgens 21 August 2013 23: 04
    0
    Quote: max702
    The main enemy right now is not a tank or other armored vehicles, but a mujahideen with a machine gun and RPG7 and nothing will change in the near future, and if we are fighting with the enemy’s armored vehicles this again means a betrayal of 08.08.08 when the peacekeepers were left face to face with the Georgian tanks or a global conflict with NATO or With China, and in this case, toys of a completely different weight category will go into the business, and it certainly won’t reach this unit (there will be no one)
    even in local conflicts, they worked just with the mujahideen in the attics)
  15. shoroh
    shoroh 21 August 2013 23: 52
    +1
    the idea of ​​a missile tank is truly brilliant in its simplicity. there is no turret and cannon, we throw free weight on strengthening armor, plus a thirty-millimeter cannon against infantry, and here it is the tank of the future. any missiles and anti-aircraft and thermobaric. and bursts of fire such scope for designers
    1. Prohor
      Prohor 22 August 2013 11: 48
      0
      And the ammunition load? There is plenty of room for 40 rounds-charges in a tank, and even 20 missiles equal in length to a tank shot "assembled" cannot be put in.
      1. dustycat
        dustycat 22 August 2013 17: 25
        0
        Quote: Prokhor
        And the ammunition load? There is plenty of room for 40 rounds-charges in a tank, and even 20 missiles equal in length to a tank shot "assembled" cannot be put in.


        And what is the problem of launching a package of class missiles — I forgot to put them in the TPK obliquely or vertically into the BTRD and supply all of this with the launchers for the ultra-small guidance UAVs?
        Well, I don’t like mataibay ...
    2. Alie78
      Alie78 10 December 2020 07: 17
      0
      Forgot one more main plus in front of the barrel technique, shooting from the surface!
  16. mish-nukem
    mish-nukem 22 August 2013 12: 26
    +1
    Quote: Prokhor
    With a colossal number of tanks in the USSR, as well as RPGs and ATGMs in SMEs, was there really a need for "Competition", "Storm", anti-tank units? The cars are good, but anti-tank regiments, brigades - are they needed? what

    Are needed. The cost of a tank + the cost of training tankers is incommensurably higher than the cost of BM with ATGM + the cost of training an anti-tank driver.